開發果樹快速選育技術,育成耐候、抗病優質的果樹品種

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計畫名稱: 開發果樹快速選育技術,育成耐候、抗病優質的果樹品種
計畫主持人: 陸明德
共同計畫主持人: 邱展臺;謝鴻業;邱祝櫻;陳祈男;黃基倬;蔡惠文;李文立;吳庭嘉;陳薪喨;劉碧鵑;柯昱成;林詠洲;朱堉君;張淑芬;宋家瑋;陳怡如;陳思如;郭展宏;徐錦木;李雪如;羅國偉;王仁晃;賴瑞聲;方信秀;葉文彬;張雅玲;張哲瑋;官青杉;邱國棟;陳幼光;顏昌瑞
計畫編號: 108農科-7.3.1-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2019
關鍵字: 砧木試驗;早熟;番石榴;梨;紅毛丹;品種改良;新興熱帶果樹;抗露菌病;冷子番荔枝;荔枝;咖啡;嫁接苗;新興品種;保存;葡萄;酪梨;紅棗;育種;紅龍果;木瓜;實生選種;雜交;蓮霧;引種;鳳梨釋迦;芽條突變;番荔枝;土壤水分;柿;鳳梨;誘變;桃;果實品質;分子標誌輔助篩選;蒐集;楊桃;枇杷;山竹;芒果;柑橘;有機質;榴槤蜜;棗;輻射育種;低需冷性;焦核;種原;rootstock trial;precocious;Guava;Pears;Rambutan;varieties improvement;New promising tropical fruit trees;Downy Mildew resistance;atemoya;litchi;coffee;grafting seedlings;newly-introduced cultivar;Conservation;Grape;avocado;Ziziphus jujuba;Breeding;pitaya
摘要: 優質與抗露菌病葡萄育種 為改善台灣鮮食葡萄不具露菌病抗病性、品種過於單純、產期集中、不耐貯運等缺點,以國外引進具抗病與優良性狀品種的花粉進行四倍體與二倍體親本正交、反交雜交授粉工作,並以優選品系與親本回交。加強新品種試種資料調查與收集。加強優選單株區域試種、特性調查與評估。選育出抗病、大果、不脫粒、具香味、不同色澤與風味、不同成熟期的葡萄新品種。 梨及枇杷產業4.0創新前瞻新品種育成 一、以設施生產並調控光熱條件,滿足溫帶果樹作物生育需求,縮短生育期增進品質。二、以光電工業小太陽LEP(Light Emitting Plasma) 調控溫帶作物的光敏素生理反應以逃避休眠、以短波長光源調控感光色素系統以調控果品品質及植株形態發生。三、預期將台灣可生產高接梨產期由最早4月底提前1個月至3月底。四、預期將台灣可生產枇杷產期由12月底至4月中延長為從11月至翌年7月,儲藏期視品種而定提升為3~6個月。 果樹種原保育、利用及健康化繁殖 本計畫蒐集國內外果樹種原,並就地田間保存進行生育特性調查,藉以建立種原基 本資料,尋求果樹種原相關的利用性和加工技術,同時,選育新興耐候性質優且具 潛力的果樹種原物種,進一步繁殖量化提供推廣以發揮其經濟效益。  具台灣特色之熱帶果樹育種及栽培技術改進 本計畫為選育具有台灣生產特色的熱帶果樹品種,預期有下列目標: 1.芒果品種選育:比較目前雜交品系,預期可選出果形大小中等、果皮顏色佳、果實品質優良、不易生理劣變、耐貯運、具矮性及不時花特性等之優良品系3個以上,供品系比較試驗。2.番木瓜品種選育:更新維持番木瓜核心種原15種、選拔3個以上高甜度、具香氣且耐儲運中果型優良雜交品系,供品系比較試驗。 完成1個番木瓜新品種3.番石榴育種:提高已選拔的少籽品系自然著果率及增加紅肉少籽品系。4.深紅果皮優質蓮霧育種:5.棗育種:選拔單株育成高品質、早熟及不同成熟期之優質棗品種。6.楊桃品種選育:選育耐長程運輸且耐低溫檢疫溫度與處理條件、風味佳之鮮食用楊桃品種,提升楊桃在國內外市場之競爭力,提高楊桃出口量,紓解國產水果盛產壓力。7.紅龍果品種選育:育成大果、高品質、具自花親和性,不需人工授粉且耐貯運之多肉色優質紅龍果新品種。8.早熟優質荔枝育種:選育極早熟(產期在四月)及焦核(無核)品種,分散荔枝產期高峰,提升荔枝市場平均價格。9.新興熱帶果樹種類開發與區域試作:積極搜集與進行黃金果、紅(黃)毛丹、榴槤蜜、星蘋果、榴槤及山竹等果樹品項優良實生品系選拔,期能選育出適應台灣風土氣候之新興熱帶品種(系)進行推廣栽培。10.探討新興果樹各品項快速繁殖的技術,同時建立無性繁殖供應體系,繁殖苗木供區域試作與進行栽培模式等試驗之需要。  荔枝、龍眼、酪梨、咖啡遺傳資源應用與作物改良 本計畫擬透過育種程序,選育不同產期、高品質、豐產穩產的優良荔枝、龍眼品系 ,提供果農栽培,以分散產期,解決因其品種單一,產期過分集中所致產銷失衡問 題;酪梨則冀望育成適合台灣地區栽培之不同成熟期,高品質,高油分之接穗品種 。育種過程以創造實生苗變異產生優良新品系,而實生苗產自人工雜交授粉及收集 開放授粉種子為之。計畫進行過程亦將調查作物基本生長發育情形,以瞭解一般栽 培管理或新品種推廣所需知悉基本資訊,並作為育種研究參考。藉由本計畫執行 ,將獲得新品種荔枝、龍眼或酪梨,有助於整體提升我國相關產業價值。 柑橘育種 本計畫經由雜交育種及輻射育種選拔具少籽、大果型、不同產期及高品質等特性之 新品種。並藉由輻射誘變選種等加速育種效率並縮短育種年限。新興品種砧木試驗探討主要砧木對各柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,以提高生產力與品質。 多樣化平地水蜜桃及早生澀柿品種改良     台灣平地水蜜桃的育種目標為育成低需冷量、低酸、果實生育日數短、大果、外觀 鮮艷動人、品質好、果肉白色、溶質、離核的毛桃與油桃新品種。柿品種改良工作 ,在育成低需冷量、大果、果皮紅、品質優良、早熟的澀柿品種。本計畫將進行桃 及柿低需冷量品種和優良品系間雜交,雜交後代選拔工作,及數個桃及柿優選品系區域試種、特性調查與評估工作。 鳳梨品種改良 一、計畫目標:育成植株小,葉緣無刺,果實適中,糖酸比高,品質佳,適於鮮食品種,以供推廣。二、方法:(1).親本授粉:在3-4月間梨開花盛花期,選擇優良親本配組進行雜交授粉,然後將種子播種,依次經溫室、網室、田間育苗選拔。(2).初選優良品系繁殖與複選:初選優良品系繼續進行複選,並利用組織培養及老莖切片繁殖種苗。(3).品系比較試驗:經複選結果較具優秀品系進行比較試驗。(4).種原貯藏力評估: 建立雜交用種原及優選及台農品種等之貯藏能力,以做為日後選育耐貯運性品種之雜交組合判斷來源。三、預期效益:期能育成植抹小,葉緣無剌,果實過中,糖酸比高,風味佳,適於鮮食品種。 甜柿之育種與栽培技術改進及低需冷性梨品種選育 本計畫旨在選育適合北部低海拔地區栽培之耐候性佳、適應性廣、質優豐產和具外銷潛力的甜柿新品種及具低需冷性的水梨新品種。本年度將進行柿107年雜交所得種子之實生苗培育工作,並繼續進行108年雜交授粉工作,並利用甜柿脫澀相關基因分子標誌測定方法,進行107年甜柿實生後裔評估。本年度低需冷性梨品種選育計畫將進行梨實生苗培育(第四年)及品系比較試驗、嫁接繁殖及性狀調查工作。   柑橘無子品種選育及茂谷柑裂果改善研究     柑橘為臺灣重要果樹,而果實無子為柑橘重要性狀,國際貿易上之優良柑橘品種多為無子,本計畫擬利用種間雜交、芽條突變選拔及誘變方式,選育符合市場或生產需求之優良無子品種;而茂谷柑果實發育期容易裂果,部分研究顯示與環境因子及營養不平衡有關,非單一因素造成。本計畫亦擬經由水分管理、有機質肥料及疏果處理,增加土壤緩衝能力及控制產量以減少養份競爭,探討其減少裂果發生之效果。 