重要作物綜合管理策略之應用技術開發

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計畫名稱: 重要作物綜合管理策略之應用技術開發
計畫主持人: 林鳳琪
共同計畫主持人: 郝秀花;陳純葳;林秀橤;黃莉欣;陳巧燕;蘇秋竹;周浩平;王強生;湯佳蓉;呂柏寬;沈偉強;黃棨揚;呂昀陞;戴肇鋒;邱明賜;許飛霜;林育聖;許晴情;鍾嘉綾;廖君達;莊國鴻;洪挺軒;蔡孟旅;彭慧美;黃守宏;許北辰;王智屏;曹麗玉;彭瑞菊;蔡蕣隍;賴信順;林立;潘宣任;劉亭君;江明耀;顏聖紘;許育慈;蔡志濃;董耀仁;余志儒;賴柏羽;陳明吟;陳正恩;曾敏南;陳泰元;陳怡如;陳明昭;黃毓斌
計畫編號: 110農科-5.3.2-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所應用動物組
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 水稻;rice;稻熱病;rice blast disease;稻熱病菌;Magnaporthe oryzae;徒長病;bakanae disease;徒長病菌;Fusarium fujikuroi;分子育種;molecular breeding;疊氮化鈉;sodium azide;稻熱病;Magnaporthe oryzae;生理小種;physiological race;Pot2親緣譜系分析;Pot2 rep-PCR phylogenetic analysis;無毒基因;AVR genes;族群演化;population evolution;監測技術;surveillance technique;白葉枯病;bacterial blight disease;紋枯病;sheath blight disease;抗性品種;resistance variety;育種;breeding;鳳梨釋迦;Atemoya (A. squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill.);番荔枝屬; Annona spp.;衰弱病;decline;植物菌質體;Phytoplasma;病原鑑定;pathogen-identification;防治;control;柑橘;citrus;系統性病害;systemic diseases;柑橘黃龍病;citrus huanglongbing (HLB);整合性防治;integrated pest management;族群遺傳學;population genetics;作物損害評估;crop damage estimation;族群監測;population monitoring;番茄潛旋蛾;絕對總數;茄科蔬菜;solanaceous vegetables;病毒病;virus disease;苦瓜;Momordica charantia;苦瓜萎凋病;Fusarium wilt of bitter gourd;殺蟲劑;Insecticide;薊馬;Thrip;棗;Indian Jujube;防治;Contol;害蟲;pest;番石榴;guava;有害生物;pest;農藥;pesticides;秋行軍蟲;fall armyworm;性費洛蒙;sex pheromone;陷阱;trap;防治策略;control stretgies;安全用藥;Safe chemicals;非化學合成資材;Non-synthetic materials;病蟲害整合管理;Integrated pest management;甜瓜;Sweet melon;病害;disease;蟲害;pest;整合性管理;integrated pest management;蓮霧;wax apple;薊馬;thrips;粉蝨;whitefly;病媒昆蟲;vector insect;綜合防治;integreated pest manergement;水稻害蟲;rice insect pest;天敵;natural enemy;醇類誘引器;alcohol-based trap;咖啡果小蠹;coffee berry borer;監測;monitoring;褐斑病;Bubble disease;洋菇;Agaricus bisporus;黑翅蕈蚋科;Sciaridae;粉蟎科;Acaridae;木耳;Aricularia polytricha;虎皮菇;Polyporus squamosus;食真菌性線蟲;Fungivorus nematode;香菇;Lentinula edodes;草菇;Volvariella volvacea;梨葉緣焦枯病菌;Xylella taiwanensis;定量即時聚合酶連鎖反應;Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction;替代性寄主植物;altarnative host;入侵植物;invasive plant;外來植物;alien plant;農田雜草;farmland weeds;雜草管理;weed management;菸草粉蝨B型(銀葉粉蝨);Bemisia tabaci biotype B (silverleaf whitefly);瓜類褪綠黃化病毒;Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus;葫蘆科作物;Cucurbitaceae;吸果夜蛾;fruit-piercing moths (FPMs);燈光驅避;Light repellent;綠斑枯葉裳蛾;Eudocima okurai;葡萄;grape;真菌性病害;fungal diseases;病害管理;diseases managements;晚腐病;grape ripe rot;害蟲;insect pests;植物源殺蟲劑;botanical insecticides;胡蘿蔔;carrot;玉米;maize;玉米褪綠斑駁病毒;Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus, MCMV;玉米薊馬;Frankliniella williamsi;秋行軍蟲;Spodoptera frugiperda;白絹病;Southern blight;生物防治;Biological control;根瘤線蟲;Root knot nematode;非農藥防治;Non-pesticide control;有害生物綜合管理;Integrated Pest Management (IPM);土壤太陽能消毒;Soil solarization;化學農藥;Chemical pesticide;土壤傳播性病害;Soil-borne diseases;採收期病害;Harvest Diseases;窄胸天牛;Philus antennatus;秋行軍蟲;Fall army worm;文旦;Pomelo;龍鬚菜;Gracilaria;番石榴;Guava;韭菜;Chives;番荔枝;Annona squamosa Linn.;鳳梨釋迦;Annona hybrida;葉蟎;spider mite;害物整合管理;intergrated pest management(IPM);捕植蟎;Phytoseiidae;粉介殼蟲;mealybugs;水稻;Rice;稻熱病;Rice blast;生物防治;Biocontrol;徒長病;Bakanae disease;紋枯病;Sheath blight;胡麻葉枯病;Brown spot;白葉枯病;Bacteria leaf blight of rice;秧苗立枯病;Seedling blight in nursery boxes;免登記植物保護資材;free registered plant protection material;茶赤葉枯病;tea brown blight;蟲害;harming insects
摘要: 細部計畫0:重要作物病蟲害綜合管理技術之研發與應用 茄科蔬菜重要病毒病害診斷與整合性防治:本年度主要工作為調查番茄重要病毒田間發生種類,針對番茄嵌紋病毒ToMV進行病毒主要傳播特性(帶毒蟲數、接種時間、接種溫度)之探討,配合以抗血清進行病毒檢測;進行化學藥劑及非農藥防治資材對於媒介昆蟲-蚜蟲及粉蝨防治效果評估,待建立媒介昆蟲傳播病毒的生態資料後,做為擬定整合性防治的參考。 苦瓜病蟲害整合性防治:藉由調查苦瓜田間病害、篩選出抗萎凋病的苦瓜品種、評估藥劑對苦瓜上薊馬的防治效果及醱酵土壤有益微生物,預期建立苦瓜病蟲害整合性管理模式,增加農民收益之目的。 不同品種棗上主要害蟲田間生態及整合性防治研究:針對不同品種棗上的害蟲相資料必須建立。害蟲中薊馬類的小黃薊馬已普遍在多種果樹上發生嚴重,影響到水果之品質及產量。本計畫擬選擇南部不同品種的棗園為調查對象,以黃色粘紙調查害蟲種類及發生消長,另評估農藥與非農藥防治對主要害蟲的效果,供農民防治適期之參考。 外銷番石榴病蟲害整合管理模式:危害番石榴生長的病害,包括10種真菌病害,1種線蟲病害,經由測試國內、美國、加拿大之推薦藥劑防治效果,確立該藥劑可作為符合番石榴果實果實外銷之病害防治資材,作為外銷果實安全生產的使用參考;另外測試市售微生物資材的有效性及開發能降低番石榴果腐率之非農藥防治資材。。預期效益為使外銷番石榴能符合美國及加拿大的農藥殘留標準。 秋行軍蟲成蟲誘捕技術優化研究:本計畫擬開發適用於本地之秋行軍蟲性費洛蒙誘引劑配方,並評估誘引器材誘捕效力,建立經濟有效之秋行軍蟲成蟲誘捕技術。以有效監控秋行軍蟲疫情,提供農作物保護之有力工具,降低經濟損失。 外銷蔬果產區安全用藥及防治策略研究:依照外銷蔬果安全用藥策略進行,合理化施用農藥施用量,研擬荔枝外銷蔬果集團產區,制定安全用藥策略及蟲害防治曆,降低農藥殘留及檢疫風險。 設施蔬果病蟲害整合管理策略之應用:本年度以甜瓜為對象,整合各相關專業領域的人才及其研究成果,針對主要病蟲害,研擬可用非化學合成資材(非農藥)之應用技術,。以策略性運應非農藥資材與田間管理為主軸,並在配合監測病、蟲的狀況,適時地掌握並調整防治措施,以印證生產甜瓜可以不使用化學合成農藥是可行的。 重要熱帶果樹病蟲害安全用藥及整合性管理策略-蓮霧:目前病蟲害防治的研究導向,多以研發安全且有效的非農藥防治方法為主。本研究目的為建立蓮霧病蟲害整合管理技術,配合非化學農藥防治病蟲害方法,生產安全之蓮霧果品。 強化傳播蔬果病毒之媒介害蟲綜合管理技術之研發與應用: 探討溫度對花胡瓜上媒介病毒之銀葉粉蝨與南黃薊馬發育與族群介量之影響,及其傳播雙生病毒與番茄斑萎病毒對花胡瓜產量損失之關係,並導入智慧及新穎性監測系監測害蟲發生程度等,建構其綜合管理技術及其經濟效益評估。 強化水稻害蟲天敵防治效能之研究:由於人類為了提高作物產量與品質,大量使用化學藥劑所帶來環境汙染及危害人體健康等問題,然而害蟲為害並不因為藥劑使用而減少,反而造成抗藥性及害蟲再猖獗等情況。害蟲有許多天敵存在於自然界中,對害蟲族群抑制具有防治效力,計畫目標研究創造及提供適於天敵棲息與繁衍之水稻環境,增強水稻害蟲天敵之生物防治效能。 咖啡果小蠹發生生態與生物合理性農藥防治研究:目前國外發現多種的天敵可用於作為咖啡果小蠹的生物防治,因此亦調查探討台灣地區咖啡果小蠹的天敵,期盼以天敵進行咖啡果小蠹的生物防治。此外對於咖啡果小蠹的田間其他寄主進行調查,以作為田間耕作防治之參考。 旗艦作物-菇類有害生物防治技術研發及安全生產體管理模式研究:食用菇類是國內重要的經濟作物,年產值已逾120億元,木耳及洋菇之病害發生也更趨嚴重,。本計畫擬針對太空包栽培之木耳病害進行調查,分離並鑑定相關木耳 有害病原菌,以釐清病原菌之種類,調查洋菇的病害,並分離與鑑定洋菇的病原菌 ,再進一步研發各種病原菌之防治策略,以降低此些病原菌對木耳與洋菇產量與品 質之損失。台灣菇類害蟲、害蟎研究已停滯近40年,對於菇類害蟲、害蟎與線蟲進 行調查及建立相應防治技術。 農作物關鍵害物之發生生態與防治管理策略 侷限導管細菌生態學及快速檢測技術應用之研究:侷限導管細菌(Xylella fastidiosa)危害寄主植物後至病徵呈現需經過一段較長的時間,藉由媒介昆蟲的傳播而擴散。且時至今日 Xyl. fastidiosa 並無合適的化學防治藥劑,因此 Xyl. fastidiosa 對臺灣葡萄與梨樹產業而言是一個嚴重的危害因子。 蟲媒煙草粉蝨防治策略對criniviruses發生率的影響:Crinivirus屬為一新興植物病毒,目前臺灣國內紀錄者有番茄褪綠病毒(Tomato chlorosis virus, ToCV) 及瓜類褪綠黃化病毒(Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, CCYV),皆透過煙草粉蝨B型進行傳染,建立台灣之CCYV常見危害的葫蘆科種類。針對各類型粉蝨防治資材,測試其對防治病毒之效益。 台灣農地雜草監測及整合管理技術建立:近年來在除草劑高度使用,使少數對藥劑忍受力高而繁殖力強之植物形成強勢物種,而進口農產品造成外來植物的入侵,農地上發生之外來草已超過130種。