甲殼素處理對水果品質之影響

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論文名稱: 甲殼素處理對水果品質之影響
研究生姓名: 楊沁儀
指導教授姓名: 洪登村;謝慶昌
出版年: 2004
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系
關鍵字: 甲殼素;水果;Chitosan;Fruits
摘要: 本試驗主要探討0.1%、0.5%、1%、2%及3%甲殼素處理對貯放於常溫下之‘聖心’芒果、‘愛文’芒果、‘金煌’芒果、櫻桃、‘台農2號’木瓜、‘赤殼種’龍眼、‘粉殼種’龍眼、檸檬、柳橙、蓮霧、‘水晶拔’番石榴及‘梨仔拔’番石榴品質之影響。此外,亦探討甲殼素配合展著劑處理對‘梨仔拔’番石榴及‘寶島蕉’香蕉品質之影響,並測定甲殼素薄膜之透氣性。 大部分水果經甲殼素處理後,都能降低其失重率及改變其內部氣體氧氣、二氧化碳及乙烯之含量。甲殼素處理延緩‘金煌’芒果、‘台農2號’木瓜、‘梨仔拔’番石榴、檸檬之轉色,降低‘台農2號’木瓜、‘梨仔拔’番石榴等之呼吸率及乙烯釋放率。經甲殼素處理之‘金煌’芒果、‘台農2號’木瓜、‘梨仔拔’番石榴、蓮霧及‘水晶拔’番石榴都會維持較高的果實硬度。較高濃度甲殼素處理會造成‘聖心’芒果果實中累積大量乙醛及乙醇而產生異味。 甲殼素配合Triton X-100能延緩‘梨仔拔’番石榴後熟;而經甲殼素配合Tween 60處理之‘梨仔拔’番石榴則已發生後熟。‘寶島蕉’香蕉以甲殼素配合展著劑或展著劑單獨處理時,都會對香蕉果皮造成傷害;但是卻仍能有效延緩其果實之後熟。甲殼素薄膜之透氣性隨著膜厚度增加而下降,故證明甲殼素之保鮮效果,主要是經由改變氣體及水氣之透性所造成。本試驗主要探討0.1%、0.5%、1%、2%及3%甲殼素處理對貯放於常溫下之‘聖心’芒果、‘愛文’芒果、‘金煌’芒果、櫻桃、‘台農2號’木瓜、‘赤殼種’龍眼、‘粉殼種’龍眼、檸檬、柳橙、蓮霧、‘水晶拔’番石榴及‘梨仔拔’番石榴品質之影響。此外,亦探討甲殼素配合展著劑處理對‘梨仔拔’番石榴及‘寶島蕉’香蕉品質之影響,並測定甲殼素薄膜之透氣性。 大部分水果經甲殼素處理後,都能降低其失重率及改變其內部氣體氧氣、二氧化碳及乙烯之含量。甲殼素處理延緩‘金煌’芒果、‘台農2號’木瓜、‘梨仔拔’番石榴、檸檬之轉色,降低‘台農2號’木瓜、‘梨仔拔’番石榴等之呼吸率及乙烯釋放率。經甲殼素處理之‘金煌’芒果、‘台農2號’木瓜、‘梨仔拔’番石榴、蓮霧及‘水晶拔’番石榴都會維持較高的果實硬度。較高濃度甲殼素處理會造成‘聖心’芒果果實中累積大量乙醛及乙醇而產生異味。 甲殼素配合Triton X-100能延緩‘梨仔拔’番石榴後熟;而經甲殼素配合Tween 60處理之‘梨仔拔’番石榴則已發生後熟。‘寶島蕉’香蕉以甲殼素配合展著劑或展著劑單獨處理時,都會對香蕉果皮造成傷害;但是卻仍能有效延緩其果實之後熟。甲殼素薄膜之透氣性隨著膜厚度增加而下降,故證明甲殼素之保鮮效果,主要是經由改變氣體及水氣之透性所造成。The effects of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% chitosan coating on the quality of ‘Sensation’, ‘Irwin’, ‘Chiin Hwang’ mangoes, sweet cherry, ‘Tainung No.2’ papaya, ‘Chi Ke’ longan, ‘Fen Ke’ longan, lemon, orange, wax apple, ‘Shui-Jing Bar’ guava and ‘Li-Tzy Bar’ guava fruits stored at 25℃ were investigated. In the meantime, the effects of chitosan coating combined with surfactants on qualities of ‘Li-Tzy Bar’ guava and‘Bao-Dao Jiao’ banana fruits were also evaluated and the gas permeability of chitosan film was measured. The application of chitosan coating reduced weight loss and modified internal O2, CO2 and C2H4 level of most fruits. Chitosan coating delayed the changes of colors of ‘Chiin Hwang’ mango, ‘Tainung No.2’ papaya, ‘Li-Tzy Bar’ guava and lemon, decreased the respiration rate and ethylene production rate of ‘Tainung No.2’ papaya and ‘Li-Tzy Bar’ guava. Chitosan treated ‘Chiin Hwang’ mango, ‘Li-Tzy Bar’ guava, ‘Tainung No.2’ papaya, wax apple and ‘Shui-Jing Bar’ guava were firmer than the control. however, high chitosan concentration caused substantial accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in ‘Sensation’ mango and induced off-flavor. Chitosan combined with Triton X-100 treatment delayed the ripening of ‘Li-Tzy Bar’ guava, while Chitosan combined with Tween 60 showed no similar effect. ‘Bao-Dao Jiao’ banana when treated with the combination of chitosan and surfactant or surfactant alone could cause injury to banana peel, but were still capable of delaying banana ripening. The permeabilities of chitosan film decreased with the increasing thickness of the membrane. This seemed to indicate that chitosan maintaining the quality of coated fruits was attributed to the modification of gases compositions and vapor content in the fruits.
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