臺中區果樹育種及栽培技術改進(第3年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 臺中區果樹育種及栽培技術改進(第3年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 張林仁
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 100農科-4.2.2-中-D1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會台中區農業改良場
全程計畫年: 2011
關鍵字: 鮮食葡萄;Table grape;釀酒葡萄;Wine grape;育種;Breeding;引種;Introduce;雜交;Hybrid;選種;Selection;葡萄;Grape;LED;Light Emitting Diode;電照;Lighting;葡萄;grapevine;結果枝;bearing branch;抑梢;shooting control;梨;pear;育種;breeding;果實貯存;fruit storage;生石灰;calcined lime;番石榴;guava;品質;quality;生產體系;production system
摘要: (一)、台灣鮮食及釀酒葡萄之育種: 為增進品種多樣化並促進產業發展,選育適合台灣栽培之鮮食及加工品種。本計畫本年持續進行新品系特性調查,進行鮮食葡萄及釀酒葡萄雜交育種,並進行新品系實生苗之管理與相關性狀調查。本計畫並引進四倍體大果粒及特殊果型之品種,進行適應性觀察。 (二)、以LED燈夜間電照促進葡萄生長技術之研究: 以LED不同光源夜間電促進葡萄枝梢生長並提高著果率,生產優良早春溫室葡萄,拓展外銷,使葡萄產業永續發展,以LED燈取代傳統燈泡,達到節能減碳之效益。 (三)、巨峰葡萄結果枝抑梢之研究: 臺灣葡萄經產期調節處理後,其萌生之新梢為當季結果枝;此時新梢之抽長狀況會明顯影響日後花穗的結果情形及結果枝的品質。因此,農友為確保著果良好,經常以各種葉面施肥方式來進行抑梢處理;但其成效並不穩定且也影響到果穗的發育。本研究利用盆栽方式先探求何種肥料可達實際抑梢效果後,再將該肥料依不同濃度應用於田間栽培上,並調查其對果穗品質的影響。 (四)、梨育種及改善新品種梨貯藏力之研究: 利用雜交育種選育適合於低海拔地區栽培之梨新品種,使低海拔梨品種多樣化,提高梨產業競爭力。應用栽培管理技術,改善已育成新品種梨果低溫貯存力,解決推廣種植最大問題,有效降低生產成本,進而提昇國產梨之產業發展。 (五)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-番石榴生產技術之改進: 中部地區番石榴栽培面積約有1500公頃,一般果農均未塑造適當的樹型,因此樹勢不均一,以致植株生產力及果實品質不易提昇。本年度施用不同有機質進行果園生產環境改善,探討對改善果園土壤及番石榴果實品質之效益。測試以防蟲網覆蓋生產番石榴夏果,觀察與一般套袋果實之生長發育及品質上之差異。並進行不同程度留果摘心處理,觀察對番石榴果實生長與品質之影響。預期效益為,以適合之修剪摘心及留果方式與有機肥等耕作處理方法,尋求適當管理技術以提高番石榴之生產力及果實品質。建立番石榴栽培管理技術標準化作業流程,可降低生產成本,生產優質安全的果品,提昇產業之發展與市場競爭力,並拓展國內外市場。(1) The breeding of table and wine grape in Taiwan For the purpose of increasing variety diversity, the project of this program is to select suitable varieties of table grape and wine grape in Taiwan. For the breeding in table and wine grape, the investigstion of characteristics of new crossing lines will be continued, and the management of seedlings of the new lines is conducted. Meanwhile, the adaptive test of introduced varieties with bigger or unique berry shape will be observed. The expected results of this project conclude enhancement of variety diversification of grape and then to promote the development of grape industry. (2) Improving Grape Shoot Growth by LED Light Supplementation Light-emitting diode(LED) technology is rapidly developing with high-quality, long-lived and durable sources to become commercially available at an affordable cost. In this study to evaluate the benefit of LEDs on green house grape shoots growth and fruit setting. And to produce high quality grape on early-spring with LEDs supplementation. (3) Studies on the Control of Bearing Branch in Grapevine cv. 'Kyoho' In Taiwan, the sprouting shoot of 'Kyoho' grapevine after forcing culture treatment was the bearing branch on season, which development status could make a significant influence to the fruiting and quality of grape in the future. Consequently, the farmer made a practice of foliar fertilization in various ways to try to control the shoot growth for well fruiting, but the outcome was so changeful and detrimental for quality of fruit cluster, simultaneously. The aim of this study will to make sure what kinds of fertilizer are effective control the shoot growth in pot experiment, which could be try in different concentrations in field and to investigate the effect upon the quality of fruit clusters. (4) The pear breeding and storage capacity improvement of new varieties of pear By cross-breeding breeding for low-elevation cultivation of new varieties of pears, pear varieties of low-elevation diversity, enhance industrial competitiveness pear. Application of cultivation and management techniques, Improve the low temperature storage of pear new varieties have been bred. promote the cultivation of the biggest porblems to solve, reduce production cost, and improve domestic pear industry. (5) Team of Tropical Fruits Research- Improvement on Production Technique of Guava The planted acreage of guava in Taichung district area was 1500ha. The farmers usually did not train a good tree shape for production, consequently the tree vigor is uneven and the fruit quality are not easy to improve. In this year, the orchard environment is to be improved by the application of organic materials, the improvement of the orchard soil and guava fruit quality will be discussed. A net house will be constructed to cover the guava tree during summer fruit production period, the fruit growth and quality will be observed. The investigation on the guava fruit growth and quality after different leaf/fruit ratio treatment will also conducted. The proper technique can be used to enhance the productivity and fruit quality of guava. The establishment of the high quality and safety production system for guava can build up a complete system of cultural management and production technique standard. The production cost can be lower down and produce high quality guava fruits, the marketing competitiveness is enhanced too.
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