苦瓜採後保鮮技術之研究

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論文名稱: 苦瓜採後保鮮技術之研究
研究生姓名: 游宗瀚
指導教授姓名: 梁佑慎
出版年: 2016
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 農園生產系所
關鍵字: 預冷溫度;成熟度;聚乙烯;1-甲基環丙烯;precooling temperature;maturity;polyethylene;1-methylcyclopropene
摘要: 本研究以‘月華’苦瓜與‘碧華’苦瓜為材料,透過不同預冷溫度與成熟度的貯藏,以及包裝方式與1-甲基環丙烯處理調查苦瓜於貯藏期間的物理化學變化,觀察其貯藏壽命與櫥架壽命變化,進一步作為外銷貯運最適合的貯運條件,以供農民及外銷業者在採收及外銷貯運上之參考。 ‘月華’和‘碧華’苦瓜在5℃貯藏條件下可以有效抑制呼吸速率及乙烯生成量,7分熟的果實雖然硬度與脆度下降幅度較6分熟大,但有較長的櫥架壽命與較低的離子滲漏率,而在總可溶性固形物、可滴定酸和貯藏壽命都沒有顯著性差異,因此,7分熟為較佳的採收成熟度。7℃預冷後普遍品質與10℃預冷沒有顯著差異,但7℃預冷有較高的抗壞血酸含量及較長的貯藏壽命。搭配聚乙烯袋包裝5℃下貯藏,可以有效延長苦瓜之貯藏壽命及櫥架壽命,並減輕寒害徵狀,延緩抗壞血酸下降,提高過氧化酵素、超氧化物歧化酶及過氧化氫酶酵素活性,抑制多酚氧化酵素活性提高,提高其抗氧化能力。1-MCP處理過後,雖然在硬度、脆度、可溶性固形物含量和離子滲漏率上並沒有顯著性的差異,但在貯藏中期可以較有效的維持抗壞血酸含量,且有有較長的貯藏壽命及櫥架壽命,因此,使用1-MCP處理為有效的採後處理技術。櫥架溫度方面,苦瓜在4℃回溫,櫥架壽命受寒害影響而極短,而在10℃下回溫,可以有效延長櫥架壽命,因此選擇在10℃做回溫櫥架,可以有效提升商品價值。This is a study based on the comparison of using two different types of bitter gourd(Momordica charantia L.) 'Yua Hua' and 'Bi Hua' as the study material to observer the chemical and physical changes in different precooling temperature, maturity, packaging and 1-methylcyclopropene(1-MCP) treatment during the process of storage. By observing its storage life and shelf life changes, we can now choose the most appropriate storage conditions for transportation. 'Yua Hua' and 'Bi Hua' bitter gourd has significantly inhibiting of respiratory rate and ethylene production at 5℃. Not only light green fruit’s firmness and crispness will decrease rapidly than dark green, but also has longer shelf life and lower electrolyte leakage(EL), in contrast of total soluble solid(TSS), titratable acidity(TA) content and storage life has no significantly differences, therefore, we can reach to an conclusion that light green was better maturity. Quality has no significantly differences between 7 and 10℃ precooling temperature, but had higher ascorbic acid ascorbic acid at 7℃ precooling temperature. To reach to the goals of reducing chilling injury, decrease ascorbic acid, increasing of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, bitter gourd has significantly extended storage life and shelf life by inhibiting of polyphenol oxidase activity and enhance the antioxidant capacity using packing polyethylene at 5℃. In spite of firmness, crispness, TSS content and EL has no significantly distinction, but could maintain the ascorbic acid content effectively, even has longer storage life and shelf life after 1-MCP treatment. When the bitter gourd return to 4℃, it has very short shelf life. But when the bitter gourd return to 10℃, it could extend the shelf life effectively. Therefore, we choice 10℃ for the return temperature, it could promoting commodity value effectively.
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