秋冬季重點蔬菜之採後損失改善

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單位商業會員附件下載:
計畫名稱: 秋冬季重點蔬菜之採後損失改善
計畫主持人: 林慧玲
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 110農科-4.2.4-糧-Z2(Z)
計畫主管機構: 農委會農糧署
計畫執行機構: 國立中興大學
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 冷凍青花菜;Frozen Broccoli;抗氧化物;antioxidant;總酚類化合物;Total phenolic compound;FRAP;Ferric. Reducing / Antioxidant Power assay;DPPH;2,2‘-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl;甘藍;Cabbage;採後處理;Postharvest handling;預冷;Precooling;含水量;Water content;胡蘿蔔;Carrot;貯藏性病害;Postharvest diseases;貯藏性生理病害;Postharvest disorders;乙烯;ethylene;1-MCP;1-Methylcyclopropene;休眠;dormancy
摘要: 新鮮及國產冷凍青花菜營養成份及抗氧化力及抗氧化物質之分析 本計畫進行冬季國產冷凍青花菜、不同地區進口冷凍青花菜與夏季進口新鮮青花菜營養成分及抗氧化能力之分析並比較其差異性,另外比較分析不同成熟度採收之青花菜花球之貯藏期及冷凍後營養成分及抗氧化能力之差異,及烹調方式之適口性,以舒緩冬季青花菜產季過於集中,及冷凍加工廠排程之壓力,並透過製作推廣宣傳品,提供消費者正確資訊,以利凸顯冷凍青花菜之營養價值,進一步促銷國產冷凍青花菜並提高消費量,補足國產夏季新鮮青花菜供應量之缺口。 不同季節甘藍採後應用真空預冷條件及延長貯運期技術建立與推薦 本計畫係針對秋冬季重點蔬菜產業之關切議題,為紓解國產甘藍內銷供過於求問題增進甘藍外銷競爭力及延長國內貯藏長期,擬藉肥培技術改進以降低採前生理障礙發生率。本試驗將建立軟種和硬種甘藍最佳真空預冷條件,並利用不同資材包裝甘藍菜降低損耗,藉由調查各項品質指標建立改善方法。經預冷處理後的甘藍以不同厚度塑膠袋進行包裝作業於 1℃ 進行貯藏 10-12 週。每三週取樣回溫行行調查,包含失重率、腐爛率、整修率,除葉數有無異味及外觀色澤變化以評估商品價值。於110 年對於甘藍主要栽培品種’初秋’(軟種)及硬種品系進行試驗,期能在貯藏過程降低損耗 5% 及延長貯運期至 10-12 週,使國產甘藍經長期貯運能有競爭力。 胡蘿蔔貯藏性病害之克服 本研究主要目的是提高經低溫貯藏後的胡蘿蔔品質並利用採收處理技術延長貯藏期以調節市場價格。為降低生理病害,將比較正常和黑心胡蘿蔔營養原元(氮、磷、鉀、鈣、鎂、硼)的含量,提供較適合的肥培管理條件改善採前品質減少生理病害發生機率。除此之外,利用不同濃度(20-80 ppm)消毒水(次氯酸水和次氯鈉)進行殺菌作業後調查病斑和病徵發生率,易造成採後病害的微生物將用 PDA 或 V8 培養基進行分離及鑑定。經清洗殺菌後的胡蘿蔔將搭配不同的包裝材料行貯藏條件測試,於 1℃ 貯藏5 個月,每個月對試驗材料進行調查,包含失重率、腐爛率、有無異味及外觀色澤變化。期望借由各種不同的採後處理方法提高長期貯藏後的品質並降低生理及貯藏性病害發生率。 洋蔥貯藏期間抑制腐損與發芽之技術研究 台灣洋蔥因品種、田間停止灌溉時間短、休眠強度低和癒傷時間短等因素,使得洋蔥貯藏期間的發芽、腐損率皆高於進口洋蔥,貯藏壽命則短於進口洋蔥。由於台灣洋蔥主要產期集中12月-隔年4月,配合貯藏可供貨至7月,故每年8-12月市場以進口洋蔥供應為主,為減少對於進口洋蔥的依賴,延長台灣洋蔥的供應期,如何有效延長台灣洋蔥貯藏壽命為重要課題。110年計畫欲利用採前植物生長調節劑-益收(乙烯)處理評估對台灣洋蔥採後休眠強度提升效果,並評估採後癒傷處理時間對台灣洋蔥貯運特性之影響,以及利用貯藏前1-MCP處理技術評估是否具延長洋蔥貯藏壽命之效果。預期延長台灣洋蔥的貯藏壽命,延常供貨期,降低進口洋蔥需求量。 Comparing nutrients in frozen broccoli produced locally and imported The project is to analyze and compare the nutritional content and antioxidant capacity in local frozen winter broccoli, imported frozen broccoli from different areas and fresh broccoli imported in summer, to analyze and compare the nutritional content, antioxidant capacity, and storage life of broccoli at different maturity stages, and to compare the eating quality of above-mentioned broccoli with different cooking methods. These reusults may help to relief overproduction of winter broccoli in Taiwan and to reduce the processing time pressure of processing factories. Furthermore, an extension flyer will be make to offer accurate information for consumers, to highlight the nutritional value of frozen broccoli, to promote and increase the domestic consumption of local frozen broccoli, and to compensate the shortage of local fresh broccoli in summer. Establishing the cabbage standard protocol for Vacuum pre-cooling and and storage conditions in different seasons The purpose of this project is to address the key issues facing major autumn-winter cabbage production. In order to enhance the export competitiveness of Taiwanese cabbage and extend the store period, the fertilization method will be improved to reduce pre-harvest physiological disorders rates. In addition, the optimal condition