農園藝區域作物新興發展技術

字體大小:A- A A+

單位商業會員附件下載:
計畫名稱: 陳季呈
計畫主持人: 陳季呈
共同計畫主持人: 洪惠娟;黃士晃;宋品慧;謝禮臣;陳盟松;王俊能;劉祐廷;李文南;羅佩昕;朱堉君;許嘉錦;黃涵靈
計畫編號: 110農科-4.2.7-子-V1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會花蓮區農業改良場場長室
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 鳳梨;金針;胡麻;設施;育苗;甘酒;海運;荖葉;龍鬚菜;機械化採收;文心蘭;柑橘;南瓜;春石斛蘭;水稻;香莢蘭;火蔥;番石榴;高粱;外銷;Pineapple;daylily;Sesame;facility;nursery;Amazake;Marine shipment;betel leaf;chayote;Mechanical Harvesting;Oncidium;Citrus;squash;Nobile dendrobium;Rice;Vanilla;Allium ascalonicum;guava;Sorghum;Export
摘要: 本子項計畫中共含台中、台南、高雄、花蓮及台東等5個改良場,因應地區產業需求而研擬之計畫,包含作物品項多樣,有農園藝作物10餘項,其計畫摘要分述如下:細部計畫1外銷園藝作物供應鏈創新關鍵技術開發應用-台中區農業改良場:園藝產品之外銷可提高農民收益並協助解決國內產銷壓力之重要發展,目前國內已有多項農作物品項具有外銷實蹟,但仍有許多原有品項在全球新的時空下具備外銷發展潛力,極需投注資源推動實務研發、試貯運及試銷等工作,本計畫盤點本場春石斛蘭、文心蘭及柑橘3項已具產業化推動實力作物,強化在實蹟外銷前仍缺乏之技術及鏈結,期能促成具規模之新興作物,提升臺灣園藝產品國際競爭力與名聲,提高農產業之收益。細部計畫2雲嘉南特色作物之生產體系缺口研究-台南區農業改良場:本研究將針對雲嘉南地區特色作物產業需求,建立省工、低投入、耐逆境及優質穩產之栽培體系。內容涵括進行胡麻機械化採收方式之技術研究,篩選適合胡麻乾燥藥劑建置胡麻採收前植株乾燥技術,降低胡麻採收人力成本,建立機械化栽培體系,提升國產胡麻產業規模;建置臺灣最適釀酒高粱臺南7號、臺南8號及高品質水稻品種臺南16號之優質安全栽培生產模式,以因應極端氣候,提升稻田轉作釀酒高粱面積,及提升高品質稻作契作生產,降低公糧收購壓力;並建立雲嘉地區鳳梨抽穗抑制穩定技術,開發產調藥劑定量注藥輔助機具,提升果品品質及穩定價格。以降低生產風險,提高農民栽培意願,創造具有優勢特色之區域型產業。細部計畫3熱帶蔬果生產調適技術之研究-高雄區農業改良場:高屏地區為熱帶蔬果之重要產區,為降低作物受氣候變遷影響,減少生產風險及成本,因應內外銷市場對蔬果產量及品質穩定度之需求,本計畫將導入環境因子探討如何優化番石榴周年生產模式,及發展分子輔助育種技術應用於抗病毒病品種之南瓜選育之研究,並將關鍵技術落實於番石榴供果園之標準化生產及南瓜種苗開發以強化產銷之鍊結,提升整體產業競爭力。細部計畫4花宜地區重要作物因應氣候變遷關鍵技術建立與原民作物機能性研究(含委辦)-花蓮區農業改良場:龍鬚菜為花蓮吉安鄉特色作物,為全台主要產區,但夏季高溫易使龍鬚菜生長衰弱甚至大量死亡。為釐清龍鬚菜高溫障礙原因,規畫從土壤、病害、種原處理等三方面切入,配合監測田區土壤溫度、水分含量、分析土壤肥力與理化特性、監測病毒病發生率、種瓜接種菌根菌等方式,力求找出高溫障礙之關鍵因子,並建立龍鬚菜肥培管理、病毒病防治策略與種瓜處理技術,降低夏季植株死亡率並提高產量。有機蔬菜育苗對有機蔬菜栽培甚為重要,目前臺灣蔬菜有機育苗多為種植有機蔬菜農友自行育苗為主,較少育苗場生產有機蔬菜苗,因蔬菜有機育苗之育成率與育苗成本,尚有需多問題待克服,擬利用生物刺激素、有機肥料及微生物製劑應用等綜合管理方式,建立有機蔬菜育苗技術。花蓮轄內具有許多具保健機能潛力之特色作物,其中金針菜栽培面積約520公頃,佔全國80%。金針花經以95%之乙醇萃取後,與其水萃物相較之下,具有較佳之抗氧化活性,與其富含多酚類物質有關。原民特色作物火蔥辣味強烈,具理氣、寬胸、健胃、整腸等效用,火蔥受栽培環境及土壤限制,試驗探討不同生產來源、不同部位、不同栽培生育期與管理方式及貯藏溫度與儲藏時間含硫活性成分之差異。若能開發這些特色作物之機能性,將大幅提升附加價值。甘酒是日本流行多年之傳統性飲料,其香甜的風味被認為是極佳的營養補給品。本計畫為強化碎米加值利用,試導入甘酒釀造技術,開發適合之釀造技術,並篩選台灣適合釀造之碎米水稻品種,提供碎米去化之新選擇,以期提高稻作產值。細部計畫5臺東地區荖葉設施轉作香莢蘭可行性之研究-台東區農業改良場:香莢蘭為蘭科(Orchidaceae)香莢蘭屬(Vanilla)植物,是唯一應用在香料產業的蘭科植物。其成熟種子含有香草醛(Vanillin),又名香草精或香蘭素,用途廣泛為經濟價值非常高之現金作物。臺東地區為荖葉及荖葉設施(俗稱荖葉棚)生產之重鎮,但隨社會變遷,目前臺東地區荖葉產業,因勞力減少成本上揚、病蟲害逐年加劇導致農藥使用量逐漸攀升、食用檳榔人口下滑內銷需求減少及社會觀感不佳等等負面因素,使本項產業面臨轉型及轉作問題。本計畫擬擬研究荖葉(及舊有荖葉設施)轉作高經濟價值作物香莢蘭之可行性,建立加工熟成安全製程,提供臺東農民轉作新選擇,設法創造新產業鏈,提升農民經濟。In order to meet the needs and solve the problems of the local industry, this study was included five plans of Taichung, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Hualien, and Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Stations, and it had more than 10 agricultural and horticultural crops. The summary of every plan was as follows:Plan 1 Development and Application of Key Technologies for Supply Chain of Export Horticultural Crops-Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension StationThe export of horticultural products can increase farmers' income and help to solve the important development of domestic production and marketing pressure. At present, there are many agricultural products in Taiwan that have export sales, but there are still many original products that have the potential for export development in the new global time There is a great need to bet resources to promote practical research and