開發果品機能性、貯運加工技術與外銷市場分析研究

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計畫名稱: 開發果品機能性、貯運加工技術與外銷市場分析研究
計畫主持人: 徐敏記
共同計畫主持人: 黃士晃;張春梅;王怡玎;江一蘆;陳幼光;張栢滄;陳京城;林妤姍;陳昶霖;黃勝新;羅惠萍;張致盛;黃柏昇;蘇育彥;石佩玉;林慧玲;王升陽;張哲嘉;吳俊達;張汶肇;梁佑慎
計畫編號: 109農科-7.3.4-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 顏色;果實品質;品種;花序;採後生理;硫磺;果實;採收成熟度;採後處理;預冷;呋喃香豆素;氣變包裝;果穗產量;黃金果;荔枝;水分;無子;野生種;柑橘;印度棗;採後品質;寒害;溫度;有機質;抗氧化能力;水浸狀;紅棗;貯運性;癒傷;柿餅;著果;果實品質;加工;加工;番石榴立枯病;果皮;成熟度;溫湯;葡萄;貯藏技術;香蕉整合生產技術;採後處理;`台蕉7號’;番木瓜;番荔枝;營養成分;根砧;香蕉;整枝;腐植酸;機械;真空包裝;鳳梨;褐化;體細胞變異;偏雌花;葡萄;多倍體;柚;物候學;荔枝;改變大氣組成;貯運品質;color;fruit quality;Variety;inflorescence;Postharvest physiology;sulfur;fruit;Harvest maturity;Postharvest;precooling;furanocoumarins;Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP);cluster yield;Abiu;Litchi;water;Seedless;wild species;Citrus;Indian Jujube;Post-harve
摘要: 發展優勢水果產業提升內外銷競爭力 本計畫旨在經由探討栽培技術、品種選育及改善櫥架壽命等,以生產優質果品、產期調節、開發機能性成份及長程貯運能力等,俾能因應氣候變遷、增加內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出12個計畫,分述如下: 1.‘台農7號-早大荔’荔枝開花結實特徵與其改善之研究‘台農7號-早大荔’荔枝具涼溫需求量較低而易開花,性狀優良且吻合氣候變遷下之需求。但常發生單一花序上產生異熟花及異熟果共存之現象,造成果園管理上的混淆與困擾。本研究首先調查單一花序發生二波(含)以上偏雌花、導致二波(含)以上共存之早、晚熟果實之發生率。其次,以正常之單波偏雌花花序為對照組,比較二波(含)以上異熟果共存對著果、果實生育、果實品質、產量及成熟期之交互影響,以供單一果穗上異熟果實者其晚生果之留存與否之參考。再者,探討造成多波偏雌花共存的影響因子及可能機制;得視產業需求酌況發展疏除第二波偏雌花、或促生第二波偏雌花技術。 2.多倍體無子葡萄生產技術開發本年度主要工作目標包括:(1)開發興翠葡萄經濟生產模式,測試更多種的GA與CPPU處理組合。 (2)開發興峰葡萄經濟生產模式,測試更多種的GA與CPPU處理組合。(3)開發龍寶葡萄人工無子化技術,將參考日本四倍體有子葡萄人工無子化之處理方法,測試龍寶葡萄無子化處理後之無子果比率及果實品質。(4)三倍體無子葡萄新品系選育,從前期計畫培育之三倍體葡萄中,從中選出較具發展潛力之品系及開發其田間管理技術。 3.施用CPPU 對防治 '茂谷' 裂果與品質之研究調查在花後3週以及花後13週噴施CPPU對減少茂谷柑裂果之效果、採收與採後果實品質之影響。 4.棗新育成品種採收成熟度與貯運特性評估印度棗經長時間低溫冷藏或低溫檢疫處理後可能造成果實寒害的發生,進而影響到貨品質與商品價值,且新品種的採後生理特性與貯運特性相關調查缺乏。對於新品種印度棗的採後生理特性有其調查之必要性,提供生產者與貿易商可用之基礎資料,以利拓展外銷市場。 5.柚類呋喃香豆素種類鑑定及健康營養成分分析呋喃香豆素為柑橘果實之次級代謝產物,為有機化合物亞類之一,具有多種生理作用,其中與人體代謝症候群藥物的相互作用常導致病患不適,而造成食用上安全疑慮,尤以葡萄柚為甚。本計畫鑑定分析文旦柚、白柚、西施柚、紅文旦、白肉葡萄柚、紅肉葡萄柚之呋喃香豆素成分及含量,比較台灣柚類與葡萄柚之差異,釐清種類及品種差異。另外,擬分析台灣柚類與葡萄柚營養成分與抗氧化能力等健康指數,並以此製作台灣柚類營養宣傳單,調節市場供需。 6.新興柑橘品系生長調查與試種評估本調查新興品系柑橘(紅美人、春見、砂糖橘與木瓜臍橙)在台灣栽培的生長物候期、生物學特性及果實品質,以建立基本栽培資料。另外,闢建品系試驗園區,調查幼樹的生長習性,並建立未來整枝修剪模式。 7.改變大氣組成處理技術應用於番木瓜採後貯運之研究番木瓜為易腐損、寒害敏感型更年性熱帶水果,採後壽命短,不利於長程外銷運輸。本計畫探討改變大氣成份應用於‘台農二號’番木瓜採後保鮮的技術,測試不同氧氣與二氧化碳濃度對7-10℃貯運2-4週番木瓜後熟能力與品質的影響,以尋求適合番木瓜貯運的大氣成份,作為氣變包裝技術選擇包材的參考。 8.降低鳳梨水浸狀果實之研究台灣夏季鳳梨果實易生理劣變成水浸狀,影響商品價值及儲架壽命。為減少鳳梨生長發育過程過度吸水,而造成果實水浸狀果,本研究以減低植體的蒸散作用模式處理,減少葉面積及蒸散抑制劑的使用,探討是否可降低水浸狀果的發生率。 9.改善簡易溫室葡萄結果枝基部葉片黃化之研究以有機質、腐植酸及配合施用土壤微生物益菌評估是否可降低土壤pH,促成良好的土壤理化性質,以改善成熟階段其結果枝基部葉片發生黃化現象,以為日後研究產業之參考。 10.研發改善冷凍釋迦褐化技術釋迦屬於更年性水果且在完熟時才具有食用價值,然而在後熟過程中會提高呼吸率和產生大量乙烯,使櫥壽命縮短。本研究擬建立鮮果冷凍保存流程,首先對果實採收後的成熟度進行分類和催熟,使品質達到均一化;接著利用不同的溫度和時間組合殺菁,以降低果皮褐化現象;之後利用不同包裝材料,測試冷凍速度和解凍的差別。 11.番石榴抗病根砧評估及選育調查野生種及不同品種番石榴實生苗對立枯病的抗病性,並比較不同品種或種類的根砧對番石榴主要栽培品種田間性狀表現的影響,包括植株生長勢及果實品質等。另也將這些野生種與栽培種雜交以產生實生後代供進一步評估。 12.香蕉黃葉病抗/耐病品種選育技術改進與建立優質香蕉栽培技術之研究(1)建立抗香蕉黃葉病品種的選育系統,以縮短新品種的育成之時程。(2)利用本所之體細胞變異育種技術,篩選較‘寶島蕉’更佳之國內外優良華蕉新品種。(3)建立`台蕉7號’吸芽苗之綜合管理栽培技術(肥培、病蟲害控制、水分管理等)並延長蕉果之貯運壽命。 評選耐貯運具外銷潛力之新品種荔枝並改良果園初級處理場配合應用 評選耐貯運具外銷潛力之新品種荔枝並改良果園初級處理場配合應用 本計畫擬評選貯運壽命長於現行外銷品種‘黑葉’及‘玉荷包’之新品種荔枝,配合改良應用果園初級處理場之保鮮技術,以加強從採後到運達冷鏈主體包裝場期間之保鮮效果;最終可提高全程冷鏈運銷到市場後之良品率。首先評估新推廣之吉荔與玫瑰紅二品種荔枝之耐貯運壽命,選出合於外銷目標之品種。其次研究入選品種之每日適宜採收時段及運達果園初級處理場之時間控制與場內外作業時須遵守事項。同時研究改良果園初級處理場之降溫保冷功能及果實在場內停放時間長短與保鮮效果之關係。最後以實物正式試用從採收,運到果園初級處理場處理,及短時待運往冷鏈主體包裝場各程序;再模擬冷鏈主體包裝場之作業及外銷海運溫度貯放,定時取樣調查果實狀況與品質,以證實預期結果。 新興果樹黃金果採後處理貯運技術之研究 (1)東協與中東地區正逐年成長,配合政府南向政策,透過於新加坡馬來西亞銷售還可作為進入東協與中東地區之窗口,因此解決低溫貯運後室溫(25-30℃)販賣之品質黃化異味產生,使用適切包裝與資材,達到成功銷售的目的。另加強印度棗於採收後降溫之問題,測試不同降溫方式,以及不同材質包裝測試對印度棗品質之影響。