重要果樹穩健栽培技術及產銷鏈結研究

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計畫名稱: 重要果樹穩健栽培技術及產銷鏈結研究
計畫主持人: 邱國棟
共同計畫主持人: 官青杉;葉文彬;王升陽;黃士晃;林詠洲;江淑雯;黃守宏;楊舒涵;李保宏;張芳魁;陳柱中;林慧玲;張栢滄;陸明德;石佩玉;謝鴻業;李雪如;潘光月;吳俊達;陳正恩;羅惠萍;陳柏宏;黃柏昇;馮永富;唐佳惠;陳筱鈞;王仁晃;黃勝新;林妤姍;李文豪;劉啟祥;吳庭嘉;張哲嘉;陳盟松;施伯明;陳甘澍;江一蘆;陳思如;陳昶霖;朱彧瑩;劉碧鵑;朱堉君;張汶肇;徐子芳;王怡玎;陳明昭;曾鉅翔
計畫編號: 110農科-4.2.3-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所熱帶果樹系
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 茂谷柑;葡萄柚;芒果;採後處理;產期調節;番木瓜;番荔枝;栽培技術;病蟲害防治管理;柿餅;龍眼;鳳梨釋迦;黃金果;文旦;荔枝;番石榴;產銷鏈;柚;刺番荔枝;梨;鳳梨;麻豆紅柚;呋喃香豆素;紅棗;採前處理;香蕉;桃;紅龍果;葡萄;Murcott;grapefruit;mango;postharvest handling;forcing culture;Papaya;Annona squamosa;cultivation technology;pest management;Dried Persimmon;Longan;atemoya;Abiu;Wentan pomelo;Litchi;guava;production and sales chain;pomelo;soursop;Pear;pineapple;Matou Hongy
摘要: 國產優質紅棗鮮果保鮮技術之研究,紅棗產期短暫,每年成熟採收期約在七月上旬至八月中旬,為期40天左右,其鮮果在室溫下不耐貯存,3至5天果實即變軟皺縮,維生素C的含量也會大幅減少。鮮棗貯藏受諸多因素影響,包含品種、採收成熟度、環境(含溫度、溼度、氣體成分)、其他物理及化學方法。本研究擬進行國產紅棗鮮果採後生理特性之研究,含不同成熟度、貯藏溫度及乙烯催熟(色)等保鮮及商用技術開發,目標可延長紅棗鮮果保鮮期至二週以上,調節市場供需、促進鮮果外銷及增加農民收益。新興果樹黃金果採後處理貯運技術之研究,黃金果黃金果較不耐貯藏,於室溫下則只有4天的櫥架壽命,不同低溫貯藏下寒害則以果皮褐化與果肉水浸狀之情形為多,探討不同包裝方式對黃金果低溫貯藏之影響。研發目前黃金果外銷預冷之易行處理流程,改善其外銷操作流程模組與預冷處理相關技術一式。針對黃金果壓擦摔傷進行研究,了解變化情形與後續外銷避免品質耗損操作方式。評選耐貯運具外銷潛力之新品種荔枝並改良果園初級處理場配合應用,本計畫擬評選貯運壽命長於現行外銷品種‘黑葉’及‘玉荷包’之新品種荔枝,配合改良應用果園初級處理場之保鮮技術,以加強從採後到運達冷鏈主體包裝場期間之保鮮效果;最終可提高全程冷鏈運銷到市場後之良品率。梨與葡萄熱帶栽培模式開發研究,在恆春地區建立優質早生梨生產示範點,推廣生產技術,提升農民收益並打開外銷市場,計畫預期可將台灣生產高接梨產期由最早4月底提前至3月底。建立台灣南部葡萄生產系統,利用冬季溫暖的地理優勢,生產3-5月的早熟葡萄,達到在地生產的目標,建立設施果樹栽培模式,利用簡易設備調控光熱條件滿足溫帶果樹作物生育需求,縮短生育期增進品質,並達到農藥減用優質生產的目的,輔以催花技術導入,使開花期一致調控果品品質。椪柑果實品質提升技術之研究,柑橘果實汁胞粒化為常見生理障礙,導致果汁率降低而品質不佳,發生原因與品種、氣候條件及栽培管理有關,近來因氣候變化,氣溫及降雨模式改變,可能因此影響肥料吸收利用,導致椪柑粒化果實比例增加,本計畫擬探討合適之氮鉀肥施用比例及時間,增加果實糖酸度及果汁率,減少粒化果實出現,穩定椪柑品質。北部地區水蜜桃品質提昇技術之研究,本計畫為因應氣象變遷,建立相應的栽培技術提升水蜜桃的品質。本年度進行不同化學劑處理及春季不同灌溉方式,促進水蜜桃提早開花。開發中部地區重要果樹穩定生產栽培提升技術,葡萄、芒果及番石榴為臺灣中部地區重要經濟果樹,雖然栽培管理技術成熟發展出多種產期調節模式,但近年因氣候變遷導致生產區域微氣候變化大,葡萄生產面臨之問題為轉色不良,品質不穩定。試驗利用葉面積儀調查結果枝葉面積,探討亞熱帶氣候條件巨峰葡萄結果枝葉面積與產量、品質相關性。近年芒果生產出現果皮污斑問題,影響芒果生產與農民收益,故由葉施鈣肥及隔雨設施進行果品品質改善試驗。紅肉番石榴在臺灣雖然非主流品種,但在美洲及部分亞洲國家非常普遍。西瓜拔果實之成熟果肉清脆為非更年型果實,但在夏季西瓜拔果實品質差,總可溶性固形物含量下降、果肉變薄、果色黯淡,採收品質落差大,擬建立不同光照程度對提升果實食用及貯運品質。臺灣重要水果產銷供應鏈競爭力盤點與分析,本研究規劃辦理2場次重要水果產銷供應鏈或數位工具應用於產業之研討交流會,強化產官學界資訊鏈結。透過問卷調查、實地訪視等方式,主動挖掘重要水果產銷問題,盤點重要水果產銷供應鏈關鍵技術及缺口。並導入關鍵技術之技術準備度調查,了解重要水果技術現況與瓶頸,為產業提出即時解決方案與未來的研究方向。麻豆文旦與紅龍果栽培技術改進研究,麻豆文旦為花蓮地區最重要的果樹產業,本計畫以花蓮地區麻豆文旦果樹為試驗材料,進行植物營養劑葉面噴施處理,提高早收文旦果實品質,並進行麻豆文旦除花之影響與紅龍果栽培管理技術改進研究與調查,以協助地區產業之發展。本計畫期望能開發提高東部地區麻豆文旦與紅龍果果實品質栽培技術,以保障農民收益。宜蘭地區蓮霧及番石榴品質提升技術之研發,宜蘭地區進行產期調節之蓮霧,於花芽萌發期及開花期前後易遭受寒害,造成花芽枯萎、落花、花蕾凍傷、花萼開裂及葉片寒害等現象發生;果實生長發育期高溫多雨,易有裂果情形發生。本試驗擬利用防風網及簡易設施等物理性防護措施,降低蓮霧寒害發生程度,並利用簡易設施及遮陰網降低裂果率,減少果農的損失。‘中山月拔’番石榴為宜蘭地區極具發展潛力之更年性番石榴品種,農民慣行之整枝修剪模式為自然樹型及強剪,常使產期過於集中,樹勢提早衰退。本研究擬利用中度修剪及開心型整枝維持樹勢,較農民慣行修剪時間延後一個月修剪,使產期至10月,以分散產銷風險。另於套袋前進行疏果,每結果枝留1-2果,以提升果實品質。提升臺東地區經濟果樹競爭力之研究,為加強臺東地區果樹生產技術,增加產業競爭力,本計畫針對轄區內特色果樹進行栽培與採後處理技術之研究。試驗擬探討刺番荔枝冬季留果數對果實產期之影響,以應用於發展產期調節技術;利用非破壞式之音頻分析方法,檢測鳳梨釋迦果實之後熟程度,以預測儲架壽命,並穩定加工端之品質。期相關成果能奠定未來研究基礎,並提供農友實際應用。果樹關鍵栽培技術及產銷鏈結研究,本計畫旨在經由探討栽培技術及改善櫥架壽命,以生產優質果品、產期調節、開發機能性成份及長程貯運能力等,俾能因應氣候變遷、增加內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培和採後處理專家共提出7個計畫:1.柚類呋喃香豆素種類鑑定及健康營養成分分析。2.研發改善冷凍釋迦褐化技術。3.減少茂谷柑裂果之研究。4.新興柑橘品種生長調查與試種評估。5.降低鳳梨水浸狀果實之研究。 6.改變大氣組成處理技術應用於番木瓜採後貯運之研究。7.‘台農7號-早大荔’荔枝開花結實特徵與改善之研究。鳳梨、荔枝、文旦品質改善及利用技術之研究,本計畫標的之三品項:鳳梨、荔枝及文旦,鳳梨產期集中於3-7月,荔枝產期集中於5-7月,文旦產期則集中於8月底至10月。當到貨量太大時,市場難以消化,導致容易出現產銷失衡情形,價格崩盤使農民收益受損。除產銷問題外,尚有許多產業問題待發掘與解決,例如近年來氣候變遷的衝擊亦影響產量及果實品質,包含鳳梨雨季時品質降低(肉聲果比率增加);暖冬及春旱使荔枝開花及產量減少;文旦採收易逢颱風使產量與品質受損。外銷為解決產銷失衡問題的可行方式之一,例如荔枝與鳳梨外銷澳洲,本計畫針對輸澳相關研究破口進行補強,但若要順利外銷,尚須相關機關於政策面上共同努力。同時本計畫預計成立三品項之團隊,廣邀育種、栽培、植物保護、採後處理...相關研究領域研究人員加入,於計畫執行期間辦理產業場域訪視,探詢產業問題並協助解決問題。週年生產型果樹產業提升及改進之研究,紅龍果、番石榴和香蕉等3種果樹,容易發生產銷失衡 ,每年4∼8月為果實盛產期,產量大因此常造成價格低落或滯銷。可藉由產期調節技術,達成周年生產的目的。因此可透過輔導調節盛產期產量。目前3個品項具有技術服務團、外銷果品貯運技術服務團等,可立即整合成輔導團隊並運作。加強產業團隊與產業及團隊機關間之互動,以產業輔導之觀點發現新問題,快速利用團隊資源,集中且有效率排除問題。