開發果樹肥灌、非化學農藥資材防治及有機栽培管理技術

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計畫名稱: 開發果樹肥灌、非化學農藥資材防治及有機栽培管理技術
計畫主持人: 唐佳惠
共同計畫主持人: 張汶肇;黃士晃;藍玄錦;劉啟祥;江淑雯;盧柏松;蘇博信;徐子芳;吳庭嘉;張繼中;黃文益;陳筱鈞;李建瑩;石佩玉;馮永富;葉文彬;施伯明;賴昭宏;林詠洲;陳盟松;陳奕君;張芳魁;陸明德
計畫編號: 109農科-7.3.2-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所嘉義分所園藝系
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 草生栽培;育種;肥效;友善環境;寒害;中度修剪;耐候性;防風網;番荔枝;高屏地區;葡萄果粒品質;營養診斷;網室;汁胞;桃;品質;套袋;芽休眠打破;果形;肥培管理;金柑;微生物液肥;鳳梨釋迦;百香果;梨;有機生產模式;粒化;栽培技術;番石榴;有益微生物;鉀;肥培管理;採後處理;產量與品質;作物;技術改良;氮;生長條件;種子生産;椪柑;麻豆文旦;留果數;柑橘;開心型整枝;簡易設施;枇杷;成本;果實品質;著果;鈣;紅龍果;芒果;刺番荔枝;創新栽培技術;產期調節;有機栽培;美植袋;合理化施肥;花青素;花粉;高接梨;Grass cultivation;breeding;Fertilizer efficiency;Friendly Environment;chilling injury;moderate pruning;weather resistant;windbreak net;Sugar Apple;Kaohsiung and Pingtung districts;grape berry quality;nutrient diagnosis;net-house;juice sac;Prunus persica
摘要: (1)果樹栽培(1)葡萄(1)以環境有善方式開發新穎葡萄芽修眠調控技術,進行無子葡萄品種生長物候期調查,開發無子葡萄品種果實增大技術應用。針對葡萄植株沒有毒性與環境友善的打破休眠處理技術,維護果農與環境安全;建立台灣南部無子葡萄生產系統,利用冬季溫暖的地理優勢,生產3-5月的早熟葡萄,達到在地生產的目標,提高進口葡萄替代率。近年因氣候變遷導致生產區域為氣候變化大,葡萄生產面臨之問題為轉色不良,品質不穩定。試驗利用葉面積儀調查結果枝葉面積,探討亞熱帶氣候條件巨峰葡萄結果枝葉面積與產量、品質相關性。(2)梨及枇杷(1)利用簡易設備調控光熱條件滿足溫帶果樹作物生育需求,縮短生育期增進品質,並達到農藥減用優質生產的目的,輔以光電工業小太陽LEP(Light Emitting Plasma)調控溫帶作物的光敏素生理反應以逃避休眠、以短波長光源調控感光色素系統以調控果品品質及植株形態發生,在恆春地區建立優質早熟梨生產示範點,推廣生產技術,提升農民收益並打開外銷市場,計畫預期可將台灣生產高接梨產期由最早4月底提前1個月至3月底。金柑與高接梨為宜蘭地區最具特色之重要經濟果樹與連續採收作物之一,希藉本研究推廣設施栽培與有機耕作,同時兼顧鮮果產量與品質,評估金柑與高接梨在台灣進行網室設施栽培與有機栽培之可行性及效益。(3)柑橘(1)柑橘為台灣栽培面積最廣且產值最高的果樹,然而,許多柑橘種類易有嚴重的生理障礙或病害,使售價受限導致柑橘農友的收益無法獲得改善。有鑑於此,確保柑橘農友能獲得最新栽培關鍵技術、取得正確而有用的產業資訊等均十分重要,並使農友據以隨時調整管理模式,提升農友在競爭市場中存活。 本研究以探討造成椪柑果肉乾粒化之因子,並調查環境、栽培因子和樹體生理特性對乾粒化比率的影響。茂谷柑為北部重要柑橘,鈣肥對茂谷柑果實裂果及果實品質影響甚鉅,但北部產區多為坡地果園不利石灰資材施用,土壤多偏強酸性更影響鈣肥有效性,亟需建立省工且肥效高之施用技術。本計畫目的在改善北部地區茂谷柑果園鈣肥施用效率,建立茂谷柑果園土壤鈣肥施用技術,2020年執行項目為比較施用苦土石灰、氫氧化鈣、硝酸鈣、蚵殼粉及醋酸鈣對土壤與植體鈣含量增加之差異,評估施用效率與成本效益。柑橘果實汁胞粒化為常見生理障礙,導致果汁率降低而品質不佳,發生原因與品種、氣候條件及栽培管理有關,近來因氣候變化,氣溫及降雨模式改變,可能因此影響肥料吸收利用,導致椪柑汁胞粒化果實比例增加,本計畫擬探討合適之氮鉀肥施用比例及時間,增加果實糖酸度及果汁率,減少汁胞粒化果實出現,穩定椪柑品質。(4)紅龍果(1)開發提高東部地區麻豆文旦與紅龍果果實品質栽培技術,以保障農民收益。將紅龍果部分將進行不同套袋之比較與改良,藉以提高紅龍果品質,建立優質紅龍果套袋栽培技術。(5)番荔枝(1)依據土壤營養診斷分析結果,臺東地區許多番荔枝果園有土壤酸性至強酸性土壤及營養失調問題,因此擬利用合理化施肥技術建立臺東地區重點作物-番荔枝養分管理模式(包括施肥量、施肥方法等),分析資料可作為重編作物施肥手冊之參考資料。為加強臺東地區果樹生產技術與改良果實品質,並增加產業競爭力,本計畫針對轄區內特色果樹之育種及栽培技術進行相關試驗研究,包括番荔枝育種、鳳梨釋迦花粉活力試驗、刺番荔枝留果數試驗、枇杷育種及百香果試驗等,期能將相關成果提供農友實際應用,以提升臺東地區果樹之競爭力並確保農民收益。本研究擬透過番荔枝果園友善栽培環境營造技術與友善環境之耕作栽培管理技術的研發,以避免果園化學製劑及化學肥料等非有機資材的使用,期能友善果園生態環境並維持產量及果實品質,以達永續農業之目標。(6)蓮霧(1)宜蘭地區進行產期調節之蓮霧,於花芽萌發期及開花期前後易遭受寒害,造成花芽枯萎、落花、花蕾凍傷、花萼開裂及葉片寒害等現象發生。本試驗擬利用防風網及簡易設施等物理性防護措施,降低蓮霧寒害發生程度,減少果農的損失。(7)番石榴(1)‘中山月拔’番石榴為宜蘭地區極具發展潛力之更年性番石榴品種,農民慣行之整枝修剪模式為自然樹型及強剪,常使產期過於集中,樹勢提早衰退。本研究擬利用中度修剪及開心型整枝維持樹勢,並較農民慣行修剪時間延後一個月修剪,使產期至10月,以分散產銷風險。本年度將進行不同質地番石榴田區營養生長期肥培試驗,並建立春夏季營養生長期文心蘭精準施肥技術,進行新芽發育期及假球莖出鞘期不同氮/氧化鉀比之試驗,觀察植株生長狀況,同時進行離地土耕瓜類肥培試驗,依照不同生長時期進行肥料供應,觀察植株生長勢及果實表現。建立經濟作物不同栽培方式之肥培模式,將可提升果品並穩定產量,增進農民收益。農民也可隨土壤質地不同、氣候變遷改變而有所應對,提供農民於不同環境條件下更精準施肥技術,提供農民應變之肥培管理資訊。紅肉番石榴在臺灣雖然非主流品種,但在美洲及部分亞洲國家非常普遍。西瓜拔果實之成熟果肉清脆為非更年型果實,但在夏季西瓜拔果實品質差,總可溶性固形物含量下降、果肉變薄、果色黯淡,採收品質落差大,擬建立適當的採收成熟度提升果實食用及貯運品質。(8)芒果(1)芒果在果實生產過程果皮容易形成污損斑塊,故施硼鈣等礦物元素以改善果皮污損現象。育成品質優、豐產、抗病性強、果實不易劣變及耐貯運之優良芒果品種,或具有鮮紅色果皮等特殊品種。同時分散部分芒果生產期,調節市場。(9)百香果(1)百香果農友長期連作、施用未完熟雞糞及苗木品質不佳問題,已造成田區普遍病害發生,擬建立百香果根域管理及美植袋栽培之綜合技術套組,與施用完熟堆肥對百香果之生產效益,以供相關業者及農友應用之參考。(10)水蜜桃(1)本計畫為因應氣象變遷,建立相應的栽培技術提升水蜜桃的品質。本年度進行葉面施用鉀肥和氯化鈣對水蜜桃果實品質和減少裂果。(11)龍眼(1)近年隨著氣候變遷,在秋冬季經常遭遇到降雨或暖冬等異常氣候,使龍眼易於萌發冬梢,但因成熟度不足難以形成花穗,而降低開花率,威脅龍眼產量。利用益收生長素可使萌生小葉脫落、阻斷新梢發育,抑制冬梢萌發。本試驗利用噴施39.5% 1500倍益收生長素溶液,調查龍眼冬梢抽出情況及對開花之影響。(2)非化學藥劑防治(1)位處高溫且雨水豐沛的熱帶及亞熱帶地區,雜草生長旺盛,常需經常割草,造成農友人力上的負擔。為使農友願意採行草生栽培並減輕割草人力,發展適合果園草生栽培的草種為推動草生栽培之重點。