熱帶蔬果重要病蟲害整合性防疫技術研發(第4年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 熱帶蔬果重要病蟲害整合性防疫技術研發(第4年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 曹麗玉
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 101農科-10.2.2-農-C1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山分所
全程計畫年: 2012
關鍵字: 木瓜;papaya;病害整合性管理;integrated disease managment;生態;ecology;流行病學;epidemiology;病害防治;disease control;紅龍果;pitaya;病害;disease;防治技術;control techniques;番石榴;guava;根瘤線蟲;Meloidogyne spp.;綜合防治;integrated control;生物防治;biocontrol;有益微生物;beneficial microorganisms;水稻;rice;蔬菜;vegetable;植物病害;plant disease;薊馬;Thrip;芒果;mango;印度棗;jujube;防治;control;甜椒微斑病毒;Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV );器械消毒;tool disinfection;種子消毒;seed disinfection;十字花科蔬菜;Cruciferous vegetable;黃葉病;Fusarium wilt;抗病品種;resistant variety;黃條葉蚤;striped flea beetle;非農藥防治;Non-pesticide control;十字花科蔬菜;cruciferous vegetables
摘要: (一)、木瓜重要病害發生生態探討與整合性管理技術之研發 木瓜為我國重要果樹之一,可外銷日本與東南亞各國。然而木瓜有許多重要的病蟲害,嚴重威脅木瓜果品品質與櫥架壽命,重要的病害有真菌病害:果實炭疽病、果實疫病(水傷)、果實蒂腐病、Phomopsis 果腐、幼苗白粉病;細菌病害:黑腐病;病毒病害:輪點病;及根瘤線蟲病害。農民一般以化學農藥防治果實病害,惟木瓜為連續採收之水果,採果前不宜施用化學農藥。田間試驗顯示亞磷酸、乳化葵花油等非農藥防治製劑對部份病害有相當抑制效果,可以替代化學合成農藥。此外,發現很多病害問題仍有相當改進的空間,如能詳盡探究原因,尋找合適策略,或可大幅度降低病害發生。因此本計畫擬 (1).詳盡探討木瓜果實重要病害-炭疽病、疫病(水傷)、蒂腐病、Phomopsis 、白粉病之入侵時期與發病生態。(2).擬定重要病害之非農藥防治技術與方法,減少化學農藥使用。及(3).擬定整合性管理技術,以生產安全木瓜果品,解決病害問題。 (二)、外銷紅龍果(白肉種)重要病蟲害調查及整合性管理模式與優質紅肉紅龍果栽培體系之建構 (1).進行調查與搜集紅龍果病蟲為害相:瞭解我國紅龍果在不同地區與不同季節發生病蟲害之種類與嚴重度。 (2).研發與試驗病蟲害防治技術:擬開發單一病蟲害的非農藥防治技術,提供有機農業與吉園圃果園使用。 (3).協助建立安全紅龍果產期調節模式,提高紅龍果在產期外的市場售價。 (4).比較優質紅肉紅龍果健康苗與一般紅肉紅龍果苗植株之生長勢與果實品質的差異,調查健康苗與一般栽培苗生長勢的影響。 1.明瞭台灣紅龍果病蟲害的種類、嚴重度、分布、生態與流行病學。 2.開發紅龍果重要病蟲害防治技術,以減少農藥使用,並提供有機農業與吉園圃果園使用。 3.建立整合性管理策略,擬定標準化果園管理作業流程,建立經濟、安全之病蟲害管理標準作業流程與防治策略資訊平台,並撰寫病蟲害防治曆,提供農民使用,提升紅龍果的產業競爭力。 4.提供紅龍果正確栽植資訊,減少病毒病感病率,延長紅龍果苗壽命,降低農民生產管理成本。 5.分散紅龍果產期,紓解盛產壓力,提高果實品質與市場售價。 6.提供無農藥栽培的安全果品,保障生產者與消費者的健康。 (三)、番石榴根瘤線蟲病害綜合防治技術開發 101年度計畫內容包括:1. 進行番石榴根瘤線蟲種類的鑑定和分生診斷鑑定技術的建立,可以加速釐清了解該種根瘤線蟲目前在本國田間作物的發生和分佈情形,藉以規劃未來防治的策略。2. 檢定番石榴根瘤線蟲之其他寄主植物,包括具經濟性之作物、綠肥或覆蓋作物,以及田間主要之雜草種類等,可以做為耕作防治措施中,包括輪作、間作、休耕或田間雜草管理的重要參考依據。3. 栽培番石榴各種品系的實生苗,進行根瘤線蟲接種試驗,可以篩選具有不感病或具耐病性的根砧品系,以生產對根瘤線蟲具有抗性的健康種苗。4. 篩選各類對根瘤線蟲具有抑制性的有機質資材或植物源誘導抗性成份,不僅可降低田間根瘤線蟲的密度亦可減少化學殺線蟲藥劑施用後對環境生態所造成的衝擊。 (四)、利用有益微生物防治水稻及蔬菜病害之研究 利用有益微生物,研製生物性農藥或植物保護製劑,可有效減少化學藥劑對生態的破壞及衍生病原菌的抗藥性等問題,尚可維繫農業的永續經營。唯在田間導入微生物防治病害的效果,常常受限於環境因子,不易產生與溫室試驗相同的防護效果。吾人的研究亦發現有益微生物對於不同作物病害之防治效果,差異頗大,,因此,在篩選有益微生物時,仍需考量其與目標作物的親和性、在作物葉表、體內或根圈可以繁衍且維持一定的族群量。本研究主要目的在於 (1)分離及篩選對水稻及蔬菜病害之病原菌具拮抗效果之有益微生物; (2)設計防治病害之雛形醱酵營養液配方; (3)評估有益微生物防治於水稻苗期及蔬菜病害之效果; (4)探討有益微生物在溫室與田間的施用方法、防病功效及影響因子; (5)改良防治病害之小量及量產醱酵營養液配方; (6)有益微生物之抑菌活性物質的分離與純化與鑑定。 (五)、熱帶果樹團隊-熱帶果樹薊馬類田間生態調查及防治方法之研究 田間以黃色粘紙調查結果,在芒果園的薊馬種類有小黃薊馬(Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood)、花薊馬(Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan))、臺灣花薊馬(Frankliniella intonesa (Trybom))及菊花薊馬(Microcephalothrips abdomialis (D. L. Crawford)),在印度棗園的薊馬種類有小黃薊馬、花薊馬、臺灣花薊馬及栗帶薊馬(Anaphothrips sudanensis Trybom)。主要以小黃薊馬發生密度較高,全年都有發生。芒果園調查薊馬發生消長情形,自1月芒果值開花期,薊馬的密度在3月時達高峰;在6月中旬,芒果修剪完後開始有新稍,田間薊馬密度則漸漸升高,芒果陸陸續續一直抽新梢,在9至10月達高峰。芒果園中薊馬田間的族群變動受雨量的影響很大,呈現負相關,當雨量多時(5月及7-8月),薊馬的密度會急速下降,當雨量少的月份(1-3月及9-10月)則發現薊馬密度驟增。印度棗主要在抽新梢至小果期田間薊馬密度稍高,於10月搭網後,皆有藥劑防治,所以在調查的四個試區中,薊馬的密度皆不高。芒果薊馬藥劑防治試驗:選取9個藥劑處理,連續噴藥二次,結果以9.6%益達胺、4.95%芬普尼、50%賜派滅、15%脫芬瑞及7.8%克凡派+賽洛寧的防治效果較好,防治率可達90%以上。 (六)、甜椒病毒田間管理技術之研發 根據台灣植物病害名彙及相關研究可為害甜椒的病毒種類有11種之多,由田間採集的疑似病毒感染樣本以八種血清及酵素連結抗體法進行檢測。大多數病毒可經由病組織汁液及機械傷害傳播,因此田間操作器械及種子的有效消毒及管理極為重要。本試驗擬研究在現有田間栽培模式下PMMoV的自然傳播方式,評估幾種常用的消毒藥劑對於種子消毒的效果,生產低帶毒種子及種苗,以提供種苗生產及農民參考使用。