擬對農地重要雜草與外來植物之難防雜草,提供雜草防治策略,降低雜草對作物產量與品質危害,及減少農民用藥不當現象,並作為田間雜草整合管理技術的參考。 北部地區水蜜桃吸果夜蛾種類調查及防治技術開發:近年桃園市復興區上巴陵及新竹縣尖石鄉水蜜桃果農反應水蜜桃成熟期遭吸果夜蛾(fruit-piercing moths, FPMs)穿刺套袋刺吸造成傷口,引起果實腐爛。極需進行水蜜桃吸果夜蛾危害種類及發生現況調查,並開發吸果夜蛾防治技術。本計畫擬釐清北部地區水蜜桃吸果夜蛾危害種類及發生現況,評估現行防治方法,並開發吸果夜蛾物理性防治技術,解決水蜜桃成熟期受吸果夜蛾刺吸問題,增加水蜜桃產量及提高水蜜桃果農收益,達到水蜜桃吸果夜蛾危害率由30%降低至10%。 中部地區重要經濟作物(水稻、葡萄)有害生物整合性防疫技術之研發及應用:針對葡萄及水稻為重點研究作物,分別依(一)葡萄真菌性病害及葡萄共存微生物之鑑定與管理策略;(二)植物源殺蟲劑對水稻重要害蟲防治效果評估。將著重在(一)葡萄未知或新興真菌性病害;(二)水稻重要害蟲防治效果來加以研究分析,盼能釐清(1)葡萄新興病害與其管理策略;(2)開發與評估植物資材作為水稻害蟲殺蟲劑之效果。 玉米及胡蘿蔔重要病蟲害整合性防治:胡蘿蔔主要栽培地區為彰化、雲林,臺南,履見其藥檢不合格報告,本計畫將進一步發展胡蘿蔔之病蟲害管理技術,導入應用於慣行或有機栽培之胡蘿蔔產業,防治白粉病、白絹病及夜蛾類害蟲等。秋行軍蟲2019年入侵台灣,嚴重危害可破壞植株生長點,玉米螟經常發生於輪生後期。因甜玉米可能因頻繁藥劑防治而有殘留問題,本研究擬以農藥賜諾特、蘇力菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)混合油劑防治甜玉米之苗期、輪生初期、輪生後期之玉米薊馬、MCMV、秋行軍蟲、玉米螟,評估防治成效。 高屏地區重要作物有害生物綜合管理技術之研發與應用:本計畫將建立高屏地區重要經濟果樹對於好發性及突發性疫病蟲害疫情監測、損害評估與預警系統 。本計畫同時將加強本區東方果實蠅區域防治之示範、推廣與成效評估。此外,亦探討現行各類果樹重要疫病蟲害推薦藥劑之成效與防治時機之相關性,改善田間防治效率。此外,針對瓜類與茄科作物,盤點與彙整植物保護防治資材,提供給農友防治藥劑選用的參考與依據,同時並結合栽培技術改進、化學農藥、非農藥資材與生物防治等方式,預期控制關鍵病害疫情發生,減少農友對傳統化學農藥的依賴,達成病害綜合管理(Integrated Pest Management)之目標。 花蓮地區作物病蟲害防治技術開發:將篩選粉蝨防治資材以降低病毒病;文旦窄胸天牛及薊馬試驗持續以木板及燈光誘集窄胸天牛做密度監測;玉米秋行軍蟲以赤眼卵寄生蜂防治已初具成效,為因應轄區有機及友善農業需要,將開發有機防治技術;西寶地區甘藍黃葉病擬以土壤添加物處理方式,嘗試減少病害之發生;番石榴果實病害之非化學農藥防治資材感受性測試,除了炭疽病之外,也將測試黑星病及瘡痂病之效果。在新興病害部分,將針對韭菜白斑病釐清其病因。開發新的拮抗菌防治資材,將有助於解決更多病蟲害問題。 臺東地區番荔枝重要蟲害監測與防治之研究:本試驗調查番荔枝及鳳梨釋迦葉蟎種類消長資訊,並篩選非化學農藥防治資材,擬定防治策略,建立番荔枝葉蟎整合管理模式,減少化學農藥使用。 同時調查鳳梨釋迦粉介殼蟲及薊馬發生情形,了解病害好發的時期、氣候等資訊。 臺東地區水稻重要病蟲害防治技術之研究與推廣:水稻為臺東地區重要產業,因此在栽培管理及防治病蟲害農藥使用上必須有良好的 操作模式,以確保產量與品質。為協助農民,提供有效水稻重要病蟲害之防治技術 ,本計畫擬建立最適栽培模式以降低病蟲害發生,作為管理初步手段;篩選植保手 冊推薦之有效藥劑,及最適防治時機,達到對症下藥農藥減量;開發非農藥防治方 法及資材,供農民參考使用,擴增有機水稻栽培面積。 免登記植物保護資材整合應用防治茶樹病蟲害之研究:因應對化學農藥減少使用之需求,及維持產量之目的,近年來朝向以對環境較為友善之資材進行作物病蟲害防治,於104年起政府更公告免登記植物保護資材,以供農友取代化學藥劑之參考,而為有效發揮免登記植物保護資材於茶樹病蟲害防治之效果,本年度計畫擬針對公告資材種類,包括碳酸鈣及無患子油等資材進行對茶樹病蟲害實驗室防治效果評估,進而進行田間試驗以建立施用技術,以推廣至友善有機管理茶園使用,達到生產更安全茶菁、保護生產者與消費者健康,以及保護環境之目標。 重要作物病蟲害鑑定、發病生態與防治方法研究: 應用多系品種與基因堆疊技術提升臺灣栽培稻之持久抗病性:為因應稻熱病菌族群 Avr genes 之快速演化,持續選育本土水稻抗性品系。近年來臺灣及其他國家均有徒長病發生嚴重及抗藥性菌株之報導,由於在藥劑防治上存在隱憂,值得開發抗性品種以輔助防疫。本計畫預定進行高雄145號多系品種田間混植評估,選育帶有多個抗病基因之堆疊品種,並持續尋找新穎稻熱病及徒長病之抗性基因座,開發分子標誌,運用於分子抗性育種。 臺灣地區稻熱病菌生理小種族群監測及快速檢測技術之開發:抗病品種的培育與栽種,但由於田間稻熱病菌族群複雜,並且快速地變異與演替,單一抗病水稻品種的大面積商業化種植,田間抗性往往無法長久維持,而當環境及氣候因子適合時,常造成病害的大面積流行及嚴重的損失。因此,抗病品種的培育、種植與推廣,以及田間抗性的維持,皆有賴田間稻熱病菌族群生理小種的掌握與監控,以及對病原族群演化機制的瞭解。 水稻白葉枯病與紋枯病雙重抗性品種之選育:水稻紋枯病與白葉枯病是目前對水稻最具破壞性的兩種病害,育成具有多種病害抗性之水稻品種,是為有效、經濟、而且環保的策略。本計畫預計將紋枯病抗性基因型,以雜交、回交及分子標誌輔助選拔,導入近期已申請品種權之優良抗白葉枯病品系(興大9號及興大11號),以育成抗紋枯病與白葉枯病的雙重抗病品系,未來新育成的紋枯病與白葉枯病之雙抗水稻品系,除可增進台灣糧食安全,增加農戶收入,並可提供優良遺傳資源做為抗病育種之依據。 新發現的鳳梨釋迦衰弱病之病原鑑定、發病生態與防治方法研究:106年開始,臺東縣卑南鄉的鳳梨釋迦果園驗出有植物菌質體 (Phytoplasma) 感染,但詳細的鑑定工作尚待完成。植物菌質體引起的病害可藉由媒介昆蟲傳播而成為流行病,且會造成植株矮化、衰弱,影響鳳梨釋迦果實生產的質量甚鉅,必須未雨綢繆,不可等閒視之。本計畫擬進一步完成詳細的病原鑑定工作,建立更高專一性與敏感性的病原PCR檢測技術,釐清其發病與傳播生態,進而研擬一套完善的防治策略,將此病之危害降到最低,保護臺灣鳳梨釋迦的產業發展。 具市場潛力之柑橘優選新品種對黃龍病之抗感性評估與整合性防治:台灣的柑橘產業一直存在品種多樣性不足、產期集中的問題,容易發生產銷失衡而價格崩跌,造成農民極大損失。臺灣目前已保存逾170個柑橘品種,也積極進行新品種的選育,其中不乏具市場潛力的優良柑橘新品種,若能從中篩選有特異性狀或風味者,選擇臺灣適當種植地點投入生產,局部取代傳統固定的品種,甚至可發展成地方特色農產品,對於柑橘產業的永續發展助益極大。 番茄潛旋蛾之鑑識、入侵族群溯源與寄主測試:番茄潛旋蛾為全球新興入侵性害蟲,幾乎可取食所有茄科植物,並可能危害十字花科與莧科植物。由於茄科作物與觀賞花卉在台灣皆有一定的栽培面積與產業重要性,因此快速建立鑑識、溯源、分布調查,釐清其基本生態資料及掌握國內分布現況,對產業發展與進出口來說至關重要。本計畫研究工作成果將能釐清目前尚不明朗的狀況,瞭解此入侵害蟲在當地發生之生態族群狀況,以建立基礎資訊。 0:Development and Application of Integrated Pests Management for Important Crops Diagnosis and integrated control of important viral diseases of solanaceous vegetables:Field survey of the occurrence and incidence of virus diseases by symptom inspection and indirect ELISA of solanaceous vegetables in the southern Taiwan. To investigate the difference of virus species and symptoms among the main cultivated species, we collect and identify the virus types of suspected virus-infected strains in the field. This year, we mainly explored the types of tomato important viruses in the field and the main transmission characteristics of tomato mosaic virus ToMV, to study the transmission characteristics of aphids (the number of aphids, inoculation time, inoculation temperature), and detect virus with antiserum. It also evaluates the control effects of chemical insecticides and non-pesticide control materials on vector insects-aphids and whiteflies. After the ecological data on vector insects spreading viruses is established, a reference for integrated control will be based on. Improvement and development of IPM for Momordica charantia:The goal of the project is to establish an integrated pest model of bitter melon for farmers to cultivate. The main works of the project are screening of bitter melon against Fusarium wilt, reducing the risk of pesticide residues in bitter melon, fermenting soil antagonists microorganisms against bitter melon Fusarium wilt and investigating the effects of soil amendment on bitter melon Fusarium wilt. The expected benefit is establishing the integrated pest management of bitter melon. Study on field ecology and integrated control of major pests on different varieties of Indian Jujube:To increase farmers’ income and improve the quality of jujubes, the cultivars of jujube have also been continuously updated in recent years. With early and late ripening varieties, increasing consumer choice, making the harvest time of jujubes that originally only have a two-month production period extended to half a year. To provide farmers with reference for cultivation, the pest information on different varieties of jujube must be established. Among the pests, Scirtothrips dosalis, has been commonly found on many fruit trees. Its population density tends to increase during the flowering and young fruit stages, and has affected the quality and yield of the fruit. This project intends to