|關鍵字： 開花期；果實品質；蓮霧；疏花；疏果；裂果率；番木瓜；外銷；花穗長度；花性比例；著果；育種；印度棗；紅肉拔；後裔選種；雜交育種；品系蒐集；Flowering Stage；Fruit Quality；Wax Apple；Flower Thinning；Fruit Thinning；Cracking Rate；Papaya；Export；Length of Panicle Formation；Flower Sex Ratio；Fruit-set；Breeding；Indian Jujube；Red Guava；Progeny Selection；Hybridization Breeding；Germplasm Collection
|摘要： 1. 印度棗育種：選育品質佳之印度棗品種推廣種植，有利提高農友收益。為選育優良品種，本試驗乃進行印度棗品種間人工及天然雜交工作。所獲得之雜交種子則培育成實生苗，進行2年觀察試驗。選得之果實大、可溶性固形物高、櫥架壽命長之優良品系，則選供品系比較試驗之用。入選之優良品系則進一步於各主產區進行區域試驗。根據區域試驗之結果，選得之優良品系將供命名及推廣用。 2. 番石榴育種：高品質番石榴育種，已進行品種(系)的蒐集，並完成部分潛力品系(種)之雜交，進一步進行後裔選種，期待能選出穩產、紅肉、風味濃郁、少籽及非更年性的品種，以供鮮食或加工等消費市場。 3. 芒果育種：蒐集國內芒果品種及優良品系，培育優良品種之實生苗，觀察金煌、愛文、台農一號等優良品系實生苗後代600個之生育情形及始花期； KMS8302、I90319及CH90001等品系進行區域試作，調查開花期、果實成熟期及果實特性。 4. 蓮霧育種：當前的蓮霧產業，品種單一，裂果率高，高溫時，新梢生長不易控制，著色不佳，甜度下降，需要較高的管理技巧。目前市場對新品種的需求大，因此本試驗透過品種蒐集，建立種原圃，調查各品系的性狀資料，然後以蓮霧不同果色、不同果型之品系種進行人工雜交，創造變異，增加品種的多樣性及選拔裂果率較低的品系供產業利用。 5. 木瓜適合外銷品種(系)育種：本計畫的主要育種目標為：選拔出早熟矮生、適合外銷果型佳、果重約400-800公克，果實品質優良適合外銷的木瓜品系。本年度共定植201個木瓜品系，包含引種、自交系及雜交組合。這些品系將進行耐木瓜輪點病毒病篩選及優良性狀選拔。 6. 蓮霧果實品質改進：現行的蓮霧栽培品種，品質的參差不齊，高品質果實的百分比偏低，在管理操作方面還有改善的空間，農民往往偏重資材的使用，致使成本增加，事倍功半，無助於整個產業的發展，當務之急如何透過栽培技術的改進改善品質，本試驗從不同的疏花、疏果的管理操作及留果位置的選擇，來提升果實的整齊度及高品質果實的比例。 7. 玉荷包荔枝穩定生產技術之研究：本試驗於玉荷包荔枝花穗抽出初期，進行環刻、高磷鉀肥及萘乙酸鈉(SNA)處理，觀察對開花結果之影響，並與剪花穗處理作比較，以不處理作為對照。試驗期間，調查花穗長度、開花時間、花性、著果數、果實成熟期及果實品質。1. Breeding of Indian jujube: Breeding Indian jujube with good characteristics for plantation will be beneficial for increasing the farmers' income. For breeding and selection of superior varieties, the artificial and natural crosses will be applied among Indian jujube varieties in this experiment. Hybrid seeds obtained from different cross combinations will be propagated as seedlings for two-year observations. Lines with large fruit size, high total soluble solids, and long fruit shell life will be selected as materials for line testing. Superior lines selected from line testing will be further tested by regional yield trial at major production sites. From the results of regional yield trials, the selected lines will be registered as new cultivar and then for extension. 2. Breeding of Guava: In the breeding of high quality of guava, we plan to collect more lines with different characteristics and hybrid each of them. More of then, we expect to select out some good lines for fresh eating or processing, which could be gifted with stable yield, red pulp, strong flavor, seedless and non-climatic traits. 3. Breeding of Mango: To collect the varieties and good lines of mango and propagate the seedling of cultural varieties. The growth vigor and flowering of 600 seedlings of ‘Chiin Hwang', ‘Irwin' and ‘TN-1' mangos were observed. The lines of KMS8302, I90319 and CH90001 are performing local trials, to investigate flowering stage, time of fruit mature and fruit characters. 4. Breeding of Wax apple: The current wax apple industry has less varieties . The current varieties had some defects that were high cracking rate, new shoot out of control, poor coloration, and sweet decreasing, and needed high technicality during cultivation. The new varieties were required strongly. The trial were implemented by lines collecting and foundation setting, then the artificial and natural crosses will be applied among wax apple varieties. Lines with low cracking rate, high total soluble solids, and long fruit shell life will be introduced to farmers. 5. Breeding of Papaya Lines for Export: In this breeding program, the target characters of the high qualities papaya fruit include early and low fruiting, ideal shape for exported used and fruit weight about 600 grams. We planted 201 cultivars (lines), included introduction, inbreeding lines and crossing combinations in the trail field. Selections for PRSV-tolerance and target characters will be done in this year. 6. The studies of qualities improvement in wax apple: The qualities were uneven in current wax apple varieties. The high qualities percentage was low in wax apple fruit. The management had lots of space for improvement. Farmers laid particular stress on chemicals and fertilizers that increased the cost and less help for development of industry. Nowadays, the most important things were raising fruit qualities by improving technicality. The studies were focused on flower thinning and position selecting for fruit , in order to uniform and raise the fruit qualities in wax apple. 7. Studies on methods of stable production in 'Yu-Her-Pao' litchi: ‘Yu-Her-Pao' trees were girdled, applied high phosphate-potassium fertilizer, and SNA(Sodium α-Naphthylacetate), respectively, at panicle sprouting stage. To observe the benefits of these three treatments and compared with the treatment of panicle thinning. The length of panicle, days of flowering, flower sex, number of fruit set, days of fruit mature and fruit quality were survey, within trial period.