柿餅無硫加工技術之研究,現行柿餅製作時均會進行硫處理。硫處理方式可分為硫磺燻蒸及亞硫酸鹽溶液噴灑浸泡兩種方式,目的在使柿餅表面顏色鮮亮及抑制微生物生長,讓產品有充足時間脫澀及轉換內部糖分。但目前國內已將二氧化硫訂為食品過敏原之一,含量超過10 ppm即需標示。因此,本研究目標為不使用硫處理的方式製作高品質柿餅,且不嚴重影響其外觀及美味,提供消費者新選擇,解決添加過量及找尋合法食品添加物供應商相關問題,提升附加經濟價值及產業競爭力。臺南區重要果樹採後處理技術開發,本計畫包含麻豆文旦、麻豆紅柚及青木瓜三種作物:於麻豆文旦試驗,因應果實轉色不良之問題,擬利用乙烯相關物質進行催色處理,並配合適當之貯藏條件與方式,維持果實品質並提升商品價值。麻豆紅柚為新興之柚類品種,採收成熟度判斷與採收時期資訊均缺乏,故擬進行麻豆紅柚果實不同採收時期之品質調查,並開發貯藏保鮮技術,以利提供採收相關資訊予農民參考利用。青木瓜試驗將進行產業鏈現況盤點及問題分析,並建立品質分級標準及採收成熟度指標,以促進青木瓜產業持續發展。臺南區重要果樹栽培改進技術開發,本計畫包括文旦、芒果及龍眼三項作物,文旦部分探討著果母枝選留及疏花程度對著果率及果實品質之影響,擬建立枝梢及疏花管理模式,以穩定產量並提昇果實品質,並提供產業實際應用。芒果部分,擬釐清造成愛文芒果表皮局部轉色異常之原因,包含採收時果皮產生局部黃斑不轉紅及採後褐斑黯沉等表皮受損問題,擬加以改善避免發生,提升果實外觀品質。龍眼為少數低成本及少農藥使用之果樹,但缺乏栽培管理則容易產生隔年結果的現象,為龍眼栽培上最大問題之一,擬利用疏花處理及化學藥劑,降低隔年結果及抽生冬梢現象,建立龍眼穩定生產技術。鳳梨釋迦外銷新馬貯運保鮮技術開發,本計畫擬建立鳳梨釋迦果實外銷至馬來西亞及新加坡之保鮮技術,利用二氧化碳氣體吸收劑及乙烯抑制劑等不同劑量處理方式,搭配模擬海運貯藏溫度及時間,探討其對鳳梨釋迦保鮮效果及果實品質之影響。期能運用保鮮技術,助外銷業者開拓新興市場;並配合政府新南向政策來開拓新馬市場,以分散鳳梨釋迦外銷量過度集中之風險。Studies on storage technology of fresh Chinese jujube</strong><em>  Ziziphus jujuba </em>Miller has been considered as functional fruit with nutritional and high medicinal value. Since the Chinese jujube fruit normally ripens in July to August in Taiwan, it is difficult to maintain fresh storage quality at room temperature. Because of physiological and biochemical characteristics of jujube fruit are easy to turn up  post-harvest dehydration shrinkage, senescence, softening, Vitamin C content reduced,and so on. In order to study and utilize the high quality and storability of fresh jujube fruit, different storage temperature and maturity and ethylene treatments were investigated.  In order to promote the development and utilization of fresh jujube fruit, the objectives of this study were to help overcome these limitations for transport and storage of Chinese jujube in Taiwan.<strong>Studies on postharvest technology of Abiu for storage and transport</strong>Abiu fruit is difficult for storage. It is only 4 days shelf life at room temperature. Under different low temperature storage, chilling injury  usually induced browning of peel and water-soaking of flesh. Establishing and developing easy and efficult processing flow for the pre-cooling of Abiu for export, and improve export operation process and pre-cooling technology. Focused on the research of Abiu crush injuries. Likewise understand quality change and follow-up exporting operations to avoid quality loss.<strong>Selection of New Litchi varieties of High Shipping Quality Suitable for Export and Improvement of Orchard-side Primary Handling Shed Operation to Preserve Fruit Freshness.</strong>Selection of New Litchi varieties of High Shipping Quality Suitable for Export and Improvement of Orchard-side Primary Handling Shed Operation to Preserve Fruit Freshness. The goal of this project is to select new litchi varieties which have longer shipping life than current export varieties ‘Hey-yeh’ or ‘ Y u h o - b o w ’ a n d t o i m p r o v e t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f a p p l y i n g n e w l y developed orchard-side primary handling shed to further enhance the shipping life of the newly selected varieties. The shipping quality of each of the 7 newly released varieties, ‘Tainun No. 1’through‘Tainung No. 7’, will be evaluated. Only those having long shipping life span qualities for further studies. Suitable harvesting hours of the day, acceptable time elapse period harvest and arrival to the primary handling shed, and other requirements of handling the fruit in cooling and out the shed will be studied. Further improvement in the cooling efficiency of the shed may be studied. Tolerable time spam of the fruit being kept in the shed before being transported to the main packing house without significant quality deterioration will also be studied. Finally, sizable fruit samples of the selected varieties will be harvested of the right hours, transported to the laboratory to receive simulated export packaging and shipping. Fruit samples will be periodically evaluated for condition and quality to verify the expected results.