select jujube orchards of different varieties in the south as the survey object, and use yellow sticky paper to investigate the types of pests and their occurrence and decline. In addition, the effects of pesticide and non-pesticide control on major pests will be evaluated, which can provide farmers with a reference for the appropriate period of control. Integrated pest management model for guava export:The common pests of guava include scale insects, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies, aphids, leafhoppers and oriental fruit flies. Diseases which affect the growth of guava, including 10 fungal diseases, 1 nematode disease, and others are non-infectious plant diseases, thus guava disease are mainly caused by fungal diseases. Guava black spot (Phyllosticta psidiicola), guava anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and guava scab (Pestalotiopsis psidii) are the main disease of guava fruits. As long as there are lesions on the fruit, thereby totally lose its economic value, and it also has a negative impact on the guava export. In order to ensure the quality of exported fruits, the primary goal is to reduce the rate of fruit rot. To date, the information on the guava fruit diseases for fruit supply orchards is not complete. Therefore, to clarify the main diseases of the fruits, it is planned to investigate the orchards planning for export in Taiwan. Till now, only a few recommended pesticides are available for use in black spot and scab diseases. By testing the effects of recommended pesticides in Taiwan, US and Canada, make sure that the pesticides can be used as a disease control material for the guava export. At the same time the post harvest interval is established and it can be a reference for the safe prodution of fruit; Additionally, in order to provide an additional option for guava fruit disease control, the effectiveness of commercially available microbial materials and non-pesticide control agents will be examined to reduce the guava fruit rot rate. The goal of this project is to establish an integrated pest management model for guava export that suittable for export standards and to be a reference for farmers. The expected benefit is to enable the guava exportation to comply with the pesticide residue standards regulated by US and Canada. Study in improve efficiency of trapping technique for male adults of fall armyworm:In recent years, the Fall armyworm have spread rapidly from the Americas to Africa and Asia. It has caused severe damage in many countries. in June 2019, Fall armyworm invasion was first detected in Taiwan, and has been successfully established in few months. In response to monitoring and pest control needs, this project intends to develop a formulation of pheromone attractants suitable for the fall armyworm population and evaluate the effectiveness of the trapping equipment. Then we will try to establish an economical and effective trapping technology for monitoring adult male of fall armyworm to provite a powerful tool for crop protection to reduce economic losses.\ Study on Safety Chemicals and Control Strategies for Export Vegetable and Fruit Producing Areas:According to the strategy of application pesticides for the fruits and vegetables exported standards, rationalized the amounts of application. The project will develop one set standards of operation for the citrus cultivation area to decrease the risk of pesticide residue and quarantine. The utilization of integrated pest management strategy in facilities:Sweet melon is employed in this year. By integrating researchers and their contributions to develop the integrated management technics of available non-syntheses materials (non-chemicals) for the dominant pests. And some useful such materials will be selected for white spot (Sphaerotheca fusca (Fr.) Blumer) control. Results will be expected to reduce the synthetic pesticides input. The workable pest management without chemicals in melon cultivation will be demonstrated that based on the tactical application of non-chemicals and farm operations, and in conjunction with control methods regulation in time by pest monitored. Study on safe use of pesticides and integrated pest management strategies for important tropical fruittree diseases and pests- wax apple:Taiwan is located in tropical and subtropical climates, that suitable for the occurrence and spread of a variety of crop pests and diseases. increase farmers' production of finished products, seriously affecting the yield and quality of agricultural products. In recent years, the government has tried to promote the development of "safe agriculture" pray can be ecological balance farming concept, make full use of cultivation and management measures, with crop resource recycling, production of non-chemical pesticide residues in agricultural products. Currently pest control research-oriented, and more to the development of safe and effective non-chemical pesticide control methods based, gradually reduce dependence on chemical pesticides to protect human health, ecological balance and sustainable agriculture. The purpose of this study was to establish an integrated pest management on wax apple , with non-chemical pesticide control methods, and production of safe wax apple. Development and Application of Strengthening Integrated Pest Management Technique for Vectors of Transmitting Viruses on Vegetables:The aim of this project is to explore the influence of temperature on the development and population parameters of Bemisia argentifolli and Thrips palmi which are vectors to transmit