葉施不同濃度之鉀、鈣肥對番石榴葉片性狀及果實品質之影響

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作者: 陳玟瑾;賴文龍;陳鴻堂;黃建勝;黃一峰
刊名: 行政院農業委員會臺中區農業改良場研究彙報
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 2013
關鍵字: 番石榴; 葉面施肥; 氯化鉀; 氯化鈣; Guava; Psidium guajava L.; Foliar spray; Potassium chloride; Calcium chloride
摘要: 番石榴(Psidium guajava L.)為重要的亞熱帶及熱帶果樹,具有極高的商品及營養價值。彰化地區的番石榴生產採用周年生產的方式,因此,適當的土壤肥培管理及葉面營養補充施用為番石榴生產時重要的課題。惟有關番石榴葉面營養補充的資料甚缺。本研究於臺灣彰化溪州鄉現有之番石榴園區進行,試驗處理分別於葉面施用KCl 10 mM、KCl 40 mM、CaCl2 10 mM及CaCl2 40 mM兩次,施用間隔為7天,每處理三重複。試驗前後採取土壤及植體進行分析。試驗結果顯示,10 mM或40 mM氯化鉀及氯化鈣施用可顯著增進葉片長及葉片厚。施用10 mM的氯化鉀及氯化鈣兩處理對葉片中的氮、鋅、鐵等要素含量具有增進的作用,但對鉀、鎂及銅含量則有降低的效果。40 mM的氯化鈣施用可顯著提升番石榴果肉率及果實數量,且可顯著提升果實中磷、鉀、銅、錳、鋅及鐵的含量。因此,同時考慮葉片及果實的分析結果,推薦以7~10天為間隔施用10 mM氯化鉀及氯化鈣可顯著增進葉片的性狀,尤其是葉厚;而40 mM的氯化鈣施用則可顯著增進番石榴果實數量、果肉率及營養成分含量。Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a kind of important subtropical and tropical fruit tree having high commodity and nutritional value. Because of the whole year production in Changhua area, it is very important to adopt proper soil fertility management and leaf nutritional amendment. However, relevant researchs are still insufficient. This study was conducted in a guava farm located in Hsichou Township, Changhua, Taiwan. With 4 foliar spay treatments of KCl 10 mM, KCl 40 mM, CaCl2 10 mM, and CaCl2 40 mM on the guava leaves twice in seven days. Each treatment was desiged with three replicates. Soil and plant samples were analyzed before and after treatments. The results showed that 10 mM or 40 mM potassium chloride and calcium chloride applied could significantly enhance the leaf length and leaf thickness. Application of 10 mM potassium chloride and calcium chloride also enhanced the leaf nitrogen, zinc, and iron uptake but inhibited that of potassium, magnesium, and copper. 40 mM calcium chloride applied could significantly enhance the rate of guava pulp and fruit numbers, and significantly enhanced the phosphorus, potassium, copper, manganese, zinc and iron content in guava fruit. In consideration of the results from both leaf and fruit, it is recommended to administrate 10 mM potassium chloride and calcium chloride at 7-10 days of interval to enhance traits of the blade, especialty the leaf thickness, and also, to administrate 40 mM calcium chloride to increase the number of guava fruit pulp rate and nutrient content.
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