(2)黃金果黃金果較不耐貯藏,於室溫下則只有4天的櫥架壽命,不同低溫貯藏下寒害則以果皮褐化與果肉水浸狀之情形為多,探討不同包裝方式對黃金果低溫貯藏之影響。(3)研發目前印度棗外銷預冷之易行處理流程,改善其外銷操作流程模組與預冷處理相關技術一式。(4)開發黃金果低溫貯運與延長櫥架壽命之相關技術。    國產優質紅棗鮮果保鮮技術之研究   紅棗( <em>Ziziphus jujuba</em> Miller)自古以來主要是供作醫藥用途,每100公克紅棗含維生素C 310-418 mg,是兼具鮮食與食補之果品。紅棗果實成熟即可鮮食,另可以日曬或電箱乾燥等方式製成紅棗乾;然而其鮮果在室溫下不耐貯存,3至5天果實即變軟皺縮,維生素C的含量也會大幅減少。公館鄉農會107年海運外銷鮮果(370台斤)至香港及新加坡。因果實產季短暫、鮮果保存不易,鮮棗貯藏受諸多因素影響,包含品種、採收成熟度、環境(含溫度、溼度、氣體成分)等。本研究擬進行國產紅棗鮮果採後處理之研究,含不同成熟度、貯藏溫度、氣變貯藏及預冷等保鮮技術開發,為後續建立國產優質紅棗鮮果保鮮技術,目標可延長紅棗鮮果保鮮期至二週以上,調節市場供需、擴展外銷市場及增加農民收益。 柿餅無硫加工技術之研究 現行柿餅製作時均會進行硫處理。硫處理方式可分為硫磺燻蒸及亞硫酸鹽溶液浸泡兩種方式,目的在使柿餅表面顏色鮮亮及抑制微生物生長,讓產品有充足時間脫澀及轉換內部糖分。但目前國內已將二氧化硫訂為食品過敏原之一,含量超過10 ppm即需標示。因此,本研究目標為不使用硫處理的方式製作高品質柿餅,且不嚴重影響其外觀及美味,提供消費者新選擇,解決添加過量及找尋合法食品添加物供應商相關問題,提升附加經濟價值及產業競爭力。 柑橘加工機械之研發 柑橘於栽培過程中需進行疏果,以往疏下之果實成為農業廢棄物,現今已研發之削皮用機械,可將疏果機械削下的皮製成精油,而果肉可製成果汁,惟現行使用之擠壓無果皮汁果肉機械過程中易將籽壓破而使果汁中含有苦味。本計劃擬開發疏果後柑橘果肉擠壓機1台,該機利用特殊擠壓機構可在擠壓果汁中避免籽實壓破。 臺南區重要果樹採後處理技術開發     炭疽病為愛文芒果外銷品質上的亟需解決的採後病害,而溫湯處理為一可行之處理方法,建議處理條件為50℃/30min或60-62℃/20-30秒,但商業化操作上仍不完善,需強化芒果採後處理流程規範,重新定位溫湯處理的操作,以降低果實損失。試驗將重新探討愛文芒果於商業處理之溫湯處理流程,加入保鮮劑之應用,調查溫湯處理後貯運條件對其相關品質變化與病害發生的影響,找出最合理(時間、效率、成本等因素)的處理流程以供業者參考。    麻豆文旦為國內重要節氣應景果品,因應節氣及中秋節之間隔長短會造成柚農每年不同的銷售時間壓力,而且文旦需經過俗稱「辭水」的調理方式(Curing),才能會有較佳的食用品質,本試驗為針對銷售期間短促,建立合適的辭水及其後貯藏條件處理,並調查不同條件對果實品質及採後病害發生之變化,以期提昇其採 後品質及貯架壽命,並提昇農友經濟效益。     鳳梨外銷過程容易有切口發霉問題,影響商品價值,目前國內鳳梨外銷切口防腐主要是利用酒精、 二氧化氯或其他含氯化合物進行殺菌,仍有效果不穩定及藥物殘留的疑慮,本試驗擬利用高溫蒸氣進行果梗切口殺菌,評估其對切口發霉抑制之效果,以期建立更為安全有效之處理模式。Enhancing the competitiveness of the advantageous fruit industries to domestic and export markets This study aims to explore the high quality fruits, off-season production, determine functional components, and long-term storage technique through improving cultivation techniques, breeding and extending shelf life. A total of 12 projects are granted and focus on fruit tree physiology, cultivation, breeding and post-harvest handling, as followering 1.Characterization of flowering and fruiting, and its improvements in ‘Tainon No. 7- Early Big’ litchi‘Tainon No. 7-Early Big' litchi is an early maturing cultivar that is prone to flower because of low cooling temperature requirements to initiate flower bud. It is generally heavy in fruit production with large size and regular yield. In addition, it has the potential to be cultivated under the increased warming winter in Taiwan, resulting from global climate change. However, in recent years, occurrences of two or three waves of female flower (F) within single inflorescence has been found and thus resulted in coexistence of heterozygous maturing fruits in a cluster, causing problems in orchard management during flowering and fruiting period, but little is known. In this study, 6-year-old field grown plants were used to conduct the experiments. The proportions of two or three waves of F of an inflorescence within a plant or plants within a orchard were investigated. F number, fruit set, developmental period required for growth, cluster yield and fruit characteristic in a coexistence fruits cluster were compared with that of fruits derived from the single F wave cluster, and the interactive effects of the coexistence fruits mentioned above were analyzed. Finally, the influencing factors and possible mechanisms of coexistence of F waves were documented. And thus, cultural techniques to remove 2nd wave of F when heavy bearing is observed in F, or to induce 2nd wave of F when poor bearing is observed in 1st wave of F depending on fruiting status, could be developed accordingly. 