經觀察研究,金腰箭舅生長快速、自播性佳、耐蔭且生長高度不高,有成為果園草生栽培新興草種的潛力。欲發展大面積的果園草生栽培,需有簡便的方式,而其中以撒播草籽最為快速,因此發展其種子生產收集方式並建立金腰箭舅種子生產及保存等相關資訊。(3)土壤與肥料管理(1)土壤多偏強酸性更影響鈣肥有效性,亟需建立省工且肥效高之施用技術。本計畫目的在改善北部地區茂谷柑果園鈣肥施用效率,建立茂谷柑果園土壤鈣肥施用技術,2020年執行項目為比較施用苦土石灰、氫氧化鈣、硝酸鈣、蚵殼粉及醋酸鈣對土壤與植體鈣含量增加之差異,評估施用效率與成本效益。高屏地區夏季高溫多濕,冬季溫暖乾燥,季節變化相當明顯,肥料施用需考量天氣變化之因子,而肥料吸收受土壤性質、水分及栽培方式等因子影響甚鉅,因此需要建立適合高屏地區經濟作物的栽培模式,本年度將進行不同質地番石榴田區營養生長期肥培試驗,並建立春夏季營養生長期文心蘭精準施肥技術,進行新芽發育期及假球莖出鞘期不同氮/氧化鉀比之試驗,觀察植株生長狀況,同時進行離地土耕瓜類肥培試驗,依照不同生長時期進行肥料供應,觀察植株生長勢及果實表現。建立經濟作物不同栽培方式之肥培模式,將可提升果品並穩定產量,增進農民收益。農民也可隨土壤質地不同、氣候變遷改變而有所應對,提供農民於不同環境條件下更精準施肥技術,提供農民應變之肥培管理資訊。依據土壤營養診斷分析結果,臺東地區許多番荔枝果園有土壤酸性至強酸性土壤及營養失調問題,因此擬利用合理化施肥技術建立臺東地區重點作物-番荔枝養分管理模式(包括施肥量、施肥方法等),分析資料可作為重編作物施肥手冊之參考資料。(4)果樹有機栽培(1)近年來有機農業逐漸成為研發之重點,在品種選育、栽培管理模式及技術之建立方面,多集中於水稻及蔬菜;而果樹之投入則稍微不足,為提升柑橘果農之收益,同時研發有機柑橘果園留草之技術。進行麻豆文旦有機栽培與紅龍果栽培管理技術改進研究,以協助地區產業之發展。臺東地區有機果園面積約200公頃,多數有機農友之肥培管理為施用有機質肥料及自製有機液肥,但仍有不足之處。本研究擬調查已篩選之土壤有益微生物,評估於微生物液肥製作之可行性,於製作微生物液肥後,進行營養元素含量分析,進行番荔枝果園應用試驗,做為臺東地區番荔枝果園肥培管理之依據。(1)Fruit tree production technology(1)Grape(2)The development of grape plants are not toxic and environmentally friendly processing technology to break dormancy, maintain farmers and environmental safety; the establishment of the Southern Taiwan seedless grape production systems, the use of mild winters geographical advantages, production from March to May in the early grape, ground production and improve the rate of import substitution grapes.On account of the development of cultivation techniques, there are various production regulations and practice models applied. However, in recent years the production of fruits is hard to estimate. And owing to climate change, grape production faces poor color development and unstable fruit quality. In this study, we evaluate the correlation between the leaf area measured by the leaf area meter and production of grape ‘Kyoho’ in subtropical climatic regions.(3)Pears and loquat(4) Taiwan is expected to produce a high yield pick pears from the earliest by the end of April in advance of 1 month to the end of March. Taiwan produce loquat production period from late December to mid-4 to extend from November to next July, depending on the variety of storage may be upgraded to 3 to 6 months.Kumquat and grafting pear are the important fruit industries in Yilan. The purposes in this study are to have good yield and fruit quality in the net-house facility and organic cultivation and to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness to promote.(5)Citrus(6)  Citrus fruits are top fruits trees of it is yield and value. The farm income are limited and unstable with the serious physical disorders or disease of citrus. Possession of key and latest point of cultivation techniques, correct and useful information is necessary for surviving in the market competition. In this study, we attempt to discuss the factors of ponkan mandarin fruit granulation, and the relationship between environment, cultivation, and physiological characteristic.Murcott tangerine is an important citrus in the northern Taiwan. Calcium fertilizer has a great effect on the fruit cracking and fruit quality of Murcott tangerine. However, the northern producing areas are uneazy to applicate the lime materials on the slope orchard. The strong acidity of the soil affects the effectiveness of calcium fertilizer. The purpose of this project is to improve the calcium fertilizer application efficiency of Murcott tangerine orchard in the northern region, and establish a calcium fertilizer application technology for Murcott tangerine orchard