研發與改良國內所需農業機械

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計畫名稱: 研發與改良國內所需農業機械
計畫主持人: 邱銀珍
共同計畫主持人: 劉天麟;田雲生;黃政龍;鄭經偉;潘光月;張光華;黃惟揚;吳有恒;張金元;曾鉅翔
計畫編號: 108農科-24.4.2-子-Y1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會桃園區農業改良場作物環境課
全程計畫年: 2019
關鍵字: 多行式除草機;芋;種苗種植機;龍眼;大豆選別分級設備;包裝集貨場;切除;鳳梨釋迦;莖葉;葉菜;敷蓋機械;脫殼處理機;農業推廣;高效率;省工;脫肉;植茶機;紙穴盤;收穫機;自動化;機械化;移植機構;洋蔥;機械化;根部;薏仁;自動;缺工;Multi-Row Weeder;Taro;Seedling transplanting machine;Longan;Sorters for soybean;packaging factory;Cutting;atemoya;Stem;leaves vegetable;mulching machine;Shelling machine;Agricultural Promotion;High efficiency;Labor-saving;Flesh-peeling;mechanical planter
摘要: 龍眼乾自動化去籽設備暨加工技術開發 本計畫擬利用已完成之最適剝肉含水率,完成龍眼乾去籽機進料、去籽自動化系統整合,開發設計完成龍眼乾去籽商品機,與專業加工業者於產季進行耐久測試並辦理示範觀摩。 期望藉此機械之開發,解決傳統龍眼乾人工剝肉之作業,輔助業者達成自動化之目的,並解決人工作業所產生的衛生條件問題,提昇生產效率,增加龍眼加工產業國內外銷售市場競爭力,促進龍眼加工產業之發展。 菜苗移植機構研發 菜葉由於移植種植可以縮短生長日數,因此目前葉菜移植栽培已成為農友慣行栽培模式,而移植是一件辛苦的工作,特別是在夏天悶熱的溫室,為解決葉菜移植而需要移植機,研事人員先後從事硬質苗盤,半自動到全自動,再進而研究軟質半自動,在略有移植研究基礎下,進而從事全自動葉苗移植機之研究,希望有商品化究研成果,來取代人力,解決人力短缺問題。 芋種植收穫與薏仁脫殼處理機械化之試驗改良     芋為臺灣重要的球莖類蔬菜,多採水田種植,栽培面積約2,500公頃,鮮食或加工皆適宜,是中部地區極具地方特色的產業。目前其種植、收穫皆仰賴人力為之,相當辛苦與費工,亟需機械化輔助作業,以協助解決農業生產缺工與高齡化問題,進而提升芋產業發展與競爭力。本年度在芋種植、收穫機械化研製方面,針對曳引機附掛雙行式芋苗種植機試驗缺失加以改良,並進行機械性能測試調查、示範試作與推廣應用;就曳引機附掛式母芋收穫機田間測試缺失與其作業功能升級等問題加以評估規劃,再設計研製除葉、挖掘、去雜、收集等機構,以及進行初步田間測試與改良;另進行芋苗種植機於旱田作畦種植再淹水管理與慣行人工水田平畦種植之生長、產量的差異比較試驗,以確認並建立省工機械化栽培模式。     薏苡栽培面積約200公頃,為水田轉作的替代作物之一,籽實脫殼後稱為薏仁,因營養價值高,廣為消費市場所應用。目前市面上無薏仁脫殼機,須仰賴人力,既費工且耗時,導致生產成本增加。本年度在薏仁脫殼處理機械化研製方面,初步建立脫殼處理一貫機械化作業流程,尚需克服項目為有效分離已脫殼粒與碎粒,現正試驗研製比重篩板振動機構,利用孔洞及振篩比重法分離脫殼粒、碎粒,以提高脫殼成品之品質與比率,進而納入機械化作業流程供測試應用。 洋蔥莖葉及根部切除機械改良試驗 本計畫旨在以所彙集調查檢測及探討相關之資料,改良洋蔥莖葉及根部切除機械,致使該機械能符合農戶需求,籍以解決日益嚴重的農業人力短缺及老年化問題。並加速洋蔥產業機械化,來降低生產成本,提高市場競爭力,提高青壯年投入農業之意願,活絡農村經濟。 研發適用大豆有機栽培之除草及選別機械及其推廣輔導 為推動有機大豆生產機械化,本計畫持續透過開發符合生產效益之選別、分級、除草、拋光等國產農業機械,以降低生產成本、減輕勞力負擔及爭取農時。在增加農友收益同時,擴大活化休耕農地面積,並增加我國有機雜糧自給率。本年度預計完成大豆選別分級設備之商品化,預期可降低設備成本50%以上,相較現有設備提高作業能力3倍以上,選別精度達99%,作業能力達200 kg/hr,適用目前國內主要栽種之大豆品種,可以大幅節省人力,降低採後處理成本。經換算每公噸大豆選別成本相較人力可降低2萬元以上,適用於收穫量達10公噸以上之農場使用。計畫中亦承續已開發之附掛式旱田除草機成果,開發適用於作畦栽培之除草機械,以擴大研發效益。研發成果將透過試驗示範計畫及機械操作觀摩會,在花蓮、宜蘭地區進行推廣工作,促進產業發展。 鳳梨釋迦外銷集貨場自動化機械試驗研究 本計畫主要擬開發鳳梨釋迦集貨場相關機械,包括目前人工需求高的粉介殼蟲檢查及加套舒果網等相關機械,並整合已開發之粉介殼蟲清除機械及果籃抬升裝置,以建立集貨場一貫化作業系統,除可降低人工作業的辛勞與成本,更可減少因長時間作業造成的人工失誤及可能造成之果品品質不均等問題,以建立集貨場一貫化作業系統。減少外銷鳳梨釋迦粉介殼蟲之檢出,提昇鳯梨釋迦品質及國際競爭力,以擴大鳳梨釋迦產業及增加收益。 乘坐型植茶機與稻稈敷蓋機械之開發     近年種茶苗種植工逐年減少,造成部分地區發生找不到工人的困境。同時,工人的老化造成茶苗種植的深度不夠,灌溉後根系容易外露,存活率降低。故需開發茶苗種植機械並搭配曳引機,來提高種植效率,同時也改善種植品質,提高茶苗種植後之存活率。     茶苗種後需要定期除草,雜草會奪取茶苗的養分與陽光,造成茶苗生長之樹勢衰弱。現在茶農使用花生殼或是稻草稈敷蓋於茶苗邊來抑制雜草生長,以減少除草之工作。大部分農民會用花生殼來做敷蓋,主要是人工操作方便且便宜,而稻稈雖然比花生殼便宜,但是需要大量工人施作。近年稻稈已禁止焚燒,故水稻廢棄物的再利用變成一大課題。故開發稻稈敷蓋機械,快速的將粉碎後的稻稈敷蓋在茶園間,減少敷蓋作業之人力需求。Development of automatic deseeding equipment and processing technology for dried longan This main idea of this project will design, assembly and testing of longan flesh-peeling automated machine. Based on previous research, the prototype machine of longan flesh-peeling will be developed this year. Furthermore, the automatic machine of longan flesh-peeling will also be planned by assessing their efficiency and evaluating the possibility. Hope that the produced machinery could solve the work of traditional longan artificial shelled and flesh-peeling, and assist industry to achieve the automated production to improve efficiency in the near future. In addition, the artificial production food sanitation problems can be solved. Therefore, it should be able to accelerate longan processing industry competitiveness in the domestic and foreign markets, promote the longan processing industry development.  