<strong>Innovative Research of pear and grape in south of Taiwan.</strong>An early matured Asian pear demo orchard at Hengchun county will be setup to expand production techniques, improve growers’ income, and establish export market. The harvest period of Taiwan pear can be advanced for 1 month from late March to late April. Early Spring grape production system at Southern Taiwan by using geographical advantages of mild winter can advance local harvest period from March to May. Protected cultivation system with light and heat adjustment can fit the phenology of temperate fruit crops to shorten fruit development, to improve fruit quality, and to decrease pesticide use. Combining flower forcing techniques can synchronize full bloom date to control fruit quality.<strong>Improving Fruit Quality of Ponkan Mandarin</strong>    Granulation is a common physiological disorder in citrus fruit, leading to a reduction in fruit juice rate and poor quality. The causes are related to varieties, climatic conditions and cultivation management. Recently, climate change is expected to affect temperature and rainfall patterns, which may cause to change fertilizer absorption and utilization, increasing the proportion of granulated fruits in Ponkan. This project intends to explore the appropriate application rate and time of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, increase the sugar content, acidity and fruit juice rate, reduce the appearance of granulated fruits and stabilize the quality of Ponkan.<strong>Study on Quality Improvement Techniques of Peach in Northern Taiwan</strong>This plan is to respond to the meteorological change and establish corresponding cultivation techniques to improve the quality of peaches. This year,  various chemical treatments and irrigation methods in spring were carried out to promote early flowering of peaches.<strong>Develop the Cultivation Technique for Stable Production of Important Fruit Trees in Central Taiwan</strong>Grapes, mango and guava are important economic fruit trees in central Taiwan. Although the cultivation and management technology has matured and developed a variety of off-season models for the production period. In recent years, the production area has been affected by micro-climate due to climate change. The problem that grape production is poor coloring and unstable quality. The experiment used a leaf area meter to investigate the leaf area index of &zwsp;&zwsp;the results, and explored the correlation between the LAI and yield and quality of the Kyoho grapes in subtropical area. Mango production has caused skin peel problems that affect mango production and farmers' income. Therefore, leaf calcium fertilizer and rain isolation facilities are used to perform fruit quality improvement tests. Although the red meat guava is not a mainstream variety in Taiwan, it is very common in the Americas and some Asian countries. The ripe pulp of watermelon pull-up fruit is crisp and non-climacteric, but the quality of watermelon pull-out is poor in summer, the total soluble solids content is reduced, the pulp is thinned, the fruit color is dim, and the harvest quality difference is large. Improve the quality of fruit consumption, storage and transportation.