蔬菜育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發

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計畫名稱: 蔬菜育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發
計畫主持人: 宋妤
共同計畫主持人: 顏永福;黃政華;羅筱鳳;鄔家琪;張栢滄;楊雯如;洪進雄;莊慧文;張明毅;劉程煒;林慧玲;尤進欽;黃三光;張允瓊;陳柏青;賴鴻裕
計畫編號: 103農科-9.2.4-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 中興大學園藝學系(所)
全程計畫年: 2014
關鍵字: 有機質肥料;葉菜類;營養元素;硝酸鹽;葉菜類蔬菜;光環境;光強度;有機質肥料;有機氮化合物;胺基酸;非農藥;甲殼素;研討會;產量;品質;穴盤苗;設施葉菜類;茉莉酸;水楊酸;亞磷酸;過氧化氫;草莓;中日照;雜交;走莖;育種;設施栽培;低溫貯藏;大蒜;調理;迷你種薯;無病毒種薯;霧耕;生物炭;泥碳土;穴盤;栽培介質;堆肥;菇類栽培廢棄木屑;鋸木屑;咖啡渣;茶葉渣;番茄;設施栽培;補光;草莓設施生產;穴盤;植株生育;低溫貯藏;結球白菜;高溫;淹水;調配椰纖屑;炭化稻殼;養液栽培;氮;鉀;胡瓜;organic fertilizer;leafy vegetable;nutrient element;nitrate content;leafy-vegetables;light environments;Luminous intensity;organic fertilizer;nitrogenous compound;amino acid;Non-pesticide;Chitosan;Symposium;Yield;Quality;Plug seedling;Leafy vegetable;Jasm
摘要: (一)、設施栽培葉菜類營養及施肥管理蔬菜所吸收的營養元素影響蔬菜的生長,適當的肥培管理能有效提升蔬菜的品質與產量。種植蔬菜會先施以有機質肥料為基肥,有機質肥料有著緩慢釋放養分的特性,有較高的肥料利用率。目前市面上有許多種有機質肥料,每種養分釋放特性皆不一樣,需瞭解其釋放率以配合葉菜類生長之養分需求。本計劃將以水耕方式研究各葉菜的養分需求,了解各有機質肥料的養分釋出特性,期有機質肥料養分釋出符合葉菜類生長所需求,建立合理化的有機質肥料施用量,以達到高品質高產量、降低生產成本及減少對環境汙染之設施葉菜類生產。(二)、選育適合高溫長日設施栽培的中日照型草莓品種和設施周年栽培試驗草莓性喜冷涼氣候,台灣豐香系列品種屬短日品種,只能於冬季短日開花,大部分為露地畦面覆蓋塑膠布栽培,近年來高架設施栽培漸多,但受限於短日基因型限制進入高溫長日其就無法開花,本計畫將引入中日照品種並於設施內試種,該類型品種氣溫介於2-29.5oC之間都可以開花,不受日長影響。由於中日照品種仍被美日國家品種保護而且受環境影響開花,所以無法直接引種須要自行選育品種,本計畫將進行中日照品種子代選拔和回交育種,將中日照開花基因導入一般短日品種。溫帶國家的草莓設施栽培很普遍而且有較高的收益,荷蘭的草莓種植於玻璃溫室內,但德國、英國、以色列和法國等國家大部分用溫室栽培草莓,台灣也有採用高架草莓栽培生長良好。本計畫選育的中日型草莓,期能用水牆降溫設施栽培草莓,建立草莓周年生產體系。(三)、大蒜蒜球採收後調理及貯藏技術之改進臺灣蒜球主要栽培‘大片黑’品種,採收後之蒜球,一般的室溫通風貯藏,只具6個月貯藏壽命,於秋冬之際溫度降低時,很容易發芽、發根進而引起皺縮、腐爛,其中如何避免發芽,若能將蒜球貯藏至隔年的2-3月銜接新的產期,是目前蒜球貯藏技術上主要研究的方向。目前蒜球採收後以人工熱風進行調理,使其失重20-30%再進行貯藏,但經過人工乾燥的蒜瓣,在貯藏過程中常有褐點或黃辦(俗稱熟辦)的情形發生,推測可能和溫度或處理時間有關,因此,本試驗擬藉由熱風乾燥處理以建立適當的調理條件,並配合低溫真空貯藏技術之開發,以降低蒜球貯藏之劣變,延長蒜球之貯藏壽命達到周年供應之需求。(四)、無病毒馬鈴薯迷你種薯生產技術之建構上一年度計畫完成穩定栽培馬鈴薯植株之霧耕栽培系統,植株生長正常,生長速度快。上一年度計畫並完成muliplex RT-PCR病毒檢測方法,可同時檢測種薯PVS 及PVX病毒。本年度計畫,將比較霧耕栽培系統及土耕栽培系統生產馬鈴薯種薯之差異性,調查馬鈴薯植株在兩種栽培系統中生長速度及生長品質的反應。栽培過程中同時以multiplex RT-PCR檢查病毒之感染,以生產無病毒之種薯。(五)、蔬菜育苗與栽培介質之研發一、中興大學園藝學系本計畫將柳杉生物炭以0-50%不等之比例與傳統蔬菜育苗介質(以泥碳土為主成分)做混合,透過對混合介質之理化性質分析、蔬菜種子發芽率、幼苗之生長狀況及品質之評估來探討其取代泥碳土之適用性,期能在未來可以改善國內蔬菜育苗業者對泥碳土過度依賴之部分問題、降低生產成本及生產高品質蔬菜苗,以提高農民收益及增加農業競爭力。重要工作項目包括生物炭及育苗用介質(含傳統介質及混合生物炭之蔬菜育苗用介質)之理化性質分析、甘藍種子發芽測試以及甘藍和番茄之育苗試驗。預期能篩選出合適的生物炭混合泥碳土配方以成為蔬菜穴盤育苗之資材,並逐漸降低國內相關業者對泥碳土之依賴及需求。二、嘉義大學園藝學系由三種農業廢棄物(菇類栽培廢棄木屑、咖啡渣及茶葉渣)栽培介質研發五種介質配方,以國內重要蔬菜種類(甘藍、番茄、番椒及甜瓜)進行育苗並探討其介質適用性,期能逐漸降低國外泥碳土之依賴及需求,並促進國內產業升級及蔬菜週年化生產,促進農業轉型及增進農民收益為目標。三、中興大學土壤環境科學系對高經濟園藝作物而言,移植苗較直接播種可獲得一致的發芽率和快速植株生長的可靠方法之ㄧ。泥碳土是蔬菜栽培介質中主要成分之ㄧ,其為非再生性資源,且價格日益高漲。堆肥與泥碳土有相似的特性,故盆栽介質常使用堆肥。本研究計畫之目的在於使用椰纖、堆肥、炭化稻殼、菇類太空包、木黴菌、泥碳和珍珠石發展蔬菜抑病性栽培介質,減少對泥碳土的使用量。上述資材所調配出的八種栽培介質將作為番茄和菠菜之育苗介質,以決定適當的介質成分組成。播種後,介質將接種或不接種Phytophthora spp.。發芽率將每日調查,播種後5-6週將調查罹病率及罹病度,病害調查後分析地上部和根部之乾重和其中氮、磷、鉀、鈣和鎂之含量。本研究將決定適合番茄和菠菜之栽培介質的成分組成,以減少蔬菜育苗所需之泥碳土用量。(六)、設施番茄補光技術之研究番茄是經濟價值高、營養豐富的果菜類園藝作物。番茄之生產需要有充足之光照,光度足夠時,植株生長快而健壯,早期產量也較高。北部地區番茄栽培大多集中在秋冬季,因地理環境因素秋冬季節容易受東北季風影響,以致於光照量與光照時間普遍比中南部地區少,尤其是設施栽培中,此一情形更加明顯,嚴重影響番茄產量與品質。因此本研究之目的,擬探討設施栽培之番茄所需光環境條件,以作為設施栽培補光之依據,可解決日照不足之環境下設施番茄生產之問題,並可提高栽培密度,達到提高產量與品質之目的。(七)、設施草莓苗生產體系建立草莓(Fragaria Xananasa Duch.)