to remove the field heat by vacuum coolers and improve the packing system will be established. After precooling, cabbages will be packed with different kinds of bags to keep the high humidity at 1℃ for 10-12 weeks. Several quality traits (the percentage of weight loss and rot, trim loss percentage, number of trim leaves, flavor, and color) will be measured every 3 weeks. By the end of 2021, it is expected that the loss percentage in cabbages will be reduced by more than 5%, and the storage and transportation period will still maintain commercial value after storing 10-12 weeks . Improving postharvest diseases and disorders in carrots during storage period The objective of the study is to improve the quality of carrots and extend the storage period to regulate the market. In order to reduce the physiological disorder of carrots, nutrition will be compared between commercial carrots and carrots with symptoms of the physiological disorder. Moreover, the fertilization method and nutritional elements will be analyzed and suggested to reduce postharvest physiological disorders rates. In addition, the different concentrations (20-80 ppm) of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and sodium hypochlorite will be used as chlorine-based surface disinfectant and the percentage of postharvest disease will be surveyed. The microbes will be identified by morphology in PDA and V8 medium and by molecular levels in DNA sequence. After treatment with hypochlorous acid or sodium hypochlorite, carrots will be packed with different kinds of bags to keep the high humidity at 1℃ for 5 months. Several quality traits (the percentage of weight loss and root rot, flavor, and color) will be measured every month. This project will establish the optimal condition to decrease the physiological disorders and postharvest diseases and improve the quality of carrots after long-term storage. Study of technology to inhibit onion decay and sprouting during storage Due to factors such as variety, pre-harvest irrigation, low dormancy intensity and short curing time, Taiwan onions have higher sprouting and decay rates during storage than imported onions, and their storage life is shorter than imported onions. Since the main production period of Taiwan's onions is concentrated from December to April of the following year, and can be supplied until July with storage, the market is mainly supplied with imported onions from August to December each year. In order to reduce dependence on imported onions, extend the supply of Taiwan onions How to effectively extend the storage life of Taiwanese onions is an important issue. In 2021, the plan is to use the field ethylene treatment before harvest to evaluate the effect of improving the dormancy intensity of Taiwan onions after harvest, and to evaluate the effect of the curing time after harvest on the storage and transportation characteristics of Taiwan onions, and whether the 1-MCP treatment technology before storage has the effect of prolonging the storage life of onions. It is expected to extend the storage life of Taiwan's onions, extend the supply period, and reduce the demand for imported onions.
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