2.Development of techniques for production of polyploid seedless grapes  The optimal management system for economical production of the triploid Xingcui and Xingfeng seedless grapevines is still lacking. The major objectives of this project in the 109 fiscal year include:(1)Developing a management model for economical production of the triploid Xingcui seedless grapevine. The optimal application time and combination of plantgrowth regulators for increasing the berry size of Xingcui grapevine is still lacking. Different combinations of GA and CPPU treatment will be tested in order to find a more suitable treatment.(2)Developing a management model for economical production of the triploid Xingfeng seedless grapevine. The optimal application time and combination of plantgrowth regulators for increasing the berry size of Xingcui grapevine is still lacking. Different combinations of GA and CPPU treatment will be tested in order to find a more suitable treatment.(3)Developing a technique for economical production of the seedless Longbao grape. The treatment method used for artifical seedless grape production will be used as a reference. The perecentage of seedlessness and berry quality will be examine.(4)Selection of new triploid seedless grapevines.  New triploid seedless grapevines selected last year will be tested for their potential for commercial cultivation and field management techniques will be developed. 3.The effect of CPPU on fruits splitting and quality of ‘Murcott’ tangor  The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the fruit cracking phenomenon of ‘Murcott’ tangor cultivated in Gukeng area in 2020. The effect of spraying CPPU 3 weeks after flowering and spraying CPPU 13 weeks after flowering will be examed on reducing the fruit cracking of Murcott’ tangor  and postharvest fruit  quality. 4.Evaluation of Harvest Maturity and Storability of Different Indian Jujube Varieties  Indian jujube has raised its potential to export, however, low temperature quarantine is required and it’s sensitive to cold environment. Up to date, there is a lack of assessment of the postharvest physiological characteristics and storability of new varieties. Farmers and traders are unfamiliar with the characteristics of new varieties of Indian jujube, which leads to problems such as over ripening or poor storage quality. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the postharvest physiological characteristics of the new variety Indian jujube, and provide basic information available to producers and traders. 5.Pomelo Furocoumarins Species Identification and Analysis of Healthy Nutrition  Furanocoumarin is a secondary metabolite in citrus fruits and is one of the subclasses of organic compounds. It has a variety of physiological effects, and may interact with human metabolic syndrome drugs to affect drugs' efficacy and lead to patient discomfort. Many international studies have confirmed that grapefruit contains a large amount of furanocoumarin, which may affect drug metabolism. Consumers are pron to think that pomelo may cause the similar reaction which results in food safety concerns. In order to address consumers' concerns about the safety of pomelo in Taiwan, this study intends to analyze the type and content of