發展優勢水果產業提升內外銷競爭力

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計畫名稱: 發展優勢水果產業提升內外銷競爭力
計畫主持人: 李堂察
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 107農科-7.3.4-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會農糧署
計畫執行機構: 國立嘉義大學
全程計畫年: 2018
關鍵字: 鳳梨釋迦;改變大氣組成;寒害;貯藏;線蟲;葉面施肥;套袋;紅肉番石榴;葉綠素螢光;耐逆境; 1-甲基環丙烯;外銷貯運流程;紅龍果;花粉活力;授粉;果實品質;果實重;種子數;誘變;無子葡萄;`竹峰’葡萄;一年二收;熱水處理;水果;腐損;噴施;苞片厚度;品質;外觀;根砧;立枯病;接穗;低溫檢疫;水楊酸; 1-甲基環丙烯;寒害;香蕉;整合栽培管理;採後品質;環境友善;台蕉7號;Atemoya;Atmosphere Modification;Chilling Injury;storage;nematode;foliar fertilization;bagging;red-flesh guava;chlorophyll fluorescence;stress tolerance;1-MCP;transport process for export;pitaya;pollen viability;pollination;fruit quality;fruit weight;seed number;induced mutation;seedless grapevines;`Zhu Feng’ grape;two harvests per year;Hot Water Treatment;Fruit;Decay;spray;bracts thickness;quality;appearance;rootstock;guava wilt;scion;low temperature quarantine;salicylic acid;1-Methylcyclopropene;chilling injury;Musa;Integrated cultivation management;Post-harvest quality;environmentally-friendly;Tai Chaio No.7
摘要: 本計畫主要目標在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,因應氣候變遷果樹栽培技術改進,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出10個計畫。這些計畫如下: 1.改變大氣組成處理技術應用於鳳梨釋迦採後貯運之研究 今年度根據106年試驗結果,擬將可在10℃維持綠熟果狀態的微孔膜包裝+鹼石灰二氧吸收劑+乙烯吸收劑+ 1-MCP果實貯前燻蒸處理,應用於國產鳳梨釋迦外銷6公斤包裝規格,評估10℃貯藏2-4週果實後熟能力與軟熟品質,進行最適化修飾,俾利開發商業應用的氣變包裝處理技術。計畫結果將有助於延長鳳梨釋迦採後壽命,解決長程貯運的外銷瓶頸。 2.提升番石榴週年品質、貯運保鮮及耐逆境栽培技術之研究 臺灣番石榴主要外銷加拿大、中國等地,歐盟市場則尚待開發,但因其船運路線較長,擬透過1-MCP處理,以維持果實品質及延長櫥架壽命。目前番石榴外銷品種單一,以'珍珠拔'為主,應加強外銷品種多樣化以提升外銷競爭力。本計畫將建立紅肉西瓜拔外銷加拿大之貯運流程。線蟲為害為番石榴栽培之重要損耗,常造成植株死亡。 另外,因應氣候變遷,前期計畫已進行番石榴耐逆境品系篩選,已選出若干耐逆境單株,將進一步觀察其耐逆境表現及植株生育等相關園藝性狀。 本年度計畫將改良外銷歐盟市場之採後處理技術,並建立紅肉番石榴外銷加拿大貯運技術;此外,開發線蟲非農藥栽培防治技術、及選育耐逆境之番石榴新品系。 3.建立克服大紅紅龍果於高溫下結實障礙之技術 大紅於夏季高溫(35-40℃以上)下常有結果不良及小形果之產業問題,已知是雄蕊花粉異常所致。本研究擬以南投縣草屯鎮之7年生16目網室栽培之田間栽培植株為材料,於7-9月間進行簡易遮陰降溫資材配置、非高溫逆境下大紅有效花粉之蒐集與儲存、異質花粉(富貴紅)之蒐集與儲存等試驗,俾利後續授粉、受精,以減少生理落果並進而提高果實之產量、品質(果重)與苞片厚度。 4.耐逆境葡萄選育及無子葡萄栽培技術開發 (1)耐逆境葡萄新品系選育體系之開發。先前經高溫處理後存活之EMS誘變巨峰葡萄組培植株,將先進行瓶內增殖,之後移出至培養盆中並置於生長箱中健化後,再以高溫(38-40度C)處理盆苗,從中篩選能耐高溫逆境之植株。 (2)興翠葡萄田間培管理技術開發。興翠葡萄田間培管理模式建立後,將有利於未來推廣工作之進行,並可將其利用於後續其他生長勢較強之無子葡萄品種栽培時之參考。 (3)三倍體新品系葡萄花果性狀初步調查。將從中新品系中選拔較具有潛力之品系,進行後續栽培管理調查。 5.`竹峰’葡萄一年二收對果實品質之影響 為瞭解連續結果對`竹峰’萄萄果實品質之影響,目前有關`竹峰’葡萄相關栽培文獻有限,本試驗將比較一年一收及二收之間果實品質之差異,其中一年二收為第一+第二收,以明瞭連續結果對果實品質之影響,確認一年二收栽培方式之可行性與否,供今後學術研究及栽培之參考。 6.台灣重要水果貯前熱水處理技術改進之研究 本研究主要目是探討國產重要水果, 包括金柑、椪柑、荔枝和龍眼採後熱水處理對降低腐損、減少寒害、維持品質和生理變化之影響,以使熱處理技術在外銷和貯藏上更為實用。 7.採前氯吡脲(CPPU)處理增進紅龍果儲運及保鮮 本研究主要目是增加紅龍果在採後儲運及保鮮的優勢。 田間施用氯吡脲(CPPU)已知可增加紅龍果鱗片厚度,並維持苞片鮮綠有較長的時間。而採後高溫短時熱處理對降低府損,減少寒害,維持品質有較好的影響。結合採前處理及採後處理的模式,使紅龍果在外銷和儲運上更具優勢。 8.根砧用番石榴基因型評估及選育 本計畫目的主要比較不同品種或品系的根砧對番石榴主要栽培品種的差異,包括嫁接的親和性或成活率、植株生長勢、果實品質及抗病性等,幾個文獻中指出對立枯病及根瘤線蟲具有抗性的野生番石榴種類也將包括在根砧使用的種原中,期能從中選育出適合番石榴不同栽培目的的根砧基因型。 9.印度棗低溫檢疫與貯運技術改進計畫 印度棗因疫病蟲害問題 ,外銷果品常需經檢疫處理,並嚴重影響果品品質與貯運特性。為能有效拓展印度 棗需檢疫國家市場,相關檢疫前後之貯運技術需積極開發。本研究乃針對不同印度 棗品種與貯運技術之應用可行性進行評估,作為外銷業者貯運過程之參考。 10.香蕉黃葉病抗/耐病品種選育技術改進與建立優質香蕉栽培技術之研究 A.香蕉優良新品種選育: (1)抗/耐香蕉黃葉病新品系GCTCV-218-2(‘台蕉8號’)進行品種植申請。 (2)利用P4T二合一球狀芽團誘導及其改良型技術,配合試管抗/耐香蕉黃葉病和耐鹽化逆境連續篩選優良株系。 (3)利用試管添加疊氮化鈉誘變劑,誘導白色球狀芽團變異,配合試管抗/耐香蕉黃葉病和耐逆境連續篩選優良株系。 (4)自香蕉種原庫選育具推廣潛能之‘Grande Nain’、‘Williams’等品種進行抗/耐香蕉黃葉病篩選優良品種。 B.建立優質台蕉7號之生產管理及採後管理之整合技術:為重振台灣香蕉外銷產業,擬建立一套強調生產環境保護、具備健康安心理念、符合生產消費潮流與永續經營發展概念的生產管理及採後管理整合技術。 The objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competitiveness of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 10 projects of current year. There are: 1.Studies on Application of Atmosphere Modification Technology for Postharvest Handling and Transportation of Atemoya Fruit Atemoya ( Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill.) is a chilling-sensitive tropical fruit with high rates of respiration and ethylene emission; therefore, the application of cold storage technique to maintain quality and suppress decay is strongly restricted. Exporting of the commodity for international markets is severely impeded because of its short postharvest life. Based on the results of small-scale modified atmosphere packaging experiments conducted last year, this proposal will apply the best treatment, micro-perforated bag + soda lime (CO2 scrubber) + ethylene absorbent + pre-storage 1-MCP fumigation, to atemoya packaged with 6 kg-package export size for 2-4 weeks at 10℃ and then evaluate the ripening potency and flavor quality of ripe fruit after cold storage. The condition(s) of modified atmosphere packaging will be optimized if required according to the results obtained. The scale-up modified atmosphere packaging technology will be utilized as a commercial handling technology of atemoya for distant markets. The results of this project will be beneficial for prolonging postharvest life of atemoya, which is actually the bottle neck of its export. 2.Studies on Improving Fruit Quality, Postharvest Preservation Techniques, and Stress-tolerant Culture of Guava Guava can be produced all year round. Its yield and exporting quantities is increasing in Taiwan, which got monthly exportation. In order to improve the competitiveness in exporting market, stability of product supply and quality are necessary. Canada and China are the two main exporting market countries of Taiwan guavas. The EU market is yet to be developed. But its transportation time is longer. In order to maintain the storage life and shelf quality, we prepared to use 1-MCP treatment to achieve the goal. Currently, the exporting guava cultivar is mainly 'Jen-Ju'. For elevating the export competitiveness, the varieties of exporting guava should be diversified. Red-flesh guava in Taiwan domestic market share increased recently. And the preliminary market survey of Canada showed great potential. In this project, we prepared to establish the export transportation and storage process, to promote the export of red-flesh guava to Canada. Nematode infestation is a serious disease in guavas, which often cause plant death. It is necessary to establish a plant protect strategy. Besides, climate change has influenced guava production. In response, we did the hybridization, and selected some stress tolerant lines by Chlorophyll fluorescence(Fv/Fm). The following-up work is to investigate the stress reactions, the growth characters and the relating horticultural traits. Overall, the project this year is going to improve the post-harvest preservation process for guava exporting to EU market, and establish the storage and transportation technique of red-flesh guava. For the more, we are going to develop the non-chemical material nematode prevention technique, and select one or more stress-tolerant guava lines. 