熱帶蔬果重要病蟲害整合性防疫技術研發(第3年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 熱帶蔬果重要病蟲害整合性防疫技術研發(第3年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 曹麗玉
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 100農科-9.2.2-農-C3(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所
全程計畫年: 2011
關鍵字: 木瓜;Papaya;疫病;Phytophthroa fruit rot;炭疽病;Anthracnose;蒂腐病;Fruit stem end rot;白粉病;Powdery mildew;整合性管理;;Disease management;生態;Ecology;l流行病學;Epidemiology;根瘤線蟲;Meloidogyne spp.;番石榴;guava;防治;control;甜椒微斑病毒;Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV);器械消毒;tool disinfection;種子消毒;seed disinfection;害蟲;pest;甜椒;sweet pepper;網室;screen house;薊馬;thrip;檬果;mango;印度棗;jujube;十字花科蔬菜;Cruciferous vegetable;黃葉病;Fusarium wilt;抗病品種;resistant variety;非農藥防治;non-fungicide control
摘要: (一)、木瓜重要病害發生生態探討與整合性管理技術之研發 木瓜為我國重要果樹之一,可外銷日本與東南亞各國。然而木瓜有許多重要的病蟲害,嚴重威脅木瓜果品品質與櫥架壽命,重要的病害有真菌病害:果實炭疽病、果實疫病(水傷)、果實蒂腐病、Phomopsis 果腐、幼苗白粉病;細菌病害:黑腐病;病毒病害:輪點病;及根瘤線蟲病害。農民一般以化學農藥防治果實病害,惟木瓜為連續採收之水果,採果前不宜施用化學農藥。田間試驗顯示亞磷酸、乳化葵花油等非農藥防治製劑對部份病害有相當抑制效果,可以替代化學合成農藥。此外,發現很多病害問題仍有相當改進的空間,如能詳盡探究原因,尋找合適策略,或可大幅度降低病害發生。因此本計畫擬(1).詳盡探討木瓜果實重要病害-炭疽病、疫病(水傷)、蒂腐病、Phomopsis 、白粉病之入侵時期與發病生態。(2).擬定重要病害之非農藥防治技術與方法,減少化學農藥使用。及(3).擬定整合性管理技術,以生產安全木瓜果品,解決病害問題。 (二)、番石榴根瘤線蟲病害綜合防治技術開發 進行番石榴根瘤線蟲病病原的完整鑑定,可以釐清其種類及未來防治的策略;進行不同番石榴品系的根瘤線蟲接種試驗,可以篩選具有抗病性的根砧,以生產對根瘤線蟲具有良好抗性的種苗;分離篩選各類對根瘤線蟲具有拮抗性有益微生物,不僅可降低田間根瘤線蟲的密度,亦可減少化學殺線蟲藥劑對環境的衝擊。 (三)、甜椒病毒田間管理技術之研發 根據台灣植物病害名彙及相關研究可為害甜椒的病毒種類有11種之多,由田間採集的疑似病毒感染樣本以八種血清及酵素連結抗體法進行檢測。大多數病毒可經由病組織汁液及機械傷害傳播,因此田間操作器械及種子的有效消毒及管理極為重要。本試驗擬研究在現有田間栽培模式下PMMoV的自然傳播方式,並評估幾種常用的消毒藥劑進行器械及手部的消毒效果,提供農民在生產時使用。並建立標準操作方式以生產低帶毒種子及種苗,以提供種苗生產及農民參考使用。有些感染甜椒的病毒可藉由媒介昆蟲(如:蚜蟲、薊馬、粉蝨等小型昆蟲)以非永續性或永續性方式進行傳播,除評估市售常用殺蟲藥劑防治效果外,並配合田間衛生管理、物理防治,以降低田間媒介昆蟲密度,以提供農民參考使用。 (四)、設施甜椒害蟲種類調查及防治方法之研究 在設施栽培及露天栽培之甜椒園中,調查其主要害蟲害蟲發生種類及其週年發生消長情形,應用設施網室栽培隔離主要大型害蟲,配合物理防治(黃色黏紙及燈光)、非農藥防治(皂類及油脂類)及化學防治(性費洛蒙及農藥)等綜合防治技術,評估其主要害蟲防治效果與安全生產體系之建立,以供農民使用。 (五)、熱帶果樹薊馬類田間生態調查及防治方法之研究 近年來薊馬已普遍在多種果樹上發生嚴重,其族群密度於開花期及幼果期有升高的趨勢,並已影響到水果之品質及產量,本計畫擬選擇南部佔大宗的檬果及印度棗為調查作物,每星期以每園20張黃色粘紙調查薊馬之種類及發生消長,另評估農藥與非農藥防治對薊馬的效果,可提供農民防治適期之參考,以供農民使用。 (六)、十字花科蔬菜黃葉病抗病品種篩選與非農藥防治 十字花科黃葉病在連作田是重要病害之ㄧ。自從1916年起,十字花科蔬菜黃葉病病因學相關的研究均指出,該病害的嚴重程度受土壤溫度與溼度影響甚鉅。而且,十字花科蔬菜對於黃葉病的抗病性,在土壤溫度高於17C時便會降低。在臺灣,由於主要栽培地區的土壤溫度與溼度甚高,因此夏季栽培十字花科蔬菜的困難重重。有鑑於此,本計畫的目標在於(1)收集台灣的十字花科黃葉病菌並研究病原菌特性;(2)建立抗(耐)黃葉病種原篩選平台;(3)進行十字花科黃葉病抗(耐)病種原篩選;以及(4)建立十字花科蔬菜黃葉病非農藥防治方法。(1)、Study on ecology of papaya major diseases and disease management Papaya is an important economic fruit trees in Taiwan and papaya fruit can be exported to Japan and other countries in recent year. However, there are a number of major papaya pests and diseases, which seriously reduced the papaya fruit quantity, quality and shelf life. The important fungal diseases include fruit anthracnose, Phytophthora fruit rot, fruit stem-end rot, Phomopsis fruit rot and seedling powdery mildew. Bacterial black rot disease and root-knot nematodes were also attacked stems and root system of papaya trees in certain orchids. Farmers generally used synthetic chemical pesticides to control fruit diseases. However, papaya is a continuous harvest crop. Chemical spray during picking fruit periods in incorrect and unsuitable. In the preliminary field tests phosphorous acid, emulsified sunflower oil and some other non-chemical control agents showed good efficiency in inhibition of some diseases. Therefore an alternative to chemical pesticides is possible. In addition, control of several diseases were found to have a considerable degree to be improved if they can be studied in details. The purpose of the project intends to (1). Understand the ecology (especially the invasion periods) and epidemiology of the important papaya fruit diseases including anthracnose, Phytophthora fruit rot, fruit stem-end rot, Phomopsis fruit rot and powdery mildew diseases. (2). Search for non-pesticide control measures for replacement of synthetic pesticides, and (3). Develop the standard opperation process (SOP) of integrated disease management to solve papaya disease problems for production of high quality and safety of papaya fruit in Taiwan. (2)、Development