geminivirus and tospovirus on cucumber, and furthermore to understand the loss of the yield of cucumber that causes by infection of geminivirus and tospovirus. We are planning to introduce artificial intelligent and novelty monitoring system to monitor occurrence of pests and estimate their control action level. To construct the integrated pest management program of vectors and to evaluate their economic benefit for effectively managing vector pests. Complete the goal of reducing pesticide usage amount and promote IPM to improve the implementation of Application. Research on the enhancement of the natural enemy control efficacy of rice insect pests:For improving the yield and quality of crop, farmers use to apply the chemicals, and in the meanwhile, it also causes the environmental pollution and human healthy problems.The insect pest problem still do not resolve and cause chemical resistace and pest resurgence occurres after that. Natural enemies can control the population of insect pests into a low level naturally in the ecosystem, the project is aimed to maintain and preserve the population of natural enemies, and enhance the control efficacy of insect pests in rice ecosystem. The ecology of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and control the pest with biorational insecticides:Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is an invasion pest in Taiwan and caused the ecomonic loss in coffee production. Now there is no officially recommended insecticides to control coffee berry borer, but the previous study showed chlorpyrifos is highly toxic to the pest. The farmer often used the chlorpyrifos and hanged the traps to control the pest. Right now, the infestation timing of coffee berry borer is not clear, so the study will realize the best control timing and test the control efficacy of biorational insecticides. Beside, the study will test trapping efficiency by trap colors, lure substances and setting heights. In other countries, some parasitoids and predators of coffee berry borer are used as biological control agents. This research will focus to realize the fauna of natural enemy and expect to use local enemy to control the pest. On the other hand, alternative host of the pest will be investigated in order to practice cultural control. These study results will be applied to pest management in the future to improve the safety of coffee production system. 0:Flagship crop - Developing techniques for identification and management of key pests on mushrooms Edible mushrooms are important economic crops in Taiwan and the annual output value is more than 12 billion NT. Since of the global warming, several new diseases of Auricularia polytricha have been occured and some historical diseases of Agaricus bisporus have become seriously. However, lack of study for the diseases of A. polytricha and only a few pesticides recommended for mushroom pest control pose a threat to the mushroom growers. Due to inappropriate control for the diseases of A. polytricha , it has caused tremendous losses to A. polytricha production. Although some fungicides were recommended for controlling the white bottle mushroom diseases in Taiwan, it was observed that the pathogen had developed resistance against fungicide of Benomyl. It is needed urgently to develop prevention and control techniques for the diseases of A. bisporus . As the changes of cultivated mushroom species, the main mushroom pests also have been changed during time, and some mushroom fungivorous-nematode diseases were not be investigated in Taiwan. In this study, the survey will be done for sawdust bag of A. polytricha . In order to clarify the pathogenicity of fungivorous-nematode, mushroom nematodes collected from sawdust bags will be isolated and identified. The control strategies of these pests will be further developed to reduce the losses of A. polytricha and A.bisporus caused by these pests. We will launch the investigation on mushroom pests, fungivorous nematodes and develop techniques for identification and management of key pests on mushrooms in this project after the stagnation of research on mushroom pests for nearly four decades in Taiwan. 0:Occurrence and Ecology of key pests in crops and pest management strategies 【Study on diagnostic techniques of Xylella fastidiosa】 Due to the fastidious characteristics of the causal agent, it often takes a longtime for the disease symptom to develop after the plants are infected with the bacterium. Once the symptom becomes visible, the plant might have been affected by the pathogen for a long time; in addition, the bacterium can be transmitted by insect vectors, leading to the widespread of the diseases before people's awareness. When the disease epidemicsoccur, there are no available chemical pesticides for controlling thedisease. 【The monitoring and managing for weeds in Taiwan farmland】 Taiwan is located in the tropics and subtropics, and much more weed species are widely distributed in the environment and have a great impact to the ecology and agricultural production. Invasion by non-native species represents one of the greatest threats to biodiversity worldwide and is considered a major component of global change. In recent years, herbicides were used in high frequency and bring out strong plants that were high fecundity and high tolerant to herbicides. Invasive plants caused by importing agricultural products. So far, more than 130 invasive weeds were confirmed in the field. In Taiwan, the weed in the field with a considerable change due to climate change, herbicide selection pressure, and invasive weeds competition, therefore, the management of difficult control weeds would be an important issue. This project aims at difficult control weeds in important weeds and invasive plants in farmland to provide weed control strategies to reduce the damage to crop yield and quality and reduce inappropriate use of herbicides and as a reference for integrated management of weed. 