有些感染甜椒的病毒可藉由媒介昆蟲(如:蚜蟲、薊馬、粉蝨等小型昆蟲)以非永續性或永續性方式進行傳播,除評估市售常用殺蟲藥劑防治效果外,並配合田間衛生管理、物理防治,以降低田間媒介昆蟲密度,以提供農民參考使用。 (七)、十字花科蔬菜黃葉病抗病品種篩選與非農藥防治 十字花科黃葉病在連作田是重要病害之ㄧ。自從1916年起,十字花科蔬菜黃葉病病因學相關的研究均指出,該病害的嚴重程度受土壤溫度與溼度影響甚鉅。而且,十字花科蔬菜對於黃葉病的抗病性,在土壤溫度高於17C時便會降低。在臺灣,由於主要栽培地區的土壤溫度與溼度甚高,因此夏季栽培十字花科蔬菜的困難重重。有鑑於此, 本計畫的目標在於(1)收集台灣的十字花科黃葉病菌並研究病原菌特性;(2)建立抗(耐)黃葉病種原篩選平台;(3)進行十字花科黃葉病抗(耐)病種原篩選;以及(4)建立十字花科蔬菜黃葉病非農藥防治方法。 (八)、十字花科蔬菜黃條葉蚤非農藥防治之研究 黃條葉蚤為十字花科上之重要害蟲,使用化學藥劑防治該蟲易造成藥劑殘留問題,為降低農藥施用次數,合理施用藥劑,調查7種十字花科蔬菜被害率及黃條葉蚤密度消長以瞭解防治時機,並評估4種不同矽藻土濃度及5種忌避作物對黃條葉蚤防治效果,增加防治黃條葉蚤之非農藥方法供農民選擇,減少農藥的施用。(1)、Study on ecology of papaya major diseases and development of control measures Papaya is an important economic fruit trees in Taiwan and papaya fruit can be exported to Japan and other countries in recent year. However, there are a number of major papaya pests and diseases, which seriously reduced the papaya fruit quantity, quality and shelf life. The important fungal diseases include fruit anthracnose, Phytophthora fruit rot, fruit stem-end rot, Phomopsis fruit rot and seedling powdery mildew. Bacterial black rot disease and root-knot nematodes were also attacked stems and root system of papaya trees in certain orchids. Farmers generally used synthetic chemical pesticides to control fruit diseases. However, papaya is a continuous harvest crop. Chemical spray during picking fruit periods in incorrect and unsuitable. In the preliminary field tests phosphorous acid, emulsified sunflower oil and some other non-chemical control agents showed good efficiency in inhibition of some diseases. Therefore analternative to chemical psticides is possible. In addition, control of several diseases were found to have a considerable degree to be improved if they can be studied in details. The purpose of the project intends to (1). Understand the ecology (especially the invasion periods) and epidemiology of the important papaya fruit diseases including anthracnose, Phytophthora fruit rot, fruit stem-end rot, Phomopsis fruit rot and powdery mildew diseases. (2). Search for non-pesticide control measures for replacement of synthetic pesticides, and (3). Develop the standard opperation process (SOP) of integrated disease management to solve papaya disease problems for production of high quality and safety of papaya fruit in Taiwan. (2)、Constructed pest investigation and integrated management system of export pitaya(white fruitfresh); and coulture system of high-quality red fresh pitaya Main focus of this project are: (1). investigating and collecting Red Dragon fruit pest damage: understanding Red Dragon fruit in different regions of China and the type and severity of plant diseases and insect pests in different seasons. (2). research and development and test of pest: intends to develop a single non-pesticide control technique of diseases and pests, organic agriculture and lucky garden Orchard use. (3). help build secure Red Dragon fruit during the adjustment mode, increase the market price of Red Dragon fruit outside the period. (4). comparative quality red pinkish red with red pinkish Red Dragon fruit Dragon fruit health seedling growth potential of plant seedlings and fruit quality of difference, probes health seedling and cultivation effects of growth potential. 1. understand Taiwan Hylocereus species, the severity of diseases and pests, distribution, ecology and epidemiology. 