茉莉酸甲酯及水楊酸對椪柑果實採後病害及品質之影響

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論文名稱: 茉莉酸甲酯及水楊酸對椪柑果實採後病害及品質之影響
研究生姓名: 梁容瑜
指導教授姓名: 鍾曉航;郭純德
出版年: 2020
學校名稱: 國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系碩士班
關鍵字: 柑桔類;植物荷爾蒙;天然抗真菌劑;citrus;plant hormone;natural antifungal reagent
摘要: 柑桔類果實為臺灣重要食用果品之一,其產期集中於10月至翌年2月。利用合適之貯藏條件能維持較長的貯藏壽命,進而延長可販售的時間。真菌性病原,容易造成柑桔類果實採收後於貯藏期間的病害。其中以綠黴菌(Penicillium digitatum)造成之綠黴病(Green mould),以及青黴菌(Penicillium italicum Wehmer)造成之青黴病(Blue mould)較為常見,大多以化學防治。本論文以不同濃度之茉莉酸甲酯(Methyl jasmonate; MeJA)與水楊酸(Salicylic acid; SA)浸泡處理椪柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan)果實,觀察椪柑果實長期貯藏期間之腐爛率及品質變化。試驗結果顯示,茉莉酸甲酯處理對椪柑果實貯藏期間抑制腐爛效果不顯著。以2 mM水楊酸浸泡處理2分鐘,貯藏期間之腐爛率最低。然而,水楊酸之使用無劑量依賴性,10 mM水楊酸處理抑制腐爛效果較差。品質方面,水楊酸及茉莉酸甲酯處理不會使果實失重。且以聚乙烯袋包裝果實,能減緩失重率,避免果皮皺縮,影響外觀。水楊酸及茉莉酸甲酯處理,皆不會造成椪柑果實色澤、果汁率、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸及抗壞血酸含量之影響。貯藏12週後,椪柑果皮能正常轉變於橙黃色。水楊酸能有效降低腐爛率,而不影響果實品質,具有替代化學抗真菌劑之潛力。Citrus fruits belong to one of the most important fruit group in Taiwan and their harvest season is generally from October to next February. The suitable storage conditions can prolong the shelf life, thereby extending the time available for sale. The postharvest diseases of citrus fruits are mainly caused by fungal pathogens during storage. The green mold induced by Penicillium digitatum and blue mold caused by Penicillium italicum Wehmer are critical and common diseases which normally controlled using chemical reagents. The objects of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentration treatments of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) on Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan fruit by observing the decay rate and quality changes of the ‘ponkan’ fruits during long-term storage. In this study, the results demonstrated that there is no significant effect of MeJA on decay inhibition during storage of ‘ponkan’ fruits. The the lowest decay rate was found by soaked treatment with 2 mM SA for 2 minutes. However, threre is no dose-dependency of SA treatments and the less efficacy was observed in higher concentrations of 10 mM SA treatment. Regarding the fruit quality, SA and MeJA treatments didn’t cause the water loss of fruits during storage. Moreover, the polyethylene bag packaging could reduce water loss and avoid peel shrink resulting in the influence of fruit appearance. The treatment of SA and MeJA did not affect the peel color, juice content, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) and ascorbic acid content of ‘ponkan’ fruits. After 12 weeks of storage, the peel of ‘ponkan’ fruits could normally convert to orange-yellow color. The salicylic acid can effectively inhibit the decay and doesn’t affect the quality of ‘ponkan’ fruit which exhibited the potential for replacing chemical antifungal reagents.
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