紅棗品種選育及嫁接種苗體系建立 國產紅棗經多年栽培已存在個體間變異,本計畫將針對紅棗地方品系進行生長勢及果實品質比較,篩選純化優良品系,以作為品種更新或新植園的種苗來源,另一方面則進行種子實生苗育苗,可作為新種原族群供後續品種選育。在栽培技術方面,則以紅棗近緣種發展嫁接苗系統,藉由其主根系特性改善雨季裂果情形。 中部地區重要果樹-葡萄、梨、番石榴之育種 臺灣中部地區葡萄、梨及番石榴為重要果樹,葡萄以特殊果形及果色商業品種為親本進行雜交,目標選育具有特殊果形或果色的子代,擴大國內栽種品種,提供消費者更多選擇。平地梨果主要以高接梨方式生產,但成本風險高。以雜交育種方式選育出生長季耐熱,已分化的花芽不易夭折或開不時花品系,取代部份高接梨生產面積,分散風險並延長產期以平穩產業。番石榴田區線蟲危害嚴重,選育耐或抗病根砧種可以有效延長植株經濟年限,有效降低生產成本。 高屏地區果樹品種改良     因應果樹品種單一、主流品種抗耐病性較差、產量及品質易受天候影響等問題,本研究進行熱帶果樹品種選育,育種目標為:選育具耐候性高、果實耐貯運、適合穩定供貨外銷之棗品種;篩選開花結果穩定、耐貯運之芒果品種;選育低裂果率、果色鮮紅之蓮霧品種;進行木瓜抗耐病毒自交系選種,以供育成耐病F1品種;選育果肉厚、口感風味穩定之番石榴鮮食品種。期能增加品種多樣性、降低生產風險、活絡市場需求,並利用抗耐病特性降低生產成本、提高產品良率,進而穩定臺灣果樹產業發展。 具國際競爭力之優質番木瓜品種選育 將去年所選拔符合育種目標之優良單株子代,評估果實品質、產量、麝香味有無等性狀,綜合耐病性及其他園藝特性選優良植株並進行套袋使其自交,進行世代增進。優良單株同時也進行扦插繁殖,並進行營養系選種程序。Grape breeding for fruit quality and downy mildew resistant In order to overcome the disadvantages happened in grape industry, such as susceptible to downy mildew, single cultivar, concentrated production season, and low storage ability, artificial pollination has made using pollens from foreign cultivars with characteristics like disease resistant and pleasing aroma to breed new table grape cultivars with good quality and gain the diversity of grape cultivars. Tetraploid and diploid cultivars are used for crossing parents, also elite selections are used for backcrossing. Regional test of new grape cultivars and elite selections are evaluated for fruit characteristics. Objectives of table grape breeding are disease resistant, large berry, strong berry adherence, different berry color, flavor, and ripening time. Pears and Loquat Industry 4.0 -Prospects Innovation development of new varieties and cultivation techniques 一、In the production facilities and the regulation of light and heat conditions, temperate fruit trees Pears and Loquat to meet thegrowth demand, enhance quality and shorten the growth period.二、Photo-physiological response of Pears and Loquats to the LEP (Light Emitting Plasma) Regulation to avoid dormancy. Different wavelength light source regulate phytochrome system to regulate fruit quality and plant morphogenesis.三、Expected to produce pears from the earliest one month ahead of the end of April to the end of March.四、Expected to produce loquat production period from late December~April to extend from November to next July, the storage period may be upgraded depending on varieties of 3 to 6 months. Fruits Germplasm Conservation,Utilization, and Healthy Propogation To collect and check these fruit germplasm growth data that conservated in field.We will intend to find the utilities and proceed techniques in these fruit germplasm. And than,to supply for propogate more seedlings. To choice and breed new potential and excellent fruit germplasm species with tolerance stress ability for cost-effectiveness. Breeding and cultural practice improvement of Taiwan characteristical tropical fruit trees. This research is to improve Taiwan characteristic tropical fruit varieties, and we predict to have the following results.1.Mango: Comparing current mango hybrid lines and we predict to select at least 3 lines with medium size, fine carp color, excellent fruit quality, less physiologically deterioration, well storage endurance, dwarf type, and off-season flowering into new variety evaluation. 