soil. The project to be implemented in 2020 is to compare the application of bitter lime, calcium hydroxide, calcium nitrate, husk powder and calcium acetate to soil. Different from the increase of calcium content in the plant, evaluate the application efficiency and cost-effectiveness.Granulation of citrus fruit is a common physiological disorder, leading to a reduction in fruit juice rate and poor fruit quality. The causes are related to varieties, climatic conditions and cultivation management. Recently, climate change leading to changes of temperature and rainfall patterns may affect fertilizer absorption and utilization. As a result, the proportion of granulated fruits in ponkan mandarine was increased. This project intends to explore the appropriate application rate and time of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers to increase the total soluble solids, titratable acid and fruit juice rate, reduce the appearance of granulated fruits, and stabilize the quality of ponkan mandarine.(7)Pitaya(8)It is expected that the cultivatural technique could improve the further development of fruit industry in Hualien area.In order to improve the fruit quality of pitaya, various kinds of bagging material and bagging methods will be tested in this study.(9)Sugar apple(10)According to the result of soil nutrient diagnosis, many sugar apple orchards have the problems of acidic soil and nutrient deficiency in Taitung district. In the study, reasonable fertilization technique will be used to build the nutrient management model of sugar apple and analysis data will be the reference for re-edition of the book of crop fertilization management.In order to strengthen the production technology of fruit trees in Taitung area , the aim of this research is to improve the cultivatied technology and post-harvest treatment technology of annona fruit trees. The project includes the storage test of sugar apple fruit and test the impact of fruits number on soursop fruit production period. The related results can lay the foundation for future research and provide practical applications for farmers to increase the competitiveness of fruit trees in Taitung area and ensure farmers' income.This study intends to avoid the use of non-organic materials such as chemical preparations and chemical fertilizers in sugar apple orchard through the friendly cultivation environment construction technology and friendly cultivation techniques, so as to be friendly to the orchard's ecological environment and maintain yield and fruit quality. To achieve the goal of sustainable agriculture.(11)Wax apple(12)The wax apple produced by forcing culture techniques in Yilan are often suffered chilling injury at flower bud emergence stage and anthesis stage, which cause flower bud withered, flower abscission, flower injury, calyx cracked and leaf damage. This study aims to reduce the chilling injury by constructing windbreak net and simple facility before chilling occurrence. Overall, the cold protection methods will ensure the yields of farmers.