development, trial storage and transportation, and trial sales. This research aim at three crops, Dendrobium, Oncidium and citrus, that have industrialization promotion strength, strengthen the technology and links that are still lacking before the actual export, and hope to promote emerging crops with large scale and enhance Taiwan ’s horticultural products Competitiveness and reputation increase the income of the agricultural industry.Plan 2 The Study on the Production System Gap of the Characteristic Crops in Tainan District-Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension StationThis study will aim at the demands of the characteristic crops industry in Tainan district and establish a cultivation system that is labor-saving, low-input, stress-tolerant, high-quality, and stable production. The content includes technical research on the mechanized harvesting methods of sesame, screening suitable drying agents of sesame to build the pre-harvesting plant drying technology, reducing the labor cost of sesame harvesting, establishing a mechanized cultivation system, and increasing the scale of domestic sesame industry; establishing the most suitable sorghum "Tainan No. 7 and Tainan No. 8" for brewing in Taiwan, and the high-quality and safe cultivation model of high-quality rice variety Tainan No. 16 to respond to extreme climates, increase the area of &zwsp;&zwsp;rice fields converted to brewing sorghum, and increase the contract farming production of high-quality rice cultivation, and reduce the pressure of government purchased rice; building the stable suppression technology of pineapple heading in Tainan district , developing auxiliary equipment for quantitative injection of off-season production chemicals, improving fruit quality , and stabilizing prices. To reduce production risks, increase farmers' willingness to cultivate, and create regional industries with advantageous characteristics.Plan 3 Research on the Adaptive Production of Tropical Fruits and Vegetables-Kaohsiung District Agricultural Research and Extension StationKaohsiung and Pingtung are an important production area for tropical fruits and vegetables. To reduce the impact of climate change on crops and production risks and costs could stabilize production around the year for export and domestic market. The study aims to assess the effects of environmental factors on guava production and apply molecular markers for Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) in Squash breeding. To develop new technology on standardization of guava production and squash breeding would enhance the supply chain and improve the competitiveness in the industry.Plan 4 Study of Key Techniques for Major Crops in Hualien and Yilan in Response to Climate Change and Functional of Aboriginal Crops-Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension StationChayote is a characteristic crop in, Hualien. Ji'an area is the main production area of Taiwan. However, high temperatures in summer can easily make it grow weak and even die. In order to solve the high temperature death of chayote, we explore issues from different aspects include soil, disease, seed processing. Monitoring soil temperature and moisture content in the field, analyzing soil fertility and physical and