2.Papaya: Breeding at least 3 medium size, high sweetness, rich fragrance, and storage endurable papaya variety. Besides, 15 core germplasms will be renewed and maintained, and we will achieve 1 novel papaya variety authorization and technology transfer.3.Carambola: Breeding and evaluating variety with long-range transportation, low temperature quarantine endurance and excellent flavor that strengthens competitivity in the foreign markets, improving export amount.4.Pitaya: New variety with large size, high quality, well self-compatibility, well storage endurance, and various flesh color will be selected.5.Guava: Selecting seedless guava lines into evaluation of fruit quality and productivity, elevating stability of seedless trait and fruit setting rate, seedless red flesh line will also be added.6.Sugar apple: Select 10 lines of sugar apple with good and large shape, well flavor, and low fruit cracking. Make 5 hybrid combinations of sugar apple and produce about 1000 seedlings.7.Wax apple: Hybridizing wax apples with different carp colors. New variety with dark-red carp, large size, high sweetness, fine sugar-acid ratio and low fruit cracking will be bred. In addition, shorter young stage type will also be considered.8.Indian jujube: Continuing culturing seedlings of indian jujube and selecting individuals with high quality, early mature, and different mature times.9.Lychee: Select very early fruiting type which can be harvest in April to disperse production period and seed-aborted variety.10.Novel tropical fruit: Collecting novel tropical fruit such as abiu, rambutan, cempedak, star apple, durian, and mangosteen, and these will be applied in mutant seedlings selection. We predict to find out varieties adapted to Taiwan climate, and take research of these fruit on fast reproduction method and and asexual supply model which can produce lots of seedlings for field evaluation or cultivation model experiment. Genetic utilities and crop improvement on litchi, longan, avocado, and coffee In this project our objectives are selecting litchi and/or longan lines, which are high quality, aboudant and stable on yield, and have different harvest season from major commercial cultivars in Taiwan. The avocado lines adapted to local climate, having good flavor, higher crude fat content are also the targets in the project. Potential lines are selected from senetic recombinated seedlings created by artificial pollination and/or open pollination. The growth and development of crops will be investigated as well to realize the basics for cultivation, cultivars extension, and breeding processes. Novel cultivars are expected to be obtained, and will promote elavation of industrial values of these three fruits. Citrus breeding Citrus cultivar improvement by means of crossbreeding and irradiation were conducted. This project was to reduce breeding period with irradiation breeding. The objective of breeding includes fewer seeds, larger fruit size, different maturity season and better fruit quality. The rootstock trials investigate the influences of rootstocks on horticultural characteristics of major citrus scion cultivars including Tainung Giant, Satsuma