furanocoumarin in Wendan pomelo, white pomelo, Shishi pomelo, red mandarin pomelo, white flesh grapefruit, and red flesh grapefruit to compare the difference between Taiwan pomelo and grapefruit, and to clarify species and variety differences.The main consumption of Taiwan pomelo in the market is during the Mid-Autumn Festival. Taiwan pomelo production period is concentrated on 1-2 months before and after the Mid-Autumn Festival. The price difference is extremely large around the Mid-Autumn Festival. Oversupplyproduction is prone to cause oversupply in the market. This study plans to perform an analysis of the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of Taiwan pomelo and grapefruit, and use the data thus obtained to make a Taiwan pomelo nutrition leaflet, to promote the nutritional value of Taiwan pomelo, to increase consumers' knowledge of the nutritional content of Taiwan pomelo and their willingness to purchase, to increase the added value of Taiwan pomelo, and to regulate market supply and demand. 6.Growth Investigation and Trial Evaluation of Emerging Citrus Strains  This experiment focuses on the investigation of the growth phenology, biological characteristics, and fruit quality of emerging citrus varieties cultivated in Taiwan as well as to establish the basic cultivation data for the reference of the industry. In addition, to record the detail of plant growth status, a new strain area will be established to investigate the growth habits of these young trees, and set up a pruning model in the future. 7.Studies on Application of Atmosphere Modification Technology for Postharvest Handling and Transportation of Papaya Fruit  Papaya is a climacteric tropical fruit with highly perishable and chilling-sensitive features, resulting in short postharvest life which are obstacles for international marketing.  This proposal will investigate the effect of atmosphere modification technique on postharvest handling of ‘Tainong No. 2’papaya fruit.  In order to figure out the optimum air compositions during transportation, papaya fruit will be treated with different concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide at 7 to 10℃ for 2 to 4 weeks, respectively, to observe the changes of ripening ability and quality attributes of the samples.  Moreover, papaya packed with LDPE plastic bag and filled with oxygen 3, 5, or 7% combine with carbon dioxide 5, or 8% will also be evaluated for fruit quality change at 10℃ for 1-3 weeks.  The results of this project will be beneficial for prolonging postharvest life of papaya, which is actually the bottle neck of its export. 8.Study on reducing translucency disorder of pineapple fruit.  In this study, the mixer of humic acid and lignin was used to evaluate the effect on reduction of translucency in pineapple. In addition, orchard practices were also peated. The humic acid fermentation is mixed (lignin), and the leaf area and ET inhibition. The use of agents to explore whether the incidence of water-soaked fruit can be reduced. 9.Study of leaf yellowing at the base of fruiting in house-grown grapevine  This study aims to evaluate whether organic matter, humic acid, and the combined application of soil microorganisms and beneficial bacteria can reduce soil pH and promote good physical and chemical properties of the soil to improve the yellowing phenomenon of the leaves at the base of the fruit at the maturity stage for future academic research. And industrial cultivation management reference. 