臺中區果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進

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計畫名稱: 臺中區果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進
計畫主持人: 張致盛
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 93農科-1.1.2-中-D1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會台中區農業改良場
全程計畫年: 2004
關鍵字:
摘要: 1. 葡萄育種及生產技術改進:本試驗探討葡萄健康曲之生長與結果習性,尋找最適合的管理方法,俾能逐年更新本省樹勢衰老之葡萄園,以提高生產力與品質,並增強葡萄在市場的競爭力。本試驗採用巨峰品種,比較組織培養與一般栽培園之生育與結果特性之差異。在各生長期採取植株葉片後,以酵素連結免疫球蛋白方法(ELISA)檢查GLRAV(葡萄捲葉病毒)、GVA(葡萄A病毒)、GFLV(葡萄扇葉病毒),調查其再感染之百分率,追蹤種植後在田間再感染病毒情形。葡萄調節產期技術已普遍應用在田間生產,現生產模式有夏果、秋果、冬果及春果(溫室)等四種,由於不同產期生育環境差異,植株生長量與品質皆不相同,本試驗目的為調查不同生產模式之生長量與果實品質,以建立不同產期生長階段的生育管理基準,提升葡萄品質及競爭力。葡萄引進台灣已超過1000個品種,但缺乏有系統之保存,本試驗目的為建立田間品種保存圃,以做為更進一步之利用及研究。 2. 梨育種及生產新模式之開發:評選鮮食品質優良之品系,進行貯藏力試驗及生育資料之調查。試驗材料為以豐水及幸水品種與橫山梨雜交之後代選出之18-19、06-04、10-29等品系,提供接穗,高接於橫山梨上,調查各品系之果實品質、花芽形成、枝條生育情形、萌芽情形等。預期效益為育成適合於低海拔地區栽培之高品質、耐貯藏且能產期調節之梨品種。梨生產新模式之開發方面,在1月間在低海拔地區高接低需冷性品種,於2-3月間在高海拔地區高接新雪、今春秋等具有特色之梨品種,新梢以拉枝方法處理以促進花芽形成。 3. 改善甜柿落果及果實生理障礙之研究:甜柿為中部地區具有潛力之果樹,栽培面積不斷增加。本試驗目的為探討生理落果及生理障礙,試驗利用產地果園進行,瞭解台灣中部甜柿改善品質栽培及管理方法。 4. 番石榴及枇杷品質改進之研究:中部地區番石榴栽培面積約有1727公頃,一般果農均未塑造適當的樹型,樹勢不均一,以致生產力及果實品質不易提昇。本試驗將幼年樹塑造良好樹型以促進生產力;在成年樹利用不同修剪方法、疏果及不同肥培方式等處理,調整株高及枝幹分佈,比較不同耕作處理之產能及果實品質。預期效益為,從幼年樹養成適合樹型,以穩定生產力,並尋求適合之修剪摘心及留果方式與肥培耕作處理方法,尋求適當管理技術以提高番石榴之生產力及果實品質。本省枇杷大部份種植於地力稍差的山坡地,擬就不同氣候環境下之結果枝形質、花芽分化、開花生理與習性、果實生長過程等基本觀察著手,並探討以遮光、降溫等促進花芽形成之方法,以尋求枝條生育管理、調節花期及提高果實品質的可行方法。預期效益為,提早枇杷花芽分化,並促使早花之著果良好且穩定產量,可提早產期並延長供貨期,加農民收益。 5. 龍眼核生物活性及其利用之研究:龍眼自古被視為果中神品,以根、葉、假種皮(龍眼肉)及種子(龍眼核)入藥。種子含皂式、色素、氨基酸、2-氨基-4-羥基甲基-己-5-炔酸、2-氨基-4-羥基-庚-6-炔酸、脂肪油及鞣質。種子油含二氫蘋婆酸。據古書記載,龍眼核可用於治療胃痛、燒燙傷、刀傷出血、疳氣痛、外傷出血等,本研究擬以「粉殼」及「十月」兩品種之龍眼種子為材料,除嘗試測定其可能存在的抗菌活性外,亦將對龍眼核可能存在的活性功效(如抗氧化活性等)進行測定。1. Improvement in Variety and Production Techniques of Grapes: The main purpose of the study is to establish a reasonable management system for vineyard by means of investigating the growth and fruiting of grapevines from tissue culture. It will be transferred in the renewal of the weakening old vineyards to improve the productivity as well as quality and to enhance the competitiveness of grape in the market. The comparisons on the growth of grapevine and the fruit quality between the tissue culture plants and the conventional vineyard of "Kyoho" grape are take place in the planting-trial vineyards, and the re-infection rate of viruses such as GLRAV, GVA and GFLV are examined through ELISA assay. The regulation technique as a management practice to producing multiple harvests in a year was common in grapevine management. The culture models were summer crop, autumn crop, winter crop and spring crop in greenhouse. Due to environment of growth and development in four culture models are different, plant growth and fruit quality is diversify. The experiment ant is to investigate the growth parameters and fruit quality of different culture models, to establish the optimal management standard of each growth stage in different crop seasons, and to enhance the quality and competitiveness of grapevine in TaiwanGrape has been introduced to Taiwan for more 1000 varieties, but the germplasm need to be collected and preserved by a systematic method. The project of this the experiment is to establish germplasm preservation in field. For the observation horticultural characteristics, the parents of hybrid and planted for production. 