番石榴線蟲病害之調查與防治

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作者: 蔡東纂;林奕耀;李明達;陳珠惜
刊名: 植物保護學會會刊
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 1998
關鍵字: 番石榴; 線蟲病害; 放射線菌; Guava; Nematode disease; Streptomyces saraceticus; Control
摘要: 自本省中南部番石榴園進行寄生性線蟲採樣調查,計發現有14屬,其中以根瘤線蟲(Meloidogyne spp.)所造成之為害最為嚴重,其主要病徵為值株生長勢衰弱,葉片黃化、變小、有微量元素缺乏現象;根部則結瘤眾多,根系伸展不開。測試泰國菝、世紀菝、中山月菝、梨仔菝、紅菝及自菝等番石榴品種對南方根瘤線蟲之感受性,結果以白菝感染比率最高,而梨仔菝及紅菝較輕微。抗線蟲根砧篩選方面,供試之17種番石榴品系全部呈極感病; 而蓮霧、桉樹、柳桉、玫瑰桉、赤桉、檸檬桉、巴西番石榴、草莓番石榴、嘉寶果、蒲桃、堇寶蓮、薛頓茄與扁櫻桃等桃金孃科作物南方根瘤線蟲均不能感染。將上述桃金孃科作物及其他科之 8 種作物以泰國菝進行嫁接親和性評估,結果均不具親和性,無法進一步做番石榴園藝特性測試。番石榴根瘤線蟲田間防治試驗結果中,以蝦蟹殼粉、放射線菌及滅線蟲藥劑同時使用的處理根瘤線蟲二齡幼蟲數最低; 添加蝦蟹殼粉及放射線菌(Streptomyces saraceticus)的處理為次。放射線菌在田間施用後原始濃度6.3x10 cfu/g dry soil,5 個月後降為2.0 x 10 cfu/g dry soil。實驗中並發現蝦蟹殼粉的添加會提高腐生性線蟲10倍以上之數量;果真甜度則比未施用者高出1-2度(Brix),同時土壤酸鹼值升高約1個單位而近中性。此外田間放射線菌種類數明顯多於未添加者,且放射線菌分解幾丁質之酵素活性亦明顯提高。     Fourteen genera of guava parasitic nematodes were found in Taiwan, including Aphelenchoides sp., Aphelenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Hemicriconemoides sp., Hoplolaimus sp., Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, Paratylenchus sp., Pratylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus sp., Rotylenchus sp., Trophurus sp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., Tylenchus sp., and Xiphinema sp. Above all, root-knot nematodes cause the most serious damages and Meloidogyne incognita can infect all six varieties of guava in our experiments. Thirteen crops of Myrtaceae were resistant to M. incognita during screenimg of root stocks, but no compatibility on Tai-Kuo Bar. Field tests showed that guava infected with southern root-knot nematode could be controlled by the addition of crab shell powder and Streptomyces saraceticus (SC 31) to soil. Guava growth was more vigorous by the crab shell powder and SC 31 treatment than that by non treatment or nematicide treatment after 8 months. Amendments can raise 1-2° Brix of guava fruit. The variety and chitinase activity of actinomycetes also increased by amending of crab shell powder.
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