<strong>Inventory and Analysis of the Competitiveness of Production and Marketing Supply Chain of Important Fruits in Taiwan</strong>In this research, we plan to hold two field seminars about important fruit production and marketing supply chains or digital tools application to the industry, to strengthen the links of information among industry, government and academia. Through the methods of questionnaire surveys, and field visits etc., we explore main fruit production and marketing problems actively, and make an inventory of key technologies and gaps in the supply chains of important fruits. In addition, we introduce a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) survey of key technologies to understand the current status and bottlenecks of important fruit technologies, and propose immediate counseling program for the industry and future research directions.<strong>Study on the improvement of the cultivation technology of wentan pomelo and pitaya.</strong>Wentan pomelo is the most important fruit tree in Hualien county. The purpose of this project is to improve cultivation technique of wentan pomelo by PGRs foliar fertilization during fruit development stage, and including the effect of wentan pomelo flower thinning and cultivation technique improvement of pitaya. It is expected that the cultivatural technique could improve the further development of fruit industry in Hualien area.<strong>Study on Quality Improvement of Wax Apple and Guava in Yilan Area</strong>The wax apple produced by forcing culture techniques in Yilan are often suffered chilling injury at flower bud emergence stage and anthesis stage, which cause flower bud withered, flower abscission, flower injury, calyx cracked and leaf damage. High temperature and large amount of rains during the fruit developmental stages lead to fruit splitting. This study aims to reduce the chilling injury by constructing windbreak net and simple facility before chilling occurrence, and reduce the percentage of the fruit splitting by treating with simple facility and shading net. Overall, these protection methods will ensure the yields of farmers.‘Jong Shan Yueh Ba’ guava (<em>Psidium guajava</em> L.) is the climacteric cultivar with developmental potential in Yilan County. The training and pruning system practiced by farmers is heavy pruning and natural form, which often lead the harvest to concentrate highly in the same period and weaken the tree vigor early. This study aims to maintain the tree vigor by moderate pruning with open center training. The time of pruning is delayed by one month compared with farmers', so that the production period is extended to October to spread the production and marketing risks. For improving the fruit quality, fruti thinning is practiced before bagging, only one or two fruit preserved per fruiting shoot. <strong>Study on Promoting the Competitiveness of Economic Fruit Tree in Taitung Region</strong>In order to strengthen the production technology of fruit trees in Taitung area , this project focuses on the research of cultivation and post-harvest processing technology for characteristic fruit trees. The experiment intends to explore the influence of the remaining winter fruit number of soursops on the harvest season to adjust the off-season production period. The non-destructive audio analysis methods will be used to test the maturity of the atemoya fruit, and it can be apply to predict the shelf life and stabilize the quality of processing. The relevant results can lay the foundation for future research and provide practical applications for farmers.