Development of Vegetable Transplanting Mechanism Because the transplanted leaves can shorten the number of growing days, the current leafy-vegetable transplant cultivation has become a common mode of cultivation for farmers, and transplantation is a hard work, especially in the hot greenhouse in the summer, and transplants are needed to solve the leafy vegetable transplant. Machines and research personnel have successively engaged in rigid seedling plate, semi-automatic to fully automatic, and then studied soft semi-automatic. Under the basis of slight transplantation research, they have engaged in the research of automatic leaf transplanting machines, and hope to have commercial research results. Replace manpower and solve the shortage of manpower. Development and improvement for mechanization of taro planting, taro harvesting and Job's tears shelling operation      Taro is an important corm vegetable in Taiwan and mostly cultivated in wetland with areas around 2,500 hectares. Taro used in fresh foods or processed foods is characteristic industry in central Taiwan. Cultivation of wetland taro is highly labor dependent in planting and harvest that imply mechanized operations are highly demanded for resolving the problems caused by labor shortage and aging labor in agricultural fields that can improve the development and competition of taro industry. In this year project, at the aspect of mechanized plantation and harvest for taro cultivation, improvement of tractor attached with double-line seedling planter had been accomplished for investigation of mechanical behavior, operational demonstration and extension. Evaluation plant for improvement of the field operational fault of tractor attached with corm harvester and how to upgrade the mechanical function have been drafted, especially in the following aspects such as designing separate mechanism function in de-leaf, digging, removing taro residues, and harvesting taro corm. Combine the improved mechanisms and test the operation in field can gradually improve applicability of the designed taro harvester. Another experiment was using the taro seedling planter in dryland taro cultivation, the taro growth characteristics and final yield under this cultivation model would be investigated and comparison with the yield under conventional artificial planting taro cultivation in wetland for understanding the beneficial effects of mechanized taro cultivation in labor saving.     The Job's tears can be the substitute of wetland crops with 200 hectares of cultivated areas. After Job's tears shelling, the remained millet is nutritious and popular in consumer market. However, the Job's tears shelling process by manual labor needs many workers and time that would increase production cost of Job's tears millet. In this year project, at the aspect of mechanized Job's tears shelling, we develop a continuous mechanical process, however how to effectively separate the complete millet and broken millet should be conquered. Now we have been designing a specific sieve plate vibration mechanism function in separating the complete millet and broken millet by vibrating and sieving, which can increase proportion of complete millet and product quality. Improve on Cutting the Stem and Root for Onion The purpose of this project is to develop a cutting stem and root of onion machine. In order to solve the problem of labor shortage in agriculture. In accordance with following the collect and test onion physical property and related data. To research and development a cutting stem and root of onion machine. and reduce produce cost. and advance market competitiveness.  