(13)Guava(14)‘Jong Shan Yueh Ba’ guava (<em>Psidium guajava</em> L.) is the climacteric cultivar with developmental potential in Yilan County. The training and pruning system practiced by farmers is heavy pruning and natural form, which often lead the harvest to concentrate highly in the same period and weaken the tree vigor early. This study aims to maintain the tree vigor by moderate pruning with open center training. The time of pruning is delayed by one month compared with farmers', so that the production period is extended to October to spread the production and marketing risks.This study will be conducted to the influence of fertilizer on improvement of cultivation technology, crops quality and yield. The study will be conducted to the application of chemical fertilizer whether can improve the quality and yield of melon crops or not. Experiments will be conducted to research the optimum fertilizer management on jujube and guava. The probability of occurrence is different with the variety characteristic, hence, to develop precision fertilization technology to decrease the probability is imperative. The objective of this study is to increase the use efficiency of fertilizer, and to achieve the purpose of economize labor resources.Red guava is non-climacteric fruit, and the ripe fruits have crisp pulps. However, with differing of harvest maturity, the quality indicators such as total soluble solid content, the thickness of pulps, fruit color are performing poorly during the summer. The appropriate harvest maturity should be evaluated for enhancing eating and storage qualities. (15)Mango(16)It is general to occur the forming of plaques in mango production, thus, applying boron and calcium fertilizer is a way to reduce the occurrences of peels defacement. Although red guava is not the major cultivated variety in Taiwan, it is widespread in America and some Asian countries.To collect the mango varieties, which have disease resistant and good fruit quality, can be used into the breeding plan. Meanwhile, we evaluated the breeding seedlings that selected from the open-pollination of mango seeds.(17)Passion fruit(18)With long-term continuous cropping, application of fresh chicken manures and poor disease resistance of seedlings, the occurrence of the disease of passion fruit has widespread. In this study, we assess the feasibility, set up the application model of root-control bags and utilize the stable compost on passion fruit cultivation for reducing the difficulty of disease management and evaluating the possibility for commercial application in the field.(19)Peach(20)This plan is to respond to the meteorological change and establish corresponding cultivation techniques to improve the quality of peaches. This year, foliar application of potassium fertilizer and calcium chloride was conducted to reduce peach fruit quality and reduce cracking.(21)Longan(22)In recent years, with the change of climate, such as rainfall or warm is encountered in autumn and winter, the longan continues to shoots sprout. The shoots will be difficult to flower spikes and reduced the flowering rate. Uses of Ethephon sprayed at the flower cluster terminal bud becoming germinating and softening. In this study, to foliar-spraying 66 mg/L 39.5% Ethephon on the longan plant, to investigate the situation of longan shoots growth, and understand effect of the longan flowering.(2)Non-chemical agent control(1)Located in the high temperature and rainy tropical and subtropical areas, weeds grow vigorously. The frequent need to cut grass often becomes a burden on farmers' manpower. In order to let farmers  adopting grass cultivation to reduce the manpower for mowing, the development of grass species suitable for orchard grass cultivation is the focus on promoting grass cultivation. However, the Straggler Daisy grows fast , good self-seeding ability, low shade tolerance and low growth height, that it is the potential to become an emerging grass species in orchard grass cultivation. To develop large-scale orchard grass cultivation, a simple method should be established. Among them, it is the fastest to sow grass seeds. Therefore, the development of its seed production and collection methods, set up the preservation information.