mandarin and kumquat for improving fruit quality and productivity. Cutivars improvement for low-chilling peach and early-season astringent persimmom)      Objectives of Peach breeding in Taiwan are to develop low chilling requirement, low acidity, short fruit development period, large, attractive, good quality, white- fleshed, melting freestone peach and nectarine cultivars. Cultivar improvement ofastringent persimmon in Taiwan are to development low chilling requirement, largefruit, red skin color, good quality, early-season cultivars. The peach and persimmon low-chill cultivars and elite selections are used for crossing parents. The progenies will under evaluation. Regional test of elite selection are evaluated for fruit characteristics. Pineapple Breeding Objectives:The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf, medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities. Methods:(1).Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in net room and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation. (2). Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations. (3). Superior advanced clones are fur there valuated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station. (4).Storage ability assessment : Establishment of the pineapple grmplasm, Tainung varieties and hybrid line,assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding.Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters.assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding. Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters. Breeding and Cultural Techniques Improvement of Persimmon (<i>Diospyros kaki</i> L.) and Breeding low chilling requirement of Pear (<i>Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai</i>) The program aims to breed new varieties of sweet persimmon and pear with high quality, high yield and wide adaptability to the weather in low-altitude areas in northern Taiwan. In this year, the seedlings of sweet persimmon progeny obtained from 2018 hybridization group will be cultivated, and another sweet persimmon hybridization will also proceeded. The evaluation of progeny obtained in 2018 will also conducted this year. Pear breeding trials will be carried out pear seedling breeding (fourth year) and pear strains of comparative grafts and traits investigation. Development of seedless mandarin cultivars and preventing of fruit splitting in murcott tangor     Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Taiwan. Seedlessness is an important characteristic in citrus. The world citrus market has shifted significantly toward seedless types. The objective of this project is to develop new seedless mandarin cultivars suitable for Taiwan conditions. The major approaches being used are hybridization selection, spontaneous mutation and mutation induction to obtain local seedless citrus. Murcott tangor is prone to a preharvest physiological disorder, known as fruit splitting. The incidence of this disorder has been related to environmental and mineral nutrition parameters, but no single factor has been characterized as responsible for it. This study will also investigate the effects of soil moisture and organic matter  on fruit splitting