10.Developing technique for browning prevention of sugar apple  The sugar apples showed high potential for export but it is difficult to transport and storage because of climacteric fruit. The ethylene burst is required for normal fruit ripening enhances respiration rate but high respiration rate and high concentration of ethylene lead horticulture products to lose commercial value in a few days. Therefore, improving the frozen processing of sugar apples can extend the supply period and regulate the price in the concentrated production season. In order to establish the standing process from farm to table, we tried to evaluate every step and maintain the quality without significant browning. Firstly, different maturity will be classified and ripening. Secondly, blanching in frozen sugar apples will be  treated by different temperate and time periods. Thirdly, different materials will be used to pack the sugar apples and evaluated during the cooling processing. Finally, combing all the best treatments in each step will offer a standard procedure for making frozen sugar apples. 11.Evaluation and selection of disease-resistant rootstocks in guava  Grafting is the main technique for vegetative propagation of guava in Taiwan. However, the effect of the rootstock genotype used especially wild species on the performance of scion cultivar remains under exploration and requires more systematic evaluation. The effect of rootstocks include disease resistance, plant vigor, and fruit quality. In view of the widespread occurrence of guava wilt, resistant rootstock might provide a feasible solution. This project will evaluate the disease resistance against guava wilt in seedlings of wild species and different cultivars. In addition, the influence of different rootstock cultivars or species on field performance of major guava cultivar scions, including plant growth vigor and fruit quality, will also be compared. Furthermore, these wild species will be crossed with cultivars to produce progeny for further evaluation. The wild Psidium species used as rootstocks in this study are possibly resistant to guava wilt based on literature. We hope to select and breed for rootstock genotypes resistant to guava wilt. 12.Improvement of Techniques in Breeding Banana Varieties Resistant/Tolerant to Foc TR4 and the Establishment of High Quality Banana Cultivation Management(1)Establishing a breeding system for banana cultivar with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) and to shorten the breeding term of new varieties.(2)Utilizing somaclonal technology to screen new and excellent banana cultivars(such as ‘Williams’), it is expected that within 5 years, new varieties that have more potential than 'Formosana' can be promoted to domestic and foreign markets and effectively improving the export potential of Taiwan banana..