熱帶果樹(鳳梨、番石榴、芒果、蓮霧、番木瓜、香蕉)土壤管理及作物營養診斷技術之建立

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計畫名稱: 熱帶果樹(鳳梨、番石榴、芒果、蓮霧、番木瓜、香蕉)土壤管理及作物營養診斷技術之建立
計畫主持人: 林素禎
共同計畫主持人: 向為民;黃維廷
計畫編號: 101農科-9.2.2-農-CI(2)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所農業化學組
全程計畫年: 2012
關鍵字: 施肥推薦;營養診斷;鳳梨;微生物;香蕉;芒果;番木瓜;蓮霧;番石榴;Fertilizer Recommendation;Plant Nutrition Diagnosis;Pineapple;Microorganism;Banana;Mango;Papaya;Wax Apple;Guava
摘要: 作物營養管理影響資源利用與環境保護備受重視,過度與不平衡施肥普遍存在。果農更是面臨漸趨複雜的管理、土壤肥力性質的變遷、高品質的生產以及經濟施肥與永續經營的需求。土壤肥力與植體營養分析,配合有效的診斷技術之建立,能夠符合上述需求。本計畫擬建立鳳梨、番石榴、芒果、蓮霧、木瓜之植體營養診斷與施肥推薦法,期能達到合理化施肥之目的。同時建立設施栽培木瓜、蓮霧之營養管理技術。香蕉黃葉病(Fusarium wilt)是目前影響台灣香蕉產業發展之最大限制因子,本計畫擬利用營養調控與微生物接種,以降低香蕉黃葉病之罹病率或減輕病害程度。本年度先調查試驗土壤之土壤理化性質。試驗品種為北蕉(Pei Chiao, AAA)。根據試驗土壤之土壤理化性質,適度添加鈣、鎂、鉀或鐵、硼等肥料,使香蕉營養供給足夠;施用有機質肥料、蟹殼粉,增加土壤微生物之多樣性;香蕉苗接種菌根菌與拮抗微生物,增加香蕉對鐮刀病原菌之抗性。本年度的預期效益為(1)完成試驗土壤理化性質分析。(2)完成營養調控與微生物菌劑對香蕉黃葉病罹病率之影響試驗。Nutrient management in fruit tree crops is attracting close scrutiny from natural resource managers and environmental protection authorities. In Taiwan, overuse of chemical fertilizer is a common problem and another problem is that fertilizer applications are often unbalanced. In particular, too much nitrogen fertilizer is often applied at the expense of other nutrients. In recent farmers are confronted with increasingly complex production systems, changing soil fertility, demands for high product quality, and a requirement to be both economically competitive and sustainable. As known, plant chemical analysis can help achieve these outcomes, when supported by reliable interpretative guidelines, often in conjunction with other diagnostic tools such as soil testing. For building the techniques of serial-time diagnosis of plant nutritional status as well as standard fertilizer recommendations to meet the nutritional needs of different growth phases and climate conditions. The project will setup the approaches to fertilization and plant nutrition diagnosis in Pineapple, Guava, Mango, Wax Apple, and Papaya. Thus, the rational use of fertilizer could be realized and implemented to help farmers achieve accurate fertilizer application and the goal of producing high-quality agricultural products. At the same time, try to setup the nutrient management methods for papaya and wax apple as they planted under structure condition. Fusarium wilt is the major limiting factor in the banana industrial development of Taiwan. In this project, the effort is to be made through the management of fertilizer and application of microbial inoculation to lower the incidence or to moderate the severity of fusarium wilt. In the second year, a general survey of soil physical and chemical property in the experimental soils will be carried out. The testing cultivar of banana is Pei Chiao, AAA. In order to improve the nutrient status of banana, proper amendment of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, or boron is made based on the soil analysis. The incorporation of compost and shrimp-crab power are helpful in the diversity of soil microbial flora. The inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and antagonistic flora are made to increase the antagonistic power of banana to fusarium pathogens. The expectant benefits include the completion of (i) soil survey in the experimental soils , (ii) both nutrient management and microbial inoculation in the control of fusarium wilt of banana.
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