of integrated control methods for Meloidogyne root-knot disease of guava plant Fully identification of guava root-knot nematodes has conducted and the results will clarify their species and also help in the future development of management strategies. Moreover, the root-knot nematode-resistance rootstock can be selected by processing the inoculation test of various types of root-knot nematodes, and then use to product the seedling that has excellent resistance. In addition, the microorganisms that were antagonistic to root-knot nematodes will also be selected and tested. These microorganisms not only can reduce the field density of root-knot nematodes, but also can slow down the impact on the environment due to the use of the chemical nematicides. (3)、Study of the control technique on pepper virus diseases There are 11 species of viruses infecting peppers in Taiwan. Pepper samples showed symptoms could be caused by viruses were collected for analysis with ELISA. Most pepper viruses could transmit by sap , disinfesting tools is a critical process in preventing virus spread during propagation and production. To directly address the concern, we estimate the efficacy of different disinfectants for treating virus-contaminated cutting tools. Some viruses could transmit by vectors, so we estimate the efficacy of insecticides and other culture control to decrease the occurrence of virus diseases and the population of insect vectors . (4)、Investigation of pests and control on sweet pepper in screen house Survey on the infestin sweet pepper, in screen house and field during through yeat. Randomly sampled from a screen house at experimental farm in Kaohsiung and Pintoung. The number of pests on each plant sampled will be counted and reconrded. The large pests pre isolated by screen house, and to estimate the effects by physical control (yellow paper traps and lighter), non-pesticide control (soaps and oils), and chemical control (pheromone and pesticides). To establish safety product system on production calendar for farmers essily follwed. (5)、Research the field ecology investigation and control methods of thrips on tropical orchard In recent years, the thrips were common pest associated with fruits in orchard. Recently, the population density of thrips, has increased greatly during flowering and young-fruit stages, causing a marked reduction in the yield and quality of fruits. In this plan, investigation into mango and Indian jujube accounting for the bulk of south. Investigation into the types and population density of the thrips on mango and Indian jujube during through year with yellow paper traps per orchard per week. To estimate the effects of pesticides and non-pesticides for control of thrips on mango and Indian jujube. To establish safety product system on production calendar for farmers easily followed. (6)、Screening for fusarium wilt resistant cruciferous vegetables and establishment of non-chemical control measures Fusarium wilt of cruciferous vegetables is a serious problem in monoculture fields. Since 1916, many researches fcused on the etiology of fusarium wilt on cruciferous vegetables had concluded that the disease severity of yellows is influenced by soil temperature and soil moisture. Also, the resistance to fusarium wilt will be overcome when the soil temperature is higher than 17 C. In Taiwan, the summer production of cruciferous vegetables is difficult due to the high soil temperature and soil moisture in the main production areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1) to collect and investigate the pathogenic characteristics of the Fusaria causing yellow disease on cruciferous vegetables in Taiwan, (2) to establish a platform for screening yellow disease resistant cruciferous vegetables, (3) to screen the genebank for resistant cruciferous vegetables for further disease resistant breeding programs, and (4) to establish non-chemical measures for control of yellows on cruciferous vegetables.
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