“翠玉”和“黑葉”荔枝果實發育及貯藏之研究

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論文名稱: “翠玉”和“黑葉”荔枝果實發育及貯藏之研究
研究生姓名: 葉育琪
指導教授姓名: 李堂察;林芳存
出版年: 2008
學校名稱: 國立嘉義大學
系所名稱: 農學研究所
關鍵字: 荔枝;果實;發育;貯藏;溫度;品質;Litchi;fruit;development;storage;temperature;quality
摘要: 本研究目的探討“翠玉”與“黑葉”荔枝果實發育期間形質變化及溫度對果實貯藏壽命和品質之影響。兩品種果重、縱徑、橫徑、果皮重、種子重、可溶性固形物等隨果實發育而增加,可滴定酸含量則隨果實發育而下降。由果重、縱徑與橫徑所得之生長曲線顯示,“翠玉”與“黑葉”荔枝果實呈S型曲線生長。 “翠玉”荔枝果實成熟期果皮為綠中帶微紅。“翠玉”果肉率79.54±2.66%大於“黑葉”70.41±3.08%,種子重1.00±0.41g則小於“黑葉”2.23±0.43g。可溶性固形物亦以“翠玉”18.93±0.50。Brix高於“黑葉”16.93±0.64。Brix,可滴定酸含量皆下降至0.02±0.01%。“翠玉”葉綠素總量、葉綠素a和b之含量較“黑葉”荔枝高。有機酸以蘋果酸為主,其次包含抗壞血酸、酒石酸、醋酸、檸檬酸、草酸、琥珀酸,果實發育初期以抗壞血酸含量最高,琥珀酸僅於果實成熟期含量極低。糖類以蔗糖、果糖、葡萄糖為主,荔枝果實發育初期果糖與葡萄糖含量很低,隨果實生長發育而增加,蔗糖則隨果實生長發育而下降。 “翠玉”與“黑葉”荔枝果實在2℃與6℃貯藏果皮褐化迅速,4℃果皮褐化情形緩慢,可溶性固形物含量亦維持較高。因此,4℃為荔枝果實適當貯藏溫度。“翠玉”在4℃貯藏1個月後,可溶性固形物為18.88±0.32。Brix,耐貯性優於“黑葉”。“翠玉”與“黑葉”荔枝在25℃、5℃、4℃和2℃貯藏期間均無明顯之乙烯更年峰出現,由貯藏期間之呼吸率及乙烯產生率之變化趨勢,顯示“翠玉”及“黑葉”果實應屬非更年性果實。The fruit development and physiology aspect of ‘Tsuey yuh’ and ‘Hak Ip’ litchi fruit were investigated in the test. Results indicated that the growth of litchi fruit was a single sigmoid curve with fresh weight, length and width growth in succession. The fresh weight, length, width, pericarp weight, seed weight and total soluble solids of fruit increased following fruit development. Titratable acidity content were decreased with fruit development. The color of ‘Tsuey yuh’ mature fruit skin is green with mild red. The flesh percentage of ‘Tsuey yuh’ litchi fruit was higher than that of ‘Hak Ip’ which were 79.54±2.66 % and 70.41±3.08 % , respectively. But the seed weight of ‘Tsuey yuh’ was smaller than ‘Hak Ip’ which were 1.00±0.41 g and 2.23±0.43 g, respectively. The total soluble solids content of ‘Tsuey yuh’ litchi fruit was higher than ‘Hak Ip’ which were 18.93±0.50。Brix and 16.93±0.64。Brix, respectively. The titratable acidity content of both were decreased to 0.02±0.01 %. The total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content of ‘Tsuey yuh’ litchi fruit was higher than that of ‘Hak Ip’. The organic acids components in the fruit were malic acid, The highest organic acids content was ascorbic acid at earlier stage, and it decreased rapidly following fruit mature. The major soluble sugars components in the fruit were sucrose, fructose and glucose. The fructose and glucose content was low at earlier stage, and it increased with fruit mature. The sucrose was decreased with fruit mature. Changes in pericarp browning, quality of ‘Tsuey yuh’ and ‘Hak Ip’ litchi fruit which were stored at different temperatures were investigated. All the results indicated that 4℃ was the most suitablt temperature for maintaining litchi fruit quality. Fruit stored at 4℃ had lowest browing score, and highest total soluble solids content than those stored at 2℃ and 6℃. ‘Tsuey yuh’ was the most suitable cultivar to store, while ‘Hak Ip’ was the least. The fruits of ‘Tsuey yuh’ and ‘Hak Ip’ were stored at 2℃, 4℃, 5℃ and 25℃ to investigate respiratory rate and ethylene produced rate. The result showed that there were no climacteric respiration and ethylene peak clearly in both cultivars. It was indicated that ‘Tsuey yuh’ and ‘Hak Ip’ were non-climacteric pattern fruits.
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