(3)Fertilizer and soil management(1)The strong acidity of the soil affects the effectiveness of calcium fertilizer. The purpose of this project is to improve the calcium fertilizer application efficiency of Murcott tangerine orchard in the northern region, and establish a calcium fertilizer application technology for Murcott tangerine orchard soil. The project to be implemented in 2020 is to compare the application of bitter lime, calcium hydroxide, calcium nitrate, husk powder and calcium acetate to soil. Different from the increase of calcium content in the plant, evaluate the application efficiency and cost-effectiveness.The ratio and the kind of fertilizers which crops need are different with the different stages of crpos cultivation, therefore, it is necessary to develop precision fertilization technology. Precision fertilization technology can improve the quality of crops, increase the export capacity. High temperature and humidity in Taiwan make farmers not easy to control fertilizer application on crops cultivation and reduced the quality and yield of crops. This study will be conducted to the influence of fertilizer on improvement of cultivation technology, crops quality and yield. The study will be conducted to the application of chemical fertilizer whether can improve the quality and yield of melon crops or not. Experiments will be conducted to research the optimum fertilizer management on jujube and guava. The probability of occurrence is different with the variety characteristic, hence, to develop precision fertilization technology to decrease the probability is imperative. The objective of this study is to increase the use efficiency of fertilizer, and to achieve the purpose of economize labor resources.According to the result of soil nutrient diagnosis, many sugar apple orchards have the problems of acidic soil and nutrient deficiency in Taitung district. In the study, reasonable fertilization technique will be used to build the nutrient management model of sugar apple and analysis data will be the reference for re-edition of the book of crop fertilization management. (4)Organic cultivation of fruit trees(1)While the blossom of organic agriculture in cultivation management and technology conduction, we put efforts on apply these study on citrus to increase the value and production.including the cultivation technique of organic wentan pomelo and pitaya. It is expected that the cultivatural technique could improve the further development of fruit industry in Hualien area.There are about 200 hectares organic orchard in Taitung area. Most organic farmers applicated organic fertilizers and homemade liquid fertilizer for soil fertilization management, but there were still shortcomings. This study will investigate the beneficial soil microbes that have been screened, and assess the feasibility of the production of microbial liquid fertilizer. Nutritional element content will be analysed after production of microbial liquid fertilizer. We will perform the experiment of organic fertilizer in the sugar apple orchard. The data will be an sugar apple orchard soil fertilization management basis in Taitung area.
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