in murcott tangor. Breeding of jujube varieties and establishment of grafted seedling system Variations of domestic jujube are observed after years of cultivation. The project will compare the growth potential and fruit quality of jujube local strains. Screen and purify the excellent strains as a source of seedlings for renewal or new plantation. On the other hand, seedlings from hybrid seeds can be used as a new population for subsequent breeding. In terms of cultivation techniques, grafted seedlings will be develop with related species. The grafted seedlings system with its main root characteristics maybe improve the cracking situation in the rainy season. Central Taiwan Important Fruit- Grape, Pear, Guava Breeding In central Taiwan that grape, pear and guava were important fruits. The grape is crossed with special fruit shape and color by commercial varieties. The target is to select special fruit shape or color, expand domestic cultivars and provide consumption more choices. The mainly production method of pears fruit in Taiwan was top-graft, but this method is with high cost and risk. The hybrid selection of heat-tolerate in growing season, differentiated flower buds is not easy to die or open off-season flower in autumn, replace part of the top-graft pear area, spread the risk and extend the production period for industry stable. Nematode is another serious damage in guava cultivation, breeding rootstock resistance nematode varieties can effectively extend the economic life of guava, effectively reducing production costs. Breeding of The Main Fruits in Kaohsiung and Pingtung areas     In response to the fruit industrial problems of simplification of cultivars, lack of disease resistant variety and sensitiveness to climate, we carry out tropical fruit breeding programs in this research. The aims of our breeding programs are (1) selection of jujube varieties with high weather resistance, transportable fruit, and which suitable for export fruit supply, (2) selection of mango varieties with stable flowering and fruit set characteristic, and good storage quality, (3) selection of wax apple with low fruit cracking rate and red skin color, (4) papaya virus tolerance inbred line selection for F1 hybrid breeding, (5) selection of guava variety with thick pulp and stably good tasting. By increasing the diversity of cultivars, we expect to decrease the risk of production and create new market demand; and using the disease resistant cultivars to decline fruit production cost, enhance quality fruit rate, and therefore stable the development of fruit industry in Taiwan. Breeding of high quality papaya varieties with international competitiveness The quality, yield and musk smell of fruit were evaluated by selecting the offspring of the excellent single plant selected last year to meet the breeding objectives. The excellent plants with comprehensive disease resistance and d other horticultural properties will be handed self-pollinated and bagged to produce the next generation. In order to massive propagation, excellent single plant will also be selected to carry on the cutting propagation and developed into clonal selection .
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