2. development of Hylocereus important pest control technology to reduce pesticide use and organic agriculture with Kyrgyzstan garden Orchard use. 3. establish integrated management strategies to develop standardized Orchard. (3)、Development of integrated control methods for Meloidogyne root-knot disease of guava plant Year 101 plan includes: 1. In order to plan for future control strategy, the identification and molecular diagnosis techniques of guava root-knot nematode species has established, there for, can accelerate to clarify the understanding of root-knot nematode present in the field crops, their occurrence and distribution. 2. The examination in other host of guava root-knot nematode, including economic crop; green manure or cover crop and major weed species on the field can be used as control measures in farming, including crop rotation, intercropping, fallow or weed management is an important reference. 3. The seedlings of various strains of guava, that through the root-knot nematode inoculation, can be filtered with non-sensitive disease or resistance strains of the root-stocks strains to produce the healthy and resistance seedlings to root-knot nematode. 4. The screening of root-knot-nematode inhibit organic materials or plant origin, not only can reduce the density of root-knot nematode in the field, but also can reduce the impact of chemical nematicides for applying on environment. (4)、The application of beneficial microorganisms for controlling rice and vegetable diseases In latest two decades, the usage of chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases has not only caused the problems of ecological damages and appearance of resistant strains of plant pathogens but also has concerns of negative effects on human health. These side effects have limited the use of chemical pesticides for the plant disease control. Therefore, using beneficial microorganisms to develop the biological pesticides or plant protection agents for control of plant diseases has been suggested as an alternative management strategy for sustainable agriculture. However, there are some difficulties for these microorganisms to control the plant diseases in the field as effective as that in greenhouse experiments owing to the environmental factors is much tough in the field conditions. In addition, our study also found that the beneficial microorganisms have considerable differences for the control efficacy of different crop diseases. Therefore, for screening the beneficial microorganisms, we should not only consider their affinity with the leaf surface, or rhizosphere of the target crops but also the reproducibility and maintain the populations of these beneficial microorganisms. The main purposes of this study are (1) to isolate and screen the beneficial microorganisms for controlling rice and vegetable diseases; (2) to design the fermentation formulations for these microorganisms; (3) to evaluate the effects of beneficial microorganisms (biocontrol agents) for controlling rice and vegetable diseases; (4) to study the factors affecting efficacy of biocontrol agents on controlling rice and vegetable diseases; (5) to improve the fermentation formulations for control of these diseases; (6) to purify and identify the bioactive material of beneficial microorganisms. (5)、Research the field ecology investigation and control methods of thrips on tropical orchard Investigate the thrips were Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Frankliniella intonesa (Trybom), and Microcephalothrips