Development and promotion of weeder and sorter machine for organic soybean This project intent to reduce equipment costs, increase farmers’ benefits, and promote quality of domestic organic soybean by development and extension of new type agriculture machines, including High Speed Sorters and Weeder. Developing primary grain sorting machines able to separate plump and flat or damaged soybeans which harmed by disease, worms, fungi or other physical damage. The purity and quality of domestic soybean can be improved. The machine function would be expanded to 200 kg/hr in capacity and 97% in sorting efficiency which is suitable for farmers in Hualien. Expecting the results will fit economies of scale well and suitable for middle-size farms. The purpose of developing Weeder could solve weed problem and increase production in organic cultivation with furrow. Study on Automatic Machine of export Packaging Field for Atemoya This study will develop the machinery related to the atemoya packaging field, including the mealybugs inspection and the addition of packaging net and other related machinery, and integrate the developed mealybugs removal machinery and fruit basket lifting equipment. The establishment of a centralized operating system for packaging field not only reduces the labor and cost of manual operations, but also reduces problems such as uneven quality of fruits that may be caused by manual errors caused by long-time operations, and establishes a centralized operating system for packaging field. Reduce the detection of atemoya, increase the quality of atemoya, enhance the quality and international competitiveness of atemoya, in order to expand the industry of atemoya and increase profits. Development Riding-type mechanical planter of Tea and mulching machine     In recent years, the number of planters of tea seedlings has decreased year by year, causing the plight of workers in some areas. At the same time, the aging of workers caused the depth of tea seedlings to be insufficient. After irrigation, the roots were easily exposed and the survival rate was reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a tea seedling planting machine and a traction machine to improve the planting efficiency, and at the same time, improve the planting quality and improve the survival rate of the tea seedlings after planting.    After the tea seedlings need to be weeded regularly, the weeds will take the nutrients and sunlight of the tea seedlings, causing the tree growth of the tea seedlings to be weak. Now tea farmers use peanut shells or straw stalks to cover the seedlings to suppress weed growth to reduce weeding. Most farmers use peanut shells for coating, mainly because of the convenience and cheapness of manual operation. Although rice straw is cheaper than peanut shell, it requires a lot of workers to work. In recent years, rice straw has been banned from incineration, so the reuse of rice waste has become a major issue. Therefore, the rice straw coating machine was developed to quickly cover the smashed rice straw between the tea gardens, thereby reducing the manpower requirement for the coating operation.
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