源自北美溫帶地區,性喜冷涼氣候,不耐暑熱,且絕大多數商業品種為短日型植物。因此,在臺灣低海拔地區,草莓栽培模式限定在中秋至春末。此外,在台灣相對溫暖潮濕的栽培環境下栽培草莓,常致使較嚴重的病蟲害發生,導致化學藥劑使用量過高及果實之農藥殘留之疑慮。因此,若能利用精密調控環境栽培母株,於設施中生產穴盤苗,以利設施中有效隔離病蟲害,生產生產高品質草莓的栽培模式。102年的試驗結果顯示,可藉由植物工場生產之無病害走莖扦插繁殖子株,獲得生產草莓苗之母株或可定植於田間之子株。本年度計畫目標將調整為評估低溫貯藏走莖對子株扦插成活率影響,藉以配合農民栽培曆生產苗株,提高產能。(八)、植物生理指標應用於選拔耐高溫淹水結球白菜之研究先前研究結果顯示,花椰菜、結球白菜與甘藍的某些苗期生理指標與高溫淹水下產量相呼應,本計畫擬於三年中,分別測試花椰菜、結球白菜與甘藍之苗期形態與生理指標,應用於篩選高溫淹水耐受性之效益。(九)、設施小胡瓜椰纖調配介質與滴灌養液之開發園藝作物於設施內以介質栽培,可以減少土壤傳播性病蟲害,並解決土壤鹽分累積問題。目前生產小胡瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)常利用混和泥炭苔做為介質,但全球泥炭苔資源逐年減少,礦源溼地受嚴重破壞。椰纖屑(coir fiber dust)為農業廢棄物,來源豐富、成本低、對環境友善、理化性質與泥炭苔相似,具有替代泥炭土之潛力但椰纖屑需先經處理方能栽培作物。為有效利用椰子殼廢棄物,本研究探討添加硝酸銨、白雲石灰或炭化稻殼於椰纖屑,於設施內栽培小胡瓜,期能達到椰纖適用。(十)、不同光環境處理與栽培方式對蔬菜硝酸鹽含量的影響硝酸鹽含量是蔬菜品質的一個重要特性,硝酸鹽本身是相對無毒的,但其代謝物可能會產生一些健康上的風險。許多研究皆指出氮肥施用、光強度與蔬菜採收時機皆是影響蔬菜硝酸鹽累積的關鍵因子,因此本計劃針對易累積硝酸鹽之作物萵苣、青梗白菜、蕹菜與菠菜等,評估栽培於簡易塑膠布溫室與露天環境下硝酸鹽累積之差異,以及光強度與光週期對蔬菜累積硝酸鹽之模式;以及不同種類氮肥施用對於萵苣、青梗菜與菠菜等生長表現、產量及硝酸鹽累積含量變化的情形,並透過採收後經不同光環境、溫度與時間低溫貯藏,評估採後不同光源光照處理與溫度條件對蔬菜硝酸鹽累積之影響,建立低硝酸鹽之青梗白菜、菠菜與萵苣等設施生產模式,提供設施蔬菜生產時,氮肥施用參考之依據,以做為農民未來生產低硝酸鹽蔬菜之建議。(十一)、施用非農藥對設施蔬果生產量及品質之研究(1)及舉辦蔬菜產業發展研討會    本計畫利用五種植物防禦誘發劑(茉莉酸、水楊酸、亞磷酸、、過氧化氫、甲殼素)施用,探討穴盤育苗及設施蔬菜類之產量及品質,期能在未來可以實際應用於生產,並能減少農藥使用量及降低農藥殘毒,增進蔬菜食用品質,以提高農民收益及增加農業競爭力。(1)、Nutrient and fertilizer management on leafy vegetable cultivaiton under facilityThe growth of vegetables is influenced in absorption of nutrition.  The quality and yield of leafy vegetables can be improved by fertilizer management. The base fertilizer is used by organic matter before vegetables are grown due to it has slow release characteristics of nutrients and better fertilizer use efficiency. The characteristics of different organic fertilizers are needed to understand to match up vegetables growth. This study will try to establish rational fertilization management by analysis the nutrient demand of leafy vegetables through hydroponic culture and by examination the release efficiency of organic fertilizers. Looking forward to production the high quality and yield of the leafy vegetables and to reducing the cost of production and the environmental pollution at the same time.(2)、Developing day-neutral type strawberry and used in greenhouse cultivation under warm climateStrawberry is temperate crop and only grown in winter in Taiwan now, really there have neutral-day period (ND) of strawberry developed in US and Japan which may flower under 2-29.5oC and do not affected by the day-period. In research project the ND type of strawberry will introduced into Taiwan, the supeior lines of ND type will be developed by selecting plants from progreny of ND plants and will cross of ND type with SD type, then back cross with SD type. The developing superior line will be cultured in greenhouse for producing summer season strawberry. Due to the ND plants of strawberry produce less runner, so theses pplants will be treated with high N fertilzer and Long-day for inducing runners.(3)、Improvement of Postharvest Technology and Storage quality of Garlic Bulb Ta-Pen-Hey” is a major garlic cultivar in Taiwan.  After harvesting, garlic is usually stored at room temperature with air circulation.  