|關鍵字： 生產追溯系統；外銷潛力指標；外銷潛力評估方法；區塊鏈；農產品外銷；Products Production Traceability System；export potential indicator；method of assessment of export potential；Blockchain；Agricultural Products Export
|摘要： 一.區塊鏈系統平台建置與資料系統優化＜BR＞ 目前國內農產品的產銷履歷認證為TAP標章，認證範圍包括一般食用作物、有機作物、家禽、家畜、養殖水產品、畜禽加工品以及水產加工品等，依據「農產品生產及驗證管理法」的相關規範，主要針對農產品生產過程的安全用藥、風險管理、友善環境，以及產品採收後的農藥殘留進行檢測，確保農產品的品質及安全；其基本架構奠基於完整的法規與作業標準、資訊管理與追溯平台、公正獨立的第三方驗證以及其他配套措施等要素，所依循的規範是臺灣良好農業規範TGAP(Taiwan Good Agriculture Practice)。對消費者而言，可以透過產銷履歷的資訊揭露，瞭解農產品的產銷過程記錄，促進消費信心並可防範食品安全問題之產生。＜BR＞ 全球經濟成長與生活品質的提升使市場對農產品的安全問題更加重視，對具有產銷履歷的優質農產品之需求也明顯增加，尤其是符合全球優良農業規範(Global G.A.P.)的認證農產品，更是市場上熱銷與價格的保證。但是，國內農產品標章認證的專業性、公正性以及可信賴度，一直遭遇很多的質疑，尤其是履歷登錄過程的人為因素與不透明性，通過履歷認證卻還是被檢出農藥殘留等安全疑慮的案例仍時有所聞，讓原先立意良好之產銷履歷制度蒙上陰霾。有鑑於消費者對農產品履歷認證及資訊來源的疑慮，近年來有業者嘗試利用區塊鏈(Blockchain)技術，讓一群互聯的電腦安全的共同維護每一筆被登錄的資料，並藉由其資訊透明、不可竄改以及儲存每筆資料寫入時間之可溯源特性，導入產銷履歷系統使其安全性及可信賴度大幅提高，消費者只要查詢代碼就能對農產品的來源一清二楚，而生產者或貿易商也能因為這些資料的透明化，自我監督、確保自家產品符合各項規定與要求，同時也能為產品建立ID以防止不肖業者仿冒商品。＜BR＞ 本計畫擬針對外銷農產品產銷履歷及溯源問題，完成臺灣農業區塊鏈系統平台之建置，並以技轉或輔導方式協助一家外銷業者完成示範場域相關系統導入，促進業者在農產品外銷經營管理之效率。次外，也蒐集分析特定目標市場的情資與動態情報，提高業者在外銷拓展策略規劃之精準度。＜BR＞＜BR＞二.農產品外銷潛力指標評估與應用研究＜BR＞＜P＞發展外銷須有明確之目標與策略，欲加入之業者不僅須具備國際經營能力，也須要針對有潛力且能觸及之目標市場的產業供應鏈、利害關係人、市場需求、消費型態、競爭情況皆要有所瞭解，而出口貿易商認為國際貿易失敗原因，多為錯估出口市場。而出口貿易商決定出口產品品項時，多會從市場需求與障礙兩方面進行考量。而因不同外銷市場之需求(正向)與進入障礙(負向)有所差異且評估內容多散布於各種資料庫中，要蒐集具廣度產業資料進行綜合分析耗費時間，故為提供擬定外銷策略時之基礎資料，本計畫106年起開始建立外銷潛力評估指標架構與分析指標內容。本年度計劃將進行評估指標架構對於農產品外銷潛力分析之適用性，將106年之架構透過專家會議，邀集產業與學研界，進行內容實用性調整，並藉由評估內容作為平台，促進產官學界之互動，另為提升實用性，也將外銷潛力分析模組製作為手冊。Ⅰ.Construction of Taiwan 's Agricultural Blockchain Platform System and Data System Optimization＜BR＞ At present, the certification of production and sales of agricultural products in Taiwan is TAP mark. The scope of certification includes general food crops, organic crops, poultry, livestock, aquaculture products, processed livestock and poultry products and aquatic products. Based on the relevant norms of "Law of the Administration of Production and Validation of Agricultural Products", it mainly conducts safety drug use, risk management, friendly environment and detection of pesticide residue after harvesting of agricultural products to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products. Its basic structure is based on the full set of regulations and practices, information management and traceability platform, fair and independent third-party verification and other supporting measures, and is governed by the Taiwan Good Agriculture Practice (TGAP). For consumers, information disclosure of production and sales resumes can help to understand the records of production and sales of agricultural products, promote consumer confidence and prevent food safety problems.＜BR＞ The global economic growth and improvement of quality of life have given the market more emphasis on the safety of agricultural products. There has also been a notable increase in the demand for good quality agricultural products with sales records. Above all, certified agricultural products conforming to Global G.A.P. are even more prominently sold and better priced on the market. However, the professionalism, impartiality and credibility of the domestic agricultural product certification have always encountered a lot of questions. In particular, the human factors and opacity in the process of registering the resumes are still some cases of security concerns such as pesticide residues still being detected through the curriculum vitae certification, which cast a shadow over the original production and sales resume system. In view of consumers' doubts about certification of agricultural products resumes and sources of information, in recent years, there has been an attempt by the industry to utilize blockchain technology to allow a group of interconnected computers to safely maintain each of the log-in information and, through its information transparency , Non-tamper-proof and traceable features for storing each data entry time, the introduction of a sales history system to significantly increase its security and reliability. Consumers can find out the source of agricultural products simply by searching for codes. Producers or traders can also ensure that their products comply with various norms and requirements because of the transparency and self-monitoring of such information. At the same time it can also create ID for the product, in order to prevent unscrupulous operators counterfeit goods.＜BR＞ The project plans to address the issue of export sales of agricultural products and traceability issues and complete the establishment of Taiwan's agricultural blockchain system platform. The project will also assist one exporter to complete the import of demonstration-area related systems through technology transfer or counseling and promote the export operation of agricultural products management efficiency. In addition, it also collects and analyzes the intelligence and dynamic information of specific target markets to improve the accuracy of the industry's strategic planning for export expansion.＜BR＞＜BR＞Ⅱ.Application of agriculture products export potential assessment indicators＜BR＞ Successful export strategy need to have a clear business model and solid information source. International traders not only need to have international business operation capabilities, but also are expert at finding demands of target market, stakeholders of supply chain, consumption trend. Mostly traders know that misjudge the export market will lead serious failure. When traders decided that which product items can be exported, they will compare market demands whith obstacles. But accumulate these data from differant database and conduct a comprehensive analysis is difficault and is a time-consuming process. Since106, our lab's research team establish export potential assessment index structure.This year we plan to assess the applicability of these indicators for analysis the export potential of agricultural products.