3.Establishing the techniques to overcome fruiting barrier caused by heat stress of ‘Big Red’pitaya ‘Big Red’, a red flesh cultivar ( H. polyrhizus ) with self-compatibility nature, accounts for larger proportion of production of pitaya in either local or export market in Taiwan. However, it has been reported that this cultivar suffered from inferior fruit set and small fruit weight under heat stress in summer, possibly resulting from unviable pollen and thus failure of fertilization. To overcome fruiting barrier caused by heat stress, overhead shading to lower air temperature, and pollen collection under non-heat stress for viability and storage length determination for subsequent hand pollination to those under heat stress of field net grown plants were conducted from June to September. Shading and pollination effects on fruit set fruit characteristics including fruit weight and seed weight were examined. Pollen other than Big Red, i.e., Fu Que Hong which is a heat tolerant cultivar with regular bearing, was also used to document if it has xentia effect for improvement of fruiting. The results obtained might be useful to improve fruit production, and also provide the basic cultivation physiology information for further research of pitaya. 4.Development of techniques for breeding stress tolerant grapevines and growing seedless grapes The major objectives of this project in the 107 fiscal year include: 1.Development of a system for breeding stress tolerant grapevines. EMS treated plantlets of Kyoho grapevines, survived from heat stress treatment, will be propagated in vitro. The plantlets will be then transferred into pots and cultured in a growth chamber for hardening. The pot plants will be tested with high temperature (38-40oC) stress in order to select heat tolerant plants。 2.Development of techniques for growing the Xingcui seedless grapevine. A management system will be established for grapevine Xingcui which will be very helpful for promoting the new cultivar and could be a good reference for growing other seedless cultivars. 3.Evaluation of new triploid seedless graevines. The characteristics of flower and fruit of new triploid seedless grapevines will be investigated. New lines with higher potential for commercial cultivation will be selected for further examination. 5.Effeect of two harvests per year on berry quality of `Zhu Feng’ grape The`Zhu Feng' grape on cultivation of two-harvests per year inTaiwan, the output per unit area will be even higher,Understand about continued fruiting effect of berry quality. Currently, there are limited literature on the`Zhu Feng , grapes. In this experiment, we will compare the differences fruit quality between the first harvest and second harvest. Among them, two-harvests per year including first +second harvests ,understand the effect of continuous fruiting on the berry quality, the feasibility of two harvesting cultivation methods a year, for future research base and cultivation of reference . 6.Improvement of Prestorage Hot Water Treatment Tecnology in Taiwan Major Fruits The objective of this project is to examine the effects of prestorage hot water dipping treatment on the decreasing of decay, reducing of chilling injury, maintainence of quality and physiological changes in Taiwan major fruits, including indian jujube,‘Murcott’ tangor , Dragon fruit, papaya, ponkan mandarin, pineapple, atemoya, lichi, and longan. 7.Preharvest CPPU application enhances the storage and preservation of red dragon fruit The aim of this study is to enhance the advantages of postharvest storage and good fresh of red dragon fruit. Field application of forchlorfenuron (CPPU) is effective to increase the thickness of fruit scales of the pitaya fruit, and can maintain bracts bright green for a longer time than the control. In addition, postharvest hot water dipping within short time treatment is a good method to reduce storage loss, cold damage, and maintain fruit quality. Combination of preharvest CPPU application and postharvest HWD may result in more advantages on red dragon fruit in export and storage. 