【Effects of whitefly management strategies on the incidence of criniviruses】 Crinivirus is a newly emerging category of plant viruses in Taiwan. Two criniviruses, Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV), were first recorded in Taiwan in 2004 and 2009 respectively. Silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci biotype B) is a key pest for Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae plants due to its ability to transmit plant viruses. CCYV is another important plant virus for Cucurbitaceae in Taiwan. In this plan, we will investigate the occurrence of CCYV in different Cucurbitaceae species, and choose several species to test their resistance to CCYV in greenhouse. To explore more control tactics for whitefly, we try to apply insect feeding disruptors to estimate their control efficiency. Insect feeding disruptors, such as Flonicamid and Pymetozine, are considered to interfere insect feeding behaviors, which is hypothetically decrease the acquisition amount of crinivirus particles in whitefly and further reduce the incidence of crinivirus diseases. 0:Survey and Development Control Technology of the fruit-piercing moths on Peach in in Northern Taiwan In recent years, peach farmers in Shangbaling, Fuxing District, Taoyuan City, and Jianshi Township, Hsinchu County, reported that peaches were pierced by fruit-piercing moths (FPMs) during peaches maturity period, causing wounds and causing fruit rot. However, there is insufficient information about the harmful species and occurrence of fruit sucking moths on peaches, and there is non-effective control method to for FPMs currently. It is extremely necessary to investigate the species types and occurrence of FPMs and develop control technology . This project intends to clarify the species types and occurrence of the FPMs in the northern region, assess the current control methods, and develop physical control techniques for the FPMs to solve the problem during the ripening period of peaches, and increase the yield of juicy peaches and the increase in income of farmers of juicy peaches will reduce the damage rate of noctuids from 30% to 10%. 0:Development and application of Integrated Pest Control Technologies on High Value Crops (grape and rice) in Central Taiwan This project was focus on grape and rice as the key research crops and divided into three sub-projects which were (1) Identification and management strategies of grape fungal diseases and grape co-existing microorganisms in fields; (2) Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived pesticides in controlling the important pests on rice. The targets of these sub-projects focused on (1) Unknown or emerging fungal diseases of grapes; (2) Control effects of plant-based materials on important pests in rice, respectively. Moreover, this project was trying to clarify and establish (1) The grape emerging disease and its management strategy; (2) Development and evaluation of plant-based materials as the insecticides on rice. 0:Maize and carrot integrated pest management Carrot is an annual or biennial plant in the umbelliferae family Apiaceae, is one of the most common vegetable of our daily food. Carrots are most cultivated in Changhua, Yunlin and Tainan area in Taiwan, and one of the major problem of carrot producing currently is the overuse of chemical pesticide and lead to pesticide residues on the crops, so several safe plant protection materials as narrow range oil, Melia azedarach oil, tobacco solution and neutralized phosphorous acid solution will applied to carrot disease like powdery mildew and pest like Noctuid moths to reduce the usage of chemical pesticide , decrease failed percentage of pesticide residue examination and be more friendly to the agricultural environment. Among a variety of maize types, ears for taken use is easily to have pesticides residues, especially for sweet corn. The key pests of sweet corn include maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi Hood.), Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith)) and Asian corn borers(Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée)). Maize thrips reproduce rapidly in warm weather. The transmission of MCMV by maize thrips can cause a significant loss in maize. Fall armyworm invaded into Taiwan in 2019, and the larvae ate the growing point. Asian corn borers usually occurred in the late whorl stage. Because sweet corn may have pesticides residues concerns, due to the frequency of pesticides, this research will use the pesticide Spinetoram and Bacillus thuringiensis(BT) mixed with citrus extracts for the control of maize thrips, fall armyworm and Asian corn borer in the seedling, early, middle and late maize whorl stage, to assess the effectiveness. 