臺中區果樹育種及栽培技術改進(第4年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 臺中區果樹育種及栽培技術改進(第4年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 張林仁
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 101農科-9.2.2-中-D1(Z)
計畫主管機構:
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會台中區農業改良場
全程計畫年: 2012
關鍵字: 鮮食葡萄;Table grape;釀酒葡萄;Wine grape;雜交;Hybrid;育種;Breeding;引種;Introduce;選種;Selection;葡萄;Grape;發光二極體;Light Emitting Diode;電照;Lighting;紅龍果;pitaya;批次花期調節;flushes forcing culture;果實品質;fruit quality;砂梨;Pyrus pyrifolia;低溫需求;Chilling Requirement;椪柑;'Ponkan' mandarin;轉色;Coloration;檢疫處理;Quarantine Treatment;番石榴;Guava;品質;Quality;網室;Net-house
摘要: (一)、臺灣鮮食及釀酒葡萄之育種 為增進品種多樣化並促進產業發展,選育適合台灣栽培之鮮食及加工品種。本計畫本年持續進行新品系特性調查,進行鮮食葡萄及釀酒葡萄雜交育種,並進行新品系實生苗之管理與相關性狀調查。本計畫並引進四倍體大果粒及特殊果型之品種,進行適應性觀察。 (二)、以LED燈夜間電照促進葡萄生長技術之研究 台灣葡萄栽培利用修剪配合藥劑處理的方法,結合搭建透明塑膠布之溫室栽培,可較一般露地栽培之夏果提早2-3個月採收。但由於溫室生產葡萄在生育初期易遭受寒流低溫傷害,造成枝梢過短及著果不良,結果與品質並不穩定,配合在萌芽後至開花期間進行電照,可增長枝梢長度並提高結果率,產期提早至4月底5月初採收,本研究以LED不同光源夜間電促進葡萄枝梢生長並提高著果率,生產優良早春溫室葡萄,拓展外銷,促進葡萄產業發展,以LED燈取代傳統燈泡,達到節能減碳之效益。 (三)、改善紅龍果產期及品質之研究 紅龍果是一種具有特殊風味、色澤艶麗且多汁的熱帶水果,在臺灣深具市場潛力,惟其每批次花苞形成期過於集中,使得收穫期一致而影響售價;另其果實品質不穩定也是紅龍果產業發展的瓶頸之一。因此本計畫研究目的在於利用刪除部份花蕾批次以達錯開批次花期效益,並調查紅龍果不同生育程度枝條之果實品質差異,以探求其是否為造成果實品質不穩定的因子。 (四)、梨育種及改善梨貯藏力之研究 雜交後代培育:進行植株之催芽、施肥、病蟲害防治等田間管理工作。並進行雜交後代果實性狀調查,初期淘汰果實不耐冷藏及生育差之雜交後代,留存果實耐冷藏品系進行後續評估,預估淘汰96年雜交後代100株以上。。 已育成福來梨、晶圓梨及晶翠梨,應用肥培管理技術,改善梨果品質,延長低溫貯存期達1個月以上,解決育成品種推廣最大問題,推廣種植面積取代高接梨,有效降低梨果生產成本,進而提昇國內梨產業發展。 (五)、椪柑品質改進之研究 椪柑為中部地區重要的果樹產業之一,為配合椪柑外銷作業,提早採收椪柑予以低溫檢疫處理為整個產銷作業必要之流程。早採椪柑由於轉色程度不足,雖經採後催色及貯藏仍無法完全轉為橙黃色。經由外施益收及硫磺粉等促進果實轉色物質,以及加強果實生長後期的肥培管理。預期能增加採收前果實的著色程度進而提高外銷椪柑的品質。 (六)、利用簡易網室栽培以改進番石榴果實品質之研究 中部地區番石榴栽培面積約有1500公頃,一般果農均未塑造適當的樹型,因此樹勢不均一,以致植株生產力及果實品質不易提昇。本年度測試以簡易防蟲網室栽培方式生產番石榴,觀察與一般套袋果實之生長發育及品質上之差異。並進行不同程度留果摘心處理,觀察對番石榴果實生長與品質之影響。預期效益為,以適合之修剪摘心及留果方式與有機肥等耕作處理方法,尋求適當管理技術以提高番石榴之生產力及果實品質。建立番石榴栽培管理技術標準化作業流程,可降低生產成本,生產優質安全的果品,提昇產業之發展與市場競爭力,並拓展國內外市場。(1) The Breeding of Table and Wine Grape in Taiwan For the purpose of increasing variety diversity, the project of this program is to select suitable varieties of table grape and wine grape in Taiwan. For the breeding in table and wine grape, the investigstion of characteristics of new crossing lines will be continued, and the management of seedlings of the new lines is conducted. Meanwhile, the adaptive test of introduced varieties with bigger or unique berry shape will be observed. The expected results of this project conclude enhancement of variety diversification of grape and then to promote the development of grape industry. (2) Improving Grape Shoot Growth with LED Light Supplementation In Taiwan, pruning and chemical treatment techniques have been widely used to break the dormancy of the grapevine buds. Combining with simple facility house and electric illumination application, which can enhance the shoot growth and pollination to produce high yield and premium quality fresh grape in central Taiwan with lighting supplement. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is rapidly developing with high-quality, long-lived and durable sources to become commercially available at an affordable cost. In this study to evaluate the benefit of LEDs on PE house grape shoot growth and fruit setting. And to produce high quality grape on April and May with LEDs supplementation for saving energy and reducing carbon emission. (3) Studies on forcing culture and enhancing fruit quality of pitaya Pitaya is a tropical juicy fruit, which has characteristic flavor and color. It is a potential fruit in fresh market commodity of Taiwan. There are two choke points in pitaya industry, which one is low price inducing by flush of flower-bud so close and another is fruit quality unsteady. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this study is to remove all flower-bud of part flushes for the period of following flushes are staggered, and to seek the factors of fruit quality unsteady by investigating the fruit quality of three different degrees in growth maturity, including current-season sprouting shoot, two-year-old shoot and three-year-old shoot. (4) The pear breeding and stroage capacity improvement of new varieties of pear 1. Hybrids cultivation: the plant's enhance bud emergence, fertilization, pest control and other field management, and the hybrid offspring fruit character investigation, and poor fertility of hybrids. Forecast out more than 100 hybrids. 2. Application has been bred Taichung No.1, Taichung No.2 and Taichung No.3 pear field management technology to improve pear quality, extend the low-temperature storage period of 1 month or more, to solve the biggest problem to promote modern varieties. planting area instead of topgrafting pears, pome reduce production costs, thereby enhancing the development of the domestic pear industry. (5) Improving Fruit Quality in 'Ponkan' Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) 'Ponkan' mandarin is an important fruit industry in central Taiwan. Mandarin has to be harvested early before the low-temperature quarantine treatment for citrus export. Therefore, half-green 'Ponkan' can not turn to orange-yellow color after ethylene-degreening and storage treatment. Using ethephon and sulfur before harvest and enhancing the fertilizer management during late period of fruit development can increase the rate of coloration for early-harvested mandarin and improve the quality of exported 'Ponkan'. (6) Improving Fruit Quality of Guava by means of Simple Net-House Culture The planted acreage of guava in Taichung district area was 1500ha. The farmers usually did not train a good tree shape for production, consequently the tree vigor is uneven and the fruit quality is not easy to improve. In this year, the orchard environment is to be improved by the application of organic materials, the improvement of the orchard soil and guava fruit quality will be discussed. A net house is constructed to cover the guava tree during fruit production period, the fruit growth and quality will be observed. The investigation on the guava fruit growth and quality after different leaf/fruit ratio treatment will also conducted. The proper technique can be used to enhance the productivity and fruit quality of guava. The establishment of the high quality and safety production system for guava can build up a complete system of cultural management and production technique standard. The production cost can be lower down and produce high quality guava fruits, the marketing competitiveness is enhanced too.
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