<strong>Studies on the crucial cultivation techniques for fruit crops and the link between production and marketing</strong>This study aims to explore the high quality fruits, off-season production, determine functional components, and long-term storage technique through improving cultivation techniques and extending shelf life. A total of 7 projects are granted and focus on fruit tree physiology, cultivation, breeding and post-harvest handling, as followering1.Pomelo Furocoumarins Identification and Analysis of Healthy Nutrition    Furanocoumarin is a secondary metabolite in citrus fruits and is one of the subclasses of organic compounds. It has a variety of physiological functions, and may interact with human metabolic syndrome drugs to affect drugs' efficacy and lead to patient discomfort. Many international studies have confirmed that grapefruit contains a large amount of furanocoumarin, which may affect drug metabolism. Consumers are prone to think that pomelo may have the similar effect which results in food safety concerns. In order to address consumers' concerns regarding the safety of pomelo in Taiwan, following the results of the previous year,  furanocoumarin composition and content, nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity will be analyzed  in different varieties of pomelo and grapefruit. Furthermore, furanocoumarin composition and content, nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity will be analyzed in Wendan pomelo harvested at different production areas, times, and maturity. Then, the difference between Taiwan pomelo and grapefruit, and the species and variety differences will be clarified. Through correlation analysis between furocoumarins in Wendan pomelo and climatic conditions in the production, harvesting time and harvesting maturity, a method for reducing of Wendan pomelo furocoumarins in will be induced.    The main consumption of Pomelo in Taiwan is during the Mid-Autumn Festival. Pomelo production period in Taiwan is concentrated at 1-2 months before and after the Mid-Autumn Festival. The price fluctation is extremely large around the Mid-Autumn Festival. Overproduction results in oversupply in the market is oten seen in Taiwan. This study aims to analyze the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of pomelo and grapefruit in Taiwan, and use the data thus obtained to make a  nutrition leaflet for pomelo in Taiwan, to promote the nutritional value of  pomelo inTaiwan, to increase consumers' knowledge about the nutritional content of pomelo in Taiwan and their willingness to purchase, to increase the added value of pomelo in Taiwan, to increase pomelo export, to establish the processes of pomelo storage and transport, and to regulate market supply and demand of pomelo in Taiwan.2.Developing technique for browning prevention of sugar apple  Sugar apple (<em>Annona squamosa</em>) is a climacteric fruit, and its fruit becomes the best taste and texture for consumption after ripeness. It has a very short storage life at room temperature due to quick ripening. Besides this, the fruit is chilling-sensitive and easily shows chilling injury symptoms such as browning symptom of peel surface during transport and storage which reduce the quality of appearance and commodity value. Preserving freshness is the major limitation during transportation and storage. Therefore, in order to extend the economic benefits and storage time, ripening treatment, blanching treatment, and vacuum packaging is used to prevent peels from browning before frozen processing. The ripening treatment can cause uniform ripening, and then the blanching treatment is used to prevent peels from browning. With vacuum packaging, the frozen sugar apples treated with these steps can be storage at -20°C for six months and still can keep bright green. The browning process and organoleptic evaluation will be recorded. The quality of sugar apples will be improved by regulating maturity and processing. Therefore, this postharvest process not only regulates production and marketing but also enhances the purchase intention of consumers.3. Reduction of splitting on 'Murcott' tangor  This experiment aimed to investigate the splitting on ‘Murcott’ tangor  at Chiayi by application the GA3, CPPU, seaweed extracts, and calcium. The treatments will be applied on 3,7, and 13 week after anthesis (WAA), and the fruit drop ratio, splitting ratio, fruit quality will be investigated and recorded for future study. 