However, the storage life can only last for 6 months.  During autumn and winter, low temperature can induce  sprouting and rooting results in wrinkled and rotten cloves. The man research goal for autumn and winter storage is therefore to prevent sprouting and rooting and to lengthen the storage life till the following February and March.  Currently, garlic bulb after harvest exposed to hot air for a curing process until 20-30% of weight loss is achieved before storage.  The hot air treated cloves often show brown or yellow spot (known as ripen cloves) which may be related to temperature and the length of treatment.  Thus, the purpose of this study is to set up the curing condition using hot air treatment, to coordinate with vacuum low temperature storage technique to reduce cloves deterioration and prolong its storage life, and to achieve a year round supply of garlic cloves.(4)、Establishing growing systems for production of virus free potato minitubersIn the previous year, aeroponic culture system for growing potato plants has been established. Potato plants exhibited normal growth and rapid growth rate in this aeroponic culture system. Moreover, multiplex RT-PCR detection system for checking two viral strains, PVS and PVX, was also developed. This year’s project will focus on analysis of growth response and tuber quality of potato plants on aeroponic and substrate culture systems. To produce virus free tubers, virus detection using multiplex RT-PCR method will be performed to eliminate virus infected plants during the culturing process.(5)、Research on the growing media for vegetables and vegetable transplants production1. Department of Horticulture, National Chung-Hsing UniverstiyThis study will mix biochar made from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) with the traditional vegetable growing medium (consisting mainly of peat moss), via both the chemical and physical analysis of the mixed medium, Cabbage seed germination tests, and cabbage and tomato growth analysis, the potential application of mixing biochar with peat moss as the growing medium for the production of vegetable transplants is investigated. The main purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable mixing ratio of biochar with peat moss and to reduce reliance of vegetable transplant growers on peat moss.  2. Department of Horticulture, National Chiayi UniverstiyThree agricultural residues such as mushroom spent substrate, coffee bagasse, and tea bagasse were used to develop a suitable growing media for plug seedling of several important vegetables (cabbages , tomatoes, peppers and melons) in Taiwan. The target of the study is to gradually decrease the demand of peat moss from different countries, create all year around production system and promote the more effective productivity, and increase the total income and profit of farmers. 3. Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung-Hsing UniverstiyCompared with direct sowing, transplants are a more reliable method of ensuring a uniform germination rate and rapid growth for horticultural crops of considerable economic value. One of the primary component of soilless medium for vegetable is peat, which is nonrenewable and increasingly costly. Composts are a suitable substitute for peat due to their characteristics similar to peat, resulting in the widespread usage of the composts in the formulation of soilless container medium. The purpose of this study is to develop the suppressive growth medium for vegetable transplants using coir, composts, rice shell charcoal, spent mushroom substrates, Trichoderma spp., peat, and perlite, reducing massive usage of peat. Eight media prepared from these components will be used to determine optical growing media for tomato and spinach. After sowing the seeds of these vegetable, the growth media will be inoculated with or without the spore suspension of Phytophthora spp., respectively. The germination rate will be recorded daily, and disease incidence and disease severity will be investigated at 5-6 weeks after sowing. The dry weight and nutrient content (NPKCa and Mg) of shoots and roots will be analyzed. The optimal growth media for each crop will be determined to reduce the use of peat for the production of vegetable transplants.(6)、Study on the Supplymental Light Technique of Tomato Production under Protected CultureIn the past centuries, tomato had become one of the worldwide popular fruits due to its high nutritional value, low in calories, tolerance to storage and transportation, diverse cooking methods, etc. In tomato production, high quality plants is one of the most important factors in obtaining good yields. The good yield and quality tomatoes are usually produced from greenhouse or protected culture. Light is one of the main factors limiting the yield of tomato plants grown under greenhouse. Limited amount of available natural sunlight and diminished light intensity in winter reduces the growth and yield of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Supplementation of artificial lights in greenhouse is a better approach to alleviate this drawback. The objective of this project is to evaluate the suitable light environment and culture system to product tomato and to investigate the effects of light quality, interlighting regimes to extend photoperiod and to increase light intensity on the growth and yield of greenhouse-grown tomatoes.(7)、The establishment of facility runner production systemStrawberry (Fragaria Xananasa Duch.) originated from North America and favors cool temperature. Since majority of commercial cultivars are short day plants, the production of strawberry is restricted in mid-autumn to late spring in low land of Taiwan. Moreover, the relative warm and humid growing environment makes strawberry much vulnerable to pathogen, and which results in over application of chemicals and food safety issue. Therefore, we intend to produce plug-grown strawberry plants from runners removed for fitting into facility production system for high quality fruits. The result of previous year, we demonstrated that feasibility of producing daughter plants by using plant factory produced runners as cuttages. In order to fit the cultural calendar of strawberry, the objective of this year is to evaluate the effect of cold storage on the survival rate of the cuttage.  (8)、Plant physiological index used in selecting het- and waterlogging-tolerant Chinese cabbageThe previous research results showed some physiological index of seedlings matched with the yields under heat and flooding in cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and cabbage. This project aims on detecting the efficiency of applying these phsiological and morphological index of seedlings to selecting heat and flooding tolerant cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and cabbage linesin three years, separately. (9)、Development of Treated Coir Substrates and Fertigation Nutrient for Cucumber Cultivation in Protective StructuresSubstrate culture of horticultural crops in the protective structures can reduce soil-borne pests and avoid salt accumulation in soil. Mixed peat is commonly used as the substrate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). But the global resource of peat declines year by year and the ore-source wetland suffers serious damage. Coir fiber dust is an abundant, cheap, environmentally friendly agricultural waste with physical and chemical properties similar with peat, which makes it a potential alternative to peat. However, treatment of coir fiber dust is required before being used as substrate. To effectively utilize coconut shell waste, this research aimed the treatment method of coir dust as the substrates to produce cucumber in the greenhouse. (10)、Study on nitrate content in leafy-vegetables under storage of different light environments and culture-system improvementThe nitrate content in vegetables has become a significant issue in recent years. In order to reduce not only the farming production cost, but also environmental stress, this project aims to establish appropriate fertilization strategies and storage of different light environments for vegetables by conventional farming systems or organic cultivation. It is hoped that the results of this study will promote vegetable production as well as ensure human health and safety, environmental friendliness, and sustainable operation. In this study, Pak-choi, spinach, and lettuce of the Cruciferace family were examined.(11)、Assessing application of non-pesticide chemicals on the yield and quality of plug seedling and vegetables under structures.(1) and Symposium of Development of vegetable production and enterprise.    5 non-pesticide chemical (Jasmonate、Salicylic acid 、phosphate acid、Hydrogen peroxide、 chitosan) were applied on the yield and quality of plug seedling and vegetables production under structures.(1) plug seedling and leafy vegetables were the target crops of the study were to reduce the use the pesticide and their residues , to improve the eating quality, increase the income of farmers anf competition of agriculture.
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