(3)To establish the techniques for the production and post-harvest management of Taiwan banana for export purpose, with special emphasis on the protection of production environments, the food safety and hygiene, the consistence of production and consumption trends, and the sustainability of industrial management and development, to stabilize the annual production and supply of Taiwan banana, to improve the quality of export banana, to promote the banana export business, and to rebuild the export industry of Taiwan banana. Selection of New Litchi varieties of High Shipping Quality Suitable for Export and Improvement of Orchard-side Primary Handling Shed Operation to Preserve Fruit Freshness. Selection of New Litchi varieties of High Shipping Quality Suitable for Export and Improvement of Orchard-side Primary Handling Shed Operation to Preserve Fruit Freshness.       The goal of this project is to select new litchi varieties which have longer shipping life than current export varieties ‘Hey-yeh’ or ‘Yuho-bow’ and to improve the technology of applying newly developed orchard-side primary handling shed to further enhance the shipping life of the newly selected varieties. The shipping quality of each of the 7 newly  released varieties, ‘Tainun No. 1’through ‘Tainung No. 7’, will be evaluated. Only those having long shipping life span qualities for further studies. Suitable harvesting hours of the day, acceptable time elapse period harvest and arrival to the primary handling shed, and other requirements of handling the fruit in cooling and out the shed will be studied. Further  improvement in the cooling efficiency of the shed may be studied. Tolerable time spam of the fruit being kept in the shed before being transported to the main packing house without significant quality deterioration will also be studied. Finally, sizable fruit samples of the selected varieties will be harvested of the right hours, transported to the laboratory to receive simulated export packaging and shipping. Fruit samples will be periodically evaluated for condition and quality to verify the expected results.  Studies on postharvest technology of Abiu for storage and transport (1)Wrose harvesting method and storage method that were easily induced quality lose and decreasing shelf-life of fruits. In this study, we will focus on developing fruit : Indian jujube Not only improving technology of cultivating, but also paying attention of postharvest handling. In order to decrease the loss of chilling injury after low temperature storage and storage disease happened. (1) Developing sutiable treatment and storage technology: improving low temperature storage and increasing export of foreign country (ASEAN countries). (2) Establishing new precooling method to reduce Indian jujube ripening and low shelf life.(3) Quality analysis of putative exporting method of Indian jujube.(2)Innovating postharvest handling of Abiu and elongating Abiu shelf life. Studies on storage technology of fresh Chinese jujube <em>  Ziziphus jujuba </em>Miller has been considered as functional fruit with nutritional and high medicinal value. Because of physiological and biochemical characteristics of jujube fruit are easy to turn up  post-harvest dehydration shrinkage, senescence, softening, Vitamin C content reduced,and so on. In order to study and utilize the high quality and storability of fresh jujube fruit, different storage temperature and maturity , the effect of Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and pre-cooling will be investigated.  