4.Growth Investigation and Trial Evaluation of Emerging Citrus cultivars  This experiment focuses on the investigation of the growth phenology, biological characteristics, and fruit quality of emerging citrus varieties cultivated in Taiwan as well as to establish the basic cultivation data for the reference of the industry. In addition, to record the detail of plant growth status, a new strain area will be established to investigate the growth habits of these young trees, and set up a pruning model in the future. This year, we will investigate the application of plant growth regulator to improve the fruit setting.5.Study on reducing translucency disorder of pineapple fruit.   According to the statistics of the International FAO in 2017, Taiwan ’s pineapple production ranks seventh in the global annual output ranking, and fresh fruit exports rank 14th. Therefore, the high temperature and rain of fruits in summer tends to increase the ratio of flesh to fruit; The translucency disorder is not resistant to storage and transportation, and is liable to cause rot and is not conducive to export. According to the 2020 test results, appropriate spraying of fulvic acid fermentation mixture (lignin) and defoliation treatment can effectively reduce the translucency disorder fruit and improve the rate of drumming fruit which is resistant to storage and transportation. According to the 2020test results, from full bloom to fruit ripening, fulvic acid fermentation mixture (lignin) was sprayed 4 times for 45 days from full bloom to fruit maturity; the drumming fruit rate of leaves removal treatment was 32% higher than that of untreated ones at 3 months before harvest + 2 months before harvest. According to most literatures, the treatment of calcium and boron at the flower bud stage or young fruit stage can reduce the rate of water soaked fruit. Therefore, the combination of calcium, boron and potassium application, fulvic acid fermentation mixture (lignin) and defoliation treatment combined with calcium, boron and potassium treatment is expected to reduce the rate of water soaked fruit and improve the rate of drumming fruit for export.6.Studies on Application of Atmosphere Modification Technology for Postharvest Handling and Transportation of Papaya Fruit  Papaya (<em>Carica papaya</em> L.) is a climacteric tropical fruit with highly perishable and chilling-sensitive features, resulting in short postharvest life which are obstacles for international marketing.  This proposal will investigate the effect of 2 fruit scale-modified atmosphere packaging with various film thickness, micro-perforated film, addition of CO<SUB>2</SUB> and ethylene scrubbers on storability and quality of ‘Tainong No. 2’papaya fruit at 12℃ for 2 to 4 weeks, respectively. The data will be used as the base of film selection and technique development of commercial modified atmosphere packaging in papaya.  