鳳梨小果腐敗病之研究現況及未來

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作者: 梁鈺平(Liang, Y. P.);倪蕙芳(Ni, H. F.)
刊名: 植物醫學
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 2021
關鍵字: 鳳梨小果腐敗病;鳳梨黑目病;Talaromyces funiculosus;Fusarium ananatum;pineapple fruitlet core rot;pineapple black spot;Talaromyces funiculosus;Fusarium ananatum
摘要: 鳳梨小果腐敗病(fruitlet core rot)(或稱黑目病)普遍發生於世界上許多鳳梨產區,亦為國內鳳梨之重要果實病害,造成嚴重損失,目前尚未有可靠之防治方法。本文統整國內外之相關研究結果,以提供未來防治及研究工作之參考。本病之病原菌種類複雜,主要包括Talaromyces funiculosus(=Penicillium funiculosum)及Fusarium ananatum,近期研究則顯示其他多種Talaromyces spp.及Fusarium spp.亦與此病害之發生有關。本病之病徵多樣化,有的造成鳳梨小果果目呈淡褐至黑褐色軟腐,另亦有造成乾腐之病徵,而受害果實外觀則可能無明顯病徵或有轉色不均之情形。國外研究顯示,鳳梨紅喉期至開花期為病原侵入時期,且高降雨量及低溫有利本病害發生。於防治部分,本病目前於國內外均尚無有效之化學防治藥劑,僅能種植抗病品種,以及調整催花時間以避病。雖然鳳梨小果腐敗病目前國外已有許多研究,但此病於台灣之病原種類與發生生態可能與國外不盡相同,目前尚未明瞭,未來應持續調查及研究。Pineapple fruitlet core rot (FCR, or black spot) occurs in many pineapple-growing countries, and is also a severe pineapple fruit disease in Taiwan, causing tremendous loss. No effective method of controlling this disease has been developed yet in Taiwan. To help the research and management of this disease in the future, this article summarized results from domestic and foreign research. The pathogens causing FCR are complicated, mainly including Talaromyces funiculosus ( =Penicillium funiculosum) a n d Fusarium ananatum. Recent studies also showed that several other Talaromyces spp. and Fusarium spp. were also associated with FCR. Symptoms of FCR are light to dark brown necrosis and dry rot of fruitlets. Diseased fruits might not have visible external symptoms, or could show uneven ripening. Foreign research showed that the infection occurred between open heart stage and flowering stage, during which high rainfall and low temperature were conducive to disease development. There is no reliable chemical for controlling this disease currently in either Taiwan or foreign countries. At the moment, this disease could only be controlled by planting resistant cultivars, and adjusting flower forcing timing to escape from the disease. Though there are already many studies about FCR abroad, the pathogen species and ecology of this disease in Taiwan might be different and remain unclear currently. Therefore, more investigations and research should be conducted in the future.
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