abdomialis (D. L. Crawford) in mango orchard with yellow pappers. In Indian jujube orchard, that were S. dorsalis Hood, T. Hawaiiensis (Morgan), F. intonesa (Trybom), and Anaphothrips sudanensis Trybom. The population of chili thrips (S. dorsalis) increases as mango begin blossoming in February, gradually reaching a peak in March. This corresponds to the buds stage of mango between July and September, as the population of chili thrips tends to increase dramatically in September to October. The population of chili thrips decreases due to high rainfall on mango. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of 9 insecticides for control of thrips in the field on mango. Results showed that, after the second spraying, the control rate of thrips was the highest (90.4 to 95.0%) for treatment of imidacloprid 9.6% SL, fipronil 4.95% SC, methiocarb 50% WP, tolfenpyrad 15% SC, and chlorfenapyr+lambda- cyhalothrin 7.8% EC. (6)、Study of the control technique on pepper virus diseases There are 11 species of viruses infecting peppers in Taiwan. Pepper samples showed symptoms could be caused by viruses were collected for analysis with ELISA. Most pepper viruses could transmit by sap , disinfesting tools is a critical process in preventing virus spread during propagation and production. To directly address the concern, we estimate the efficacy of different disinfectants for treating virus-contaminated cutting tools. Some viruses could transmit by vectors, so we estimate the efficacy of insecticides and other culture control to decrease the occurrence of virus diseases and the population of insect vectors . (7)、Screening for Fusarium wilt resistant cruciferous vegetables and establishment of non-chemical control measures Fusarium wilt or yellows of cruciferous vegetables is a serious problem in monoculture fields in Taiwan. Many studies had concluded that high temperature and moisture of soil are crucial for the disease progression of cruciferous Fusarium wilt. Also, the resistance to fusarium wilt will be overcomed when the soil temperature is higher than 17 C. In Taiwan, the production of cruciferous vegetables is difficult due to the high soil temperature and soil moisture in summer. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1) to collect and investigate the pathogenic characteristics of the Fusaria causing yellow disease on cruciferous vegetables in Taiwan; (2) to establish a platform for screening yellow disease resistant cruciferous vegetables; (3) to screen the genebank for resistant cruciferous vegetables for further disease resistant breeding programs; (4) to establish non-chemical measures for control of yellows on cruciferous vegetables. (8)、Study of using non-pesticide material on controlling striped flea beetle in cruciferous vegetables The flea beetles Phyllotreta striolata (F.) are significant pests of crops in the Brassicaceae family. In order to reduce pesticide usage on cruciferous vegetables, framework of the non-pesticide control experiment includes three parts: (1) monitoring of flea beetles density and surveying the damage rate on seven kinds of cruciferous vegetables in the field; (2) evaluate the efficacy of four different concentrations of diatomaceous earth for the control of flea beetles; (3) assess the repellent effect of five different kinds of repellent plants for the control of flea beetles.
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