0:Research and Application of Integrated Pest Management Strategies of Major Pests of the Economic Crops in Kaohsiung and Pingtung Area Located in the subtropical region, Taiwan's temperature and humid climate makes it susceptible to the spread of pests and hence the common use of chemical pesticides. How to strike a balance between crop production, safety of agricultural products and environmental conservation has long been a serious challenge. This study aims to develop the monitoring systems and management techniques for the major plant diseases and insect pests of the economic crops in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area. Evaluation and extention of the area-wide control technology of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) will be employed in this study. Step by step to achieve more convenient and efficient control for the fruit flies. In addition, we also investigated the correlation between the effectiveness of pesticides and the timing of crops protection, as well as develop the non-pesticide and biocontrol strategies to manage the important pests and diseases in the field , to reduce and replace the use of chemical pesticide and largely reduce the frequencies of chemical applications. The research and application of these safe agents profoundly improved safety of fruits and vegetables for a continuous harvest. Moreover, This project is to integrate plant protection materials registered in cucumber and solanaceous crops with some non-chemical materials and biopesticides to control the key pests, and to develop a cucumber and solanaceous crops diseases management coordinated with the preimplantation soil management, cultivation techniques improved, microbial control techniques and field sanitation management. To reduce or replace of use of the pesticide and solving the successive cropping and pesticides residues problems of cucumber and solanaceous crops. Filed trials and demonstrations was conducted to prove the efficacy of integrated pests management strategies. In addition, we must develop the non-pesticide and biocontrol strategies to manage the important pests and diseases in the field , to reduce and replace the use of chemical pesticide and largely reduce the frequencies of chemical applications. The research and application of these safe agents profoundly improved safety of vegetables. In the near future , integrated pests management strategies of cucumber and solanaceous crops described above would be widely used for field applications. 0:Development of crop disease and pest control techniques in Hualien In this study, we focus on the diseases and pests faced by farmers for many years. We are also working to identify the cause of an emerging disease in chives. To develop new disease control agents, we are screening bacteria with antagonistic ability. Cucurbitaceae viral diseases are often transmitted by whiteflies. Here we propose screening different agents to control whiteflies, thereby reducing viral diseases. The study of long-horn beetle (Philus antennatus) and thrips in pomelo is in the third year. We will continue to use planks and lights to monitor the population of beetles. Thrips warning pheromone was not effective in the first year, but the second year it began to show some control effect. We will keep observing the succession of thrips. The use of Trichogramma parasitic wasps to control the fall armyworm in maize has achieved initial effects. To meet the needs of organic and environmentally friendly agriculture within our jurisdiction, we aim to develop prevention and control technologies for the fall armyworms. Cabbage in some areas of Sibao was infected with Fusarium, causing yellow leaf disease. We are planning to use soil amendments to reduce the disease incidents. For the guava fruit diseases, we will use non-chemical materials to test the effectiveness not only to anthracnose, but also to black spot disease and scab. For the emerging diseases, we will identify the causal agent of white spot disease in chives. Pathogens and pests are keep evolving, we need more control agents to meet new challenges. The development of new antibacterial materials would aid to solve growing problems of crop diseases and pests. 0:The research of major insect pest monitoring and control on Annona spp. in Taitung In this study, we will investigate the species of tetranychid spider mites and their natural enemies on Annona spp. (Annona squamosa and A. hybrida ) to know the species, and the population dynamics in the year in Taitung. At the same time, we will select non-pesticide on spider mites control, try to establish the safety guide model, use the pesticides reasonably. In the meanwhile, we survey the insect pest, mealybug and thrips, progression on atemoya to know the parameters required for the pests occurrence. 0:Development and application of techniques for the integrated pest control on rice in Taitung Rice is a important crop in Taitung. We need to develop a good operation model cultivate management and use pesticides in pest control for ensure quantity and quality. We suport farmers in providing effective method of pest control. In this project, we plan to build fitted operation model of cultivate for reduceing pests by select the most effective pesticides and the best timing to reduce the usage of pesticides. Develop non-chemical pesticide materials and methods to contuol the pests and increase proportion of cultivation area of organic rice. 0:Integrated application of free registered plant protection materials to tea pest control In response to the need of chemical pesticides usage reduction and to maintain production, in recent years, crop pest control has been applied with materials that are more environmentally friendly. Since 2015, the government has announced the list of free registered plant protection materials for the reference of farmers in replacing chemical pesticides use. Therefore, in order to effectively exerting the effect of free registered plant protection materials on tea pest controlling, it will test calcium carbonate and Chinese soap berry oil to tea major pests in the lab and field this year. Subsequently, the application technique could be promoted to tea farmers who do the environmental friendly farming or organic farming. It could achieve the goal of producing safer tea, protecting the health of producers and consumers, and protecting the environment. 