The results of this project will be beneficial for prolonging postharvest life of papaya, which is actually the bottle neck of its export.7.Characterization and improvement of flowering and fruiting in‘Tainon No. 7- Early Big’ litchi  'Tainon No. 7-Early Big' litchi, which has been released by TARI in 2010, is an early maturing cultivar that is prone to flower because of low cooling temperature requirements to initiate flower bud. It is generally rich in fruit production with large size and regular yield. In addition, it has the potential to be cultivated under the increased warming winter in Taiwan resulted from global climate change recently. However, in recent years, occurrences of two or three waves of female flower (F) within single inflorescence has been found and thus resulted in coexistence of heterozygous maturing fruits in a cluster, causing problems in orchard management during flowering and fruiting period, but little is known. In this study, 8-year-old field grown plants were used to conduct the experiments. The proportions of two or three waves of F of an inflorescence within a plant or plants within a orchard, were investigated. F number, fruit set, developmental period required for growth, cluster yield and fruit characteristic in a coexistence fruits cluster were compared with that of fruits derived from the single F wave cluster, and the interactive effects of the coexistence fruits mentioned above were analyzed. Finally, the influencing factors and possible mechanisms of coexistence of F waves were documented. And thus, cultural techniques to remove 2<SUP>nd</SUP> wave of F when heavy bearing is observed in F, or to induce 2<SUP>nd</SUP> wave of <SUP> </SUP>F when poor bearing is observed in 1<SUP>st </SUP>wave of F dependong on fruiting status, could be developed accordingly. From the results we acquire, an ideal orchard cultivation and management strategy during the flowering and fruiting period might be obtained to raise the cluster yield in litchi in the future.<strong>Study on quality improvement and utilization technology of pineapple, litchi and wentan pomelo</strong>    The three objectives of this project are pineapple, litchi and wentan pomelo. The production period of pineapple is concentrated from March to July, the litchi production period is concentrated from May to July, and the wentan pomelo production period is concentrated from the end of August to October. When too much fruits were sent to the market, it is difficult for the market to digest it. Under this circumstances, imbalance between production and sales occur, and the collapse of prices will damage farmers' income. In addition to production and marketing issues, there are still many industrial problems to be discovered and resolved. For example, the impact of climate change in recent years has also affected yield and fruit quality, including the decline in pineapple quality during the rainy season (increased meat-sound fruit ratio); warm winter and spring drought reduce litchi's bloom and production; the production and fruit quality of wentan pomelo is damaged by typhoon easily. Exporting is one of the feasible ways to solve the problem of imbalance in production and sales. For example, export litchi and pineapple to Australia. This project reinforce the research breaches related to the export to Australia. However, for successful export, the relevant agencies must work together on the policy side. At the same time, this project is expected to set up three team for each crops, and invite researchers from related research fields such as breeding, cultivation, plant protection, and post-harvest treatment to participate. The team will hold the industrial field visits to explore industry issues and help solving the problem.  <strong>Research on the Improvement of the Annual Production Fruit Tree Industry</strong>Pitaya, guava and banana are easy to produce imbalances in production and sales. The fruit season is from April to August every year. The large output often causes low prices or slow sales. The purpose of annual production can be achieved by the production adjustment technology. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the output during the abundance period through counseling. At present, the three products have technical service groups, exporting fruit storage and transportation technical service groups, etc., which can be immediately integrated into the counseling team and operate. Strengthen the interaction between industry teams and industry and team organizations, discover new problems from the perspective of industrial coaching, quickly utilize team resources, and eliminate problems in a centralized and efficient manner.<strong>Development of Sulfur-Free Processing Technology of Dried Persimmon</strong>The existing persimmons are sulfur-treated when they are made. Sulfur treatment methods can be divided into sulfur fumigation and sulfite solution soaking. The purpose is to brighten the surface of persimmon and inhibit the growth of microorganisms, so that the product has sufficient time to deastringify and convert internal sugar. However, at present, sulfur dioxide has been designated as one of the food allergens in Taiwan. Therefore, the goal of this research is to make high-quality persimmons without using sulfur treatment, without seriously affecting its appearance and taste, providing consumers with new choices, solving problems related to excessive additions and finding suppliers of legal food additives, and increasing added economic value.<strong>Postharvest techniques improvement of important fruit crops in Tainan District</strong>Three major research topics are involved in this project: (1) To solve the poor degreening issue on 'Matou Wentan' (Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. 'Matou Wentan'), ethylene-related treatments coupled with appropriate storage conditions will be applied to promote the quality including discoloration and increase the marketable value. (2) ' Matou Hongyu ', as a promising pumelo cultivar, lacks the information on harvest index and quality details during maturation. Therefore, the investigation on the quality changes at different harvest and the corresponding storage methods will be conducted to develop the SOP for farmers as a reference. (3) To boost the development of green papaya industry, the value chain analysis on the current green papaya production will be conducted. Quality grading standards and harvest index will also be refined to meet the demand of fresh market.<strong>Cultural practice techniques improvement of important fruit trees in Tainan district</strong>This project includes three topics, 'Matou Wentan' (<em>Citrus grandis</em> Osbeck cv. 'Matou Wentan'), ‘Irwin’ mango and longan. In this study, we will investigate the affection of the fruiting shoot selection, inflorescences thinning and fruit setting percentage on pomelo fruits quality. The cultivation technical on shoot prunning and inflorescences thinning will be established and extend to grower to improve the fruit quality and yield. In order to know the reason of injury (yellow spots on peel or peel browning) of ‘Irwin’ mango, various kinds of pesticide and bagging methods will be tested in this study. Longan is a production of low-cost and less pesticides use. It is prone to alternate bearing due to lacks of cultivation management. This experiment aims to reduce shooting in winter and to prevent alternate bearing used by flower thining and plant growth regulators to stabilize the longan production.<strong>Atemoya Exported to Malaysia and Singapore for Storage Technology Development</strong>The project is in order to establish the storage technology for export atemoya to Malaysia or Singapore. The research was using different carbon dioxide absorbent and ethylene inhibitor, and investigated fruit quality. We hope to help exporters to new market, and disperse the risk of atemoya export concentration..
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