chemical characteristics, monitoring the incidence of viral diseases, and inoculating mycorrhizal fungi. The goal is to identify the cause of the high temperature disorder and reduce plant death. Organic vegetable seedlings are very important for organic vegetable cultivation. At present, most of the organic vegetable seedlings in Taiwan are grown by organic farmers who grow organic vegetables. Fewer nurseries produce organic vegetable seedlings. Due to the growth rate and cost of organic seedlings for vegetables, there are still many problems to be overcome. The plan intends to use organic management methods such as biostimulants, organic fertilizers and microbial preparations to establish organic vegetable seedling technology. It has many characteristic crops with potential for health care in Hualien. The cultivation area of daylily is about 520 hectares, accounting for 80% of the country. Recent study found that the 95% ethanol extracts of daylily flowers content high level of polyphenols and exhibited better antioxidant activities than water extracts. Allium ascalonicum was aboriginal characteristic crops which have a strong spicy taste, and are equivalent to qi, broad chest, stomach, and intestines. Allium ascalonicum are limited by the cultivation environment and soil. The experiments explore different production sources, different parts, different cultivation stages and management methods, and storage temperature and storage difference in time sulfur-containing active ingredients. If we can develop the function of these characteristic crops, it will greatly increase the added value. Amazake is a traditional drinks that has been popular in Japan for many years. Its sweet flavor is considered to be an excellent nutritional supplement. In order to strengthen the use of broken rice value.We tried to introduce sweet wine brewing technology to develop rice brewing technology for Taiwan's rice varieties. Screening broken rice varieties brewed in Taiwan to provide new options for the removal of broken rice, with a view to increasing rice production value.Plan 5 Study on the feasibility of facility cultivation of betel leaf switch to vanilla in Taitung-Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension StationVanilla is a plant of the Orchidaceae genus Vanilla and is the only orchid plant used in the perfume industry. Its mature seeds contain vanillin, also known as vanilla extract, which is widely used as a cash crop with very high economic value. Taitung area is an important zone for the production of betel leaf and cultiviation facilities (commonly known as betel leaf shed). However, with the changes in society, the current betel leaf industry in Taitung area has gradually increased the use of pesticides due to increasing pests and diseases. Negative factors such as the decline in the population of betel nut, reduced domestic demand and poor social perception, have caused the industry to face transformation and conversion problems. This project intends to study the feasibility of converting betel leaves (and the old betel leaf facilities) into high-value crops of vanilla, establish a safe process for maturation, and provide farmers in Taitung with new options and try to create a new industrial chain.
資源連結: 前往查看