0:Study on the identification, ecology, and control of important crop diseases and pests 1. Using multiline and gene pyramiding techniques to enhance durable resistance in Taiwan rice cultivars   Breeding and deployment of resistance varieties, one of the most economical, effective, and eco-friendly way to control diseases and insect pests, is the foundation for producing high-quality and safe agricultural products. Rice blast pathogen can infect rice plants at all growth stages, causing severe economic damage all around the world. To cope with the fast-evolving Magnaporthe oryzae population in the field, it is important to characterize the resistance genes in existing cultivars, increase genetic diversity of resistance, and put continuous efforts in the development of new resistance varieties. In recent years, increased incidence of rice bakanae disease and the emergence of fungicide-resistant Fusarium fujikuroi isolates have been reported in Taiwan and other countries. Since seed treatment and chemical control may be ineffective, use of newly developed resistance varieties is an alternative way for bakanae disease control. This study aims to evaluate the cultivation of Kaohsiung 145 multiline varieties in the field, breed pyramid lines carrying multiple resistance genes/loci, discover novel loci for resistance to rice blast and bakanae disease, and develop closely-linked markers applicable for molecular breeding. This year we plan to focus on: (1) Evaluation of Kaohsiung 145 introgression lines for yield test, multiline cultivation, and in blast nurseries. Development and use of new functional and flanking markers to assist the breeding of Kaohsiung 145 pyramid lines and blast-resistant Kaohsiung 147. (2) Analysis of the sequences of known blast resistance genes, Pi2/9, Pik, Pita, and Ptr, in highly blast-resistant Tainung 82 mutant lines. Continuing the fine-mapping of the resistance QTL in a Tainung 82 mutant line WM1370. The blast resistant lines newly introduced from abroad will be tested for their resistance to local M. oryzae population by artificial inoculated and in the blast nursery. Introduction, seed amplification, and storage of rice lines with horizonal resistance or panicle resistance. (3) Molecular markers associated with bakanae-resistant QTLs (qBK2.1 and qBK1.8) will be developed. Rice lines combining six resistance QTLs/genes to rice blast, bacterial blight and bakanae disease will be developed using marker-assisted breeding. 2. Field monitoring and development of fast surveillance technique of rice blast fungus population in Taiwan   Rice blast disease, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (Hebert) Barr, is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice in many countries including Taiwan. Breeding and deployment of resistant varieties are important control measures for blast disease, which meet the trend of organic and sustainable agriculture and reduce the usage of fungicides. However, field populations of rice blast fungus are complicated, highly dynamic, quickly mutated and evolved, and field resistance of newly released varieties has been quickly broken down within few years. When environmental and climate conditions are favorable, severe epidemics and significant yield loss usually occur in the monoculture commercial fields. To sustain breeding program, effectively deploy resistant varieties, and prolong or maintain field resistance, it is necessary to monitor the structure and variation of rice blast fungus and understand the evolution mechanisms of pathogen population in the fields. In this study, we aim to utilize Pot2 rep-PCR fingerprinting technique and avirulence (AVR) genes to continuously monitor the dynamics of blast population and establish the standard set of differential physiological races in Taiwan. We also aim to characterize the mutation features and genotypes of AVR genes and try to correlate race evolution with resistance features of Taiwan elite rice varieties. Furthermore, we also aim to monitor and evaluate the occurrence of blast disease and evolution of pathogen population in the fields deployed the marker-assisted molecular breeding TN11 mono-resistance varieties. We hope that the data from our long term monitoring efforts will provide useful information of population structure of rice blast fungus in Taiwan and serve as the foundation for future deployment of resistance varieties. 