8.Evaluation and selection of genotypes used for rootstocks in guava Grafting is the main technique for vegetative propagation of guava in Taiwan. However, the effect of rootstock genotype used on the performance of scion cultivar remains under exploration and requires more systematic evaluation. In view of the widespread occurrence of guava wilt and root knot nematodes, resistant rootstock might provide a feasible solution. The objectives of the current project are to compare the influence of different rootstock cultivars or lines on major guava cultivar scions, including graft compatibility or survival rates, plant growth vigor, fruit quality parameters, and disease resistance, etc. The wildPsidiumspecies which were reported to be resistant to either guava wilt or root knot nematodes will also be employed as rootstocks. We hope to select and breed for rootstock genotypes suitable for different cultivation purposes. 9.The improving of postharvest technology for quarantine treatment of Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) Indian jujube is one of important economic fruits in Taiwan. The area of cultivation of Indian jujube was 2,000 hectares in Taiwan. Indian jujube was included one of good quality fruit orchards for export in 2006 by Agriculture and Food Agency, Council of Agriculture. Because there are the disease and insect of quarantine in Taiwan, the export of Taiwan fruit had to enforce quarantine treatment and caused the fruit lose the quality. The innovating postharvest technology for Indian jujube export, expecially for quarantine, is necessary to develop new market of Indian jujube. The research will evaluate the cultivars of Indian jujube and postharvest technology for maintaining the quality after quarantine treatment and supplying the successful model of postharvest process for export. 10.Improvement of techniques in breeding banana varieties resistant/tolerant to Foc TR4 and research in establishing high quality banana cultivation technique 1. Selection of banana cultivars (1)Recurrent selection Fusarium wilting resistance clones from GCTCV-218-2 of improved clones, respectively with FOCTR4resistance.(2)Selection of Fusarium wilt and salt stress resistant clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced from P4T and improve tissue culture technology. (3)Selection ofFusarium wilt resistant clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced from P4T and Sodium azide (NaN3) mutagen.(4)Selection Fusarium wilt resistant clones fromdiversified germplasm, such as‘Grande Nain’or‘Williams’. (5)Estimation the clones or cultivars selected from stage (1) to (4) in net house and field, respectively for Fusarium wilt resistance expression. 2. To establish the techniques for the production and post-harvest management of Taiwan banana for export purpose, with special emphasis on the protection of production environments, the food safety and hygiene, the consistence of production and consumption trends, and the sustainability of industrial management and development, to stabilize the annual production and supply of Taiwan banana, to improve the quality of export banana, to promote the banana export business, and to rebuild the export industry of Taiwan banana.
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