番石榴外銷核心技術整合及加值運用

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計畫名稱: 番石榴外銷核心技術整合及加值運用
計畫主持人: 林慧玲
計畫編號: 106農科-4.2.1-科-a1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 國立中興大學
全程計畫年: 2017
關鍵字: 包裝;貯運溫度;番石榴;氣變包裝;寒害;光合作用;環境因子;生理因子;葉綠素螢光;遺傳連鎖圖;簡單重複序列;分子標記輔助選種;果實貯藏性;package;storage temperature;guava;modified atmosphere packaging;chilling injury;photosynthesis;environment factor;physiological factor;chlorophyll fluorescence;genetic linkage map;simple sequence repeat;marker-assisted selection;fruit storability
摘要: 番石榴可週年生產,為深具外銷潛力之果品,其營養價值豐富,富含維他命C及礦物質,亞硝酸清除能力、抗氧化物質及抗氧化能力高,為保健水果,未來可躍升及行銷國際市場。針對部分國家外銷需檢疫處理如美國、日本等,本年度擬建立低溫檢疫技術及外銷貯運保鮮包裝技術,並改良供果園栽培模式,以擴展外銷市場並提升外銷品質。開發番石榴外銷氣變包裝技術,可降低寒害腐損率及維持品質,本年度將根據105年度實際裝櫃海運加拿大試驗結果,微調氣變包裝條件,並擴大試驗樣品數,持續邀約番石榴出口貿易商合作進行實際裝櫃海運外銷市場試驗,以該貿易商現行包裝為對照,藉以展示本試驗成果,期能將技術技轉到產業實際應用。除加拿大外,本年度也將一同進行國產番石榴東南亞新加坡市場實際裝櫃海運試驗,調查不同包裝處理間海運到貨品質與櫥架壽命之差異性。計畫結果將有助於解決外銷番石榴低溫長期貯運劣變問題。探討肥灌(fertigation)對'珍珠拔'番石榴田間夏季植株生育與果實品質之影響。以農試所之5年生網室栽培之'珍珠拔'果園植株為材料(或相同條件之果園),配合其建立之噴、滴灌兩用之水份及液肥噴/滴灌系統,並維持土壤水份於合理夏季水勢閥值之內(-20至-40cb)。嗣於春季修剪後迄夏果採收止,除依番石榴施肥推薦用量施用外(對照組),並於不同生育期階段額外加施不同N-P-K液肥配方(含微量元素),以評估其對調控樹勢及果實生育之影響,期能達到抑制過度之營養生長及提昇果實品質之目的。 番石榴品種開發和分子鑑定的部分,進行F2分離族群的性狀調查和SSR分析、遺傳連鎖圖譜的建立及優良選系和雜交種的評估。由一紅肉、更年性、多籽的品系與另一白肉、非更年性、少籽的品系雜交所衍生約120株的F2後代將作為遺傳定位用的族群。除了前述二親本的相對性狀外,這些F2將同時進行抗氧化活性、亞硝酸鹽清除力等其他果實性狀的分析,並以SSR和基因相關標記利用此族群嚐試建立遺傳連鎖圖譜。此外,也將評估優良育種品系和雜交種的果實性狀包括低溫的貯藏性。此研究不僅將有助於番石榴果實相關性狀遺傳的瞭解及分子標記輔助選種策略的發展,也將有利於番石榴種原的開發及應用。 本年度擬整合數種栽培(套袋、修剪、遮蔭、選種)及貯運(預冷、包裝、溫度管理)技術,建立一套標準化作業流程,供產業操作應用,以提升夏季果實品質。 Guava ( Psidium guajavaL.) fruits can be produced all year around and are rich in vitamin C and mineral elements. Its ability of removing nitrite and antioxidant capacity are high, so guava fruits can be exported to international markets. Guava need to be quarantined in some countries, such as America and Japan. In this year, we plan to set up the transport protocol, combining low temperature quarantine treatment and low temperature storage during shipping. We also set up the optimum guava culture system for export. Establish the technique of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for guava may help decrease chilling injury and maintain fruit quality. According to the results of container transportation experiments done in 2016, the MAP condition(s) will be modified if needed as well as will be continue to cooperate with export company to conduct scale-up container transportation experiment in 2017. The packaging used by the cooperated partner(s) will be utilized as the control and to demonstrate the benefit of MAP to the trader for considering adaptation the technique in the industry. In addition to Canada, container transportation experiments for Singapore will be performed in 2017 to investigate the effects of different packaging treatments on fruit quality and shelf-life of ‘Jan-Ju Bar’ guava after arrival. The results of this project will be beneficial for improving the deteriorations caused by long-term cold transportation in guava. For the pre-harvest part, the purpose of this research aimed to evaluate different strengths of fertigation in plant growth, fruit yield and its quality at harvest during summer season of 5-years-old field grown ‘Jen-Ju Ba’ guava trees. The study equips a micro-sprinkler irrigation system for guava orchard established by TARI, which can maintain the ideal values of soil water content, -20 to -40 cb associated with additional applications of different ratio and strength of NPK nutrient soluble fertilizers with micro-elements, following the traditional recommended fertilizer dose for guava. The traditional recommended fertilizer dose for guava is used for the control. From the results we obtained, a substantial mineral management for guava orchard to produce superior fruit quality in term of inhibiting excess vegetative growth and regulating fruit development could be developed in Taiwan accordingly. For cultivar developing and molecular identification, the bojectives of this study include the trait characterization and SSR analysis of an F2 population, construction of a genetic linkage map, and evaluation of elected genotypes and hybrids in guava. An F2 population with 120 progenies derived from the cross between a red-flesh, climacteric, seeded line and a white-flesh, non-climacteric, seedless line will be used as the mapping population. Except for the contrasting traits of the parental lines mentioned above, other fruit characteristics including antioxidant capacity and nitrite scavenging ability will be assessed. The construction of a genetic linkage map using SSR and gene derived markers will also be attempted. In addition, fruit characteristics of the elite breeding lines and hybrids will be evaluated including low-temperature storability. This study will not only help the understanding of the genetics of fruit related traits and development of marker-assisted selection strategy in guava, but also contribute to the exploration and application of guava germplasm. In this year, several cultivation techniques (bagging, pruning, shading, seed selection), storage and transportation (precooling, packaging and temperature management) will be integrated to establish a standardized operation process for industrial operation and application in order to enhance fruit quality in summer.
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