3. Breeding of rice variety resists to both bacterial blight and sheath blight diseases   Sheath blight (ShB), bacterial blight disease (BBD) are the two most destructive diseases and cause severe yield and grain quality loss in world wide rice production. In response to elevated threat of climate changes, breeding of new rice varieties against multiple pathogens is a critical and urgent work for food security and safety. To support new sustainable agriculture policies “Reduce half pesticides application in 10 years” and “Promotion organic agriculture” by Ministry of Agriculture, breeding multiple resistances variety is the most efficient, economic, and environment friendly strategy. Because no immune or highly ShB resistant germplasm is available in nature, the progress of ShB resistance improvement has been very slow for a long time. Mutagenesis has shown to create new variations for crop improvement. In our previous studies, we have identified a ShB moderately resistant mutants from the mutant pool. In this project, we will breed new rice varieties with ShB and BBD double resistances through the introduction of the ShB resistance into the elite BBD resistant varieties (XD9 and XD11), which has been submitted to apply for the plant variety rights (PVR) recently. The newly developed lines carry both ShB and BBD resistances would provide safe food to consumers, increase the income of farmers, and provide good genetic resource for rice resistance improvement. 4. Pathogen-identification, ecological study and control measures for newly discovered disease, Atemoya decline   Atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill.) is one of special representative crops in Taitung, and it is also an important export fruit in Taiwan. Most significant diseases of Atemoya were categorized into post-harvest diseases, and few diseases occurred during the cultivation period. However, a new disease tentatively called “Atemoya decline” was discovered and gradually spreading in the Atemoya orchard in Taitung with the symptoms such as decline, leaf-yellowing, tiny leaves and witches’ broom. The primary diagnosis revealed that all diseased plants were infected by Phytoplasmas, but detailed pathogen-identification must be executed. The diseases caused by Phytoplasmas usually become serious epidemics via vector-transmission and probably bring a tremendous damage to the Atemoya industry. This project is dedicated to identify the pathogen causing Atemoya decline, develop the highly sensitive and specific PCR assay for the detection of pathogen, investigate the disease-ecology and transmission, and then propose a efficient control strategy against this disease. Several items will be conducted this year: (1) continuous investigation of insect vectors; (2) continuous survey of alternative hosts of the pathogen (Phytoplasma) and insect vector in the field; (3) application of the real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection for this Phytoplasma pathogen to study seasonal dynamic of the pathogen concentration in hosts and comparative susceptibility among different Atemoya cultivars; (4) improved therapy trial with the injection using tetracycline and the other bactericides; (5) proposing an complete IPM strategy for the Atemoya decline disease. 5. Evaluation of susceptibility and IPM strategy for citrus huanglongbing in several newly selective citrus cultivars with market potential   Citrus is an important fruit tree widely cultivated in the world. The citrus cultivars are focused on Ponkan, Tankan, Mucot, Liucheng and Wentan in Taiwan. The abundant harvest usually caused the imbalance between production and marketing, and the cultivar-diversity may be a good solution. Recently, the citrus industry was seriously impacted by citrus hunaglongbing (HLB), significantly reduced in the citrus production and led to tremendous economic losses for several citrus-cultivated countries in Asia and America. HLB is caused by a phloem-limited fastidious bacterium, tentatively named Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). HLB can be transmitted by the vegetative propagation and vector insect (Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). HLB is very harmful and lethal to various citrus cultivars and it has become main limiting factors in citrus industry. The production and cultivation of pathogen-free citrus seedlings have been implemented for several years in Taiwan. It is a good timing to promote the selected new citrus cultivars with market-potential in Taiwan. However, they need to be evaluated the susceptibility for HLB before they are promoted to the citrus industry. This project is dedicated to conduct the evaluation of susceptibility and IPM strategy for HLB in several newly selective citrus cultivars with market potential to achieve the cultivar-diversity of citrus in Taiwan. Several items will be conducted this year: (1) cultivar-selection and preparation of test plants including TN-Giant mandarin, Fremont, Ora, Oroblanco and Hirami lemon; (2) HLB-inoculation tests with grafting; (3) periodical observation of developing symptoms in infected plants in the greenhouse; (4) monitoring of HLB bacteria in infected plants with PCR detections; (5) evaluation of susceptibility for HLB in the selected new cultivars. 6. Identification, Source Inference and Hostplant Tests for Tuta absoluta   Tuta absoluta is a newly emerging global pest insect. It can defoliate nearly all the crops of Solanaceae, and possibly infest plants of Brassicaceae and Amaranthaceae. Because the crops and ornamental plants of Solanaceae occupy a tremedous amount and proportion in the agriculture and hoticulture in Taiwan, it would be extremely important to establish a system to incoporate fast identification, tracking origin of invading population, survey of distribution, clarification of the ecological information in order to protect the relevant enterpreise in Taiwan. We plan to complete the following objected in 5 months: (1) to establish a simple and effective method for fast morphological identification and diagnosis; (2) to track the origin of the invading popualtion using population genetics method; and to (3) carry out a survey of the damage as well as the bioessay of the host range.
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