In order to promote the development and utilization of fresh jujube fruit, the objectives of this study are to improve the jujube fruit storability of Chinese jujube in Taiwan and increase export of foreign country. Development of Sulfur-Free Processing Technology of Dried Persimmon The existing persimmons are sulfur-treated when they are made. Sulfur treatment methods can be divided into sulfur fumigation and sulfite solution soaking. The purpose is to brighten the surface of persimmon and inhibit the growth of microorganisms, so that the product has sufficient time to deastringify and convert internal sugar. However, at present, sulfur dioxide has been designated as one of the food allergens in Taiwan. Therefore, the goal of this research is to make high-quality persimmons without using sulfur treatment, without seriously affecting its appearance and taste, providing consumers with new choices, solving problems related to excessive additions and finding suppliers of legal food additives, and increasing added economic value. Development of Citrus Processing Machine Citrus needs to be thinned during the cultivation process. In the past, the thinned fruit became agricultural waste. Nowadays, the peeling machine has been developed. The skin of citrus which peeled by the machine can be made into essential oil, and the pulp can be made into fruit juice. In the currently used mechanical process of extruding skin-free citrus to make juice, the seeds are easily crushed and the fruit contains bitterness. This project intends to develop a citrus pulp squeezer after fruit thinning. This machine uses a special squeeze mechanism to avoid seed compaction in the squeezed juice. Postharvest techniques improvement of important fruit crops in Tainan District       Anthracnose is an essential postharvest disease on mango exportation. Hot water treatment, which is suggested for 50℃/30min or 60-62℃/20-30 seconds, is a possible way to reduce the incidences. However, the commercial management  of mango postharvest procedure is still need to be improved. We try to reexamine the whole procedure on the commercial practice of hot water treatment and the application of preservatives will take into investigation. The changes of fruit quality and incidences of postharvest diseases will be evaluated to set up a proper SOP for the commercial use. <em>      Citrus grandis</em> Osbeck cv. 'Matou Wentan' is an important fruits for Moon Festival in Taiwan. The extremely short or long duration between harvest time and the holiday is a stress for farmers on selling the fruits. And the curing treatment is an important postharvest treatments for pomelos to meeting the good quality. We will try to build a proper curing and storage condition for the long-term period for selling this year. Fruit quality and incidences of postharvest will also be evaluated. We hope the procedure on curing improve the postharvest quality and shelf-life and to rise the economic profit for farmers.    One of export process problem of pineapple is bottom rot, which affects the value of the commodity. At present, the domestic pineapple export incision corrosion prevention is mainly sterilized by alcohol, chlorine dioxide or other chlorine-containing compounds, and there are still doubts about unstable effects and drug residues. This study intends to use high-temperature steam to sterilize the fruit stem incision, and evaluate its effect on mold inhibition of the incision, in order to establish a safer and more effective treatment mode.
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