2. Breeding and the Development of New Production Practices of Pears: The purpose of this program is to improve fruit quality of pear, and to breed new varieties with low chilling requirement, longer storage period as well as disease resistance or tolerance. The breeding materials was the hybrids of Hosui × Hengshan and Kousui × Hengshan, their flower bud scions were top-grafted on the Hengshan pear tree. The fruit quality, flower bud formation, shoot growth and bud break were estimated. And then to choose varieties suitable for growing in low lands. 3. Studies on Improvement of Fruit Drop and Physiological Disorder in Non-astringent Persimmon: The non-astringent persimmon is a potential crop in Taiwan and culture acreage is increasing. The purpose of this study is to investigation the physiological drop and physiological disorders in non-astringent persimmon. The experiment was take places local orchard. To improvement of culture and practice methods for non-astringent persimmon in central Taiwan. 4. Fruit Quality Improvement of Guava and Loquat: The planted acreage of guava in Taichung district area was 1727 ha. The farmers usually did not train a good tree shape for production, consequently the tree vigor is uneven and the productivity and the fruit quality are not easy to improve. In this study, the tree shape was established in the young trees to enhance the productivity. The combinations of different pruning, fruit-thinning and fertilization treatments are applied to matured guava trees. The expected results of proper technique can be used to enhance the productivity and fruit quality of guava. Most of the loquat in Taiwan is planted in the slop land with low fertility. In this study, the shoot quality, flower bud formation, flowering physiology and fruit growth are observed. The treatments that induce flower bud formation, such as shading and temperature alleviating, were applied to the loquat trees, the tree management and orchard practice on production season regulation and fruit quality enhancement will be discussed. The expected results of proper technique can be used to advance the flower bud formation and fruit setting and to prolong the marketing period of loquat. 5. Study on the Biological Activity and Use of the Seed of Euphoria longana: Euphoria longana Lour. is one of the plants of Sapindaceae family, distributed in Taiwan and Southern China. People always use the roots, leaves, aril, and seeds of longan as drug. Euphoria longana contain saponin, pigments, amino acids, 2-amino-4-hydroxymet-hylhex-5-ynoic acid, 2-am-ino-4-hydroxyhept-6-ynoic acid, coating oil, and tannin. Dihydrosterulic acid can also be found in seed oil. In this study, we will try to determine whether the longan seed have the activity to inhibit the growth of microbial, or if they can fight the oxygen stress.
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