熱帶果樹研究團隊 : 高雄區果樹栽培技術改進(第4年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 熱帶果樹研究團隊 : 高雄區果樹栽培技術改進(第4年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 陳思如
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 101農科-9.2.2-高-K2(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場
全程計畫年: 2012
關鍵字: 番石榴;Guava, Psidium guajava L.;網室栽培;Net-house culture;果實品質;Fruit quality;開花習性;Flowering habits;施肥;fertilization;催花;flower induction;營養;nutrition;修剪;pruning;芒果;mango;網室;nethouse;品質;quality;底腐病;butt mold;益收;ethephon
摘要: (一)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-高雄區果樹栽培技術改進-番石榴栽培技術改進 本試驗以 16目針織網搭設簡易網室,網高 2.6 m,以5~6年生珍珠拔品種供試,調查高屏地區番石榴在網室設施內開花與結果情形,並探討設施內微氣候對番石榴生長發育與果實品質之影響,及夏季防風效果,以穩定番石榴秋冬果生產,作為實際栽培可行性之參考依據,並建立一套設施栽培的管理模式。 (二)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-高雄區果樹栽培技術改進-蓮霧栽培技術改進 產期調節為蓮霧生產上不可或缺之技術,但對於植株是否可催花之狀態缺乏指標,造成催花成效不穩定,而催花後之枝梢管理技術亦影響葉果比,並進而影響果實品質。本計畫之目標為探討蓮霧植體碳氮比與催花及果實品質之關係,做為催花及修剪技術改進之參考。本研究分別由「基肥對葉片碳氮比及催花率之影響」與「催花後修剪程度對果實碳氮比及品質之影響」兩方面進行,期能探討植體碳氮比做為催花或果實品質指標之可能性,並建立優質果品催花前後之營養管理與修剪技術,供農友栽培作業之參考。 (三)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-高雄區果樹栽培技術改進-芒果栽培技術改進 本試驗擬探討網室栽培對愛文芒果著果、品質及病蟲害發生率之影響,藉以評估網室栽培的可行性,並調查套袋時間對果實品質的影響,進而作為芒果生產之參考。 (四)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-高雄區果樹栽培技術改進-鳳梨栽培及採後處理技術改進 本計畫目標為改進鳳梨採後處理及催花技術,以提升外銷鳳梨到貨品質、建立較低人工成本之催花方式,增加農民收益。在採後處理方面,本年度針對貯藏溫度及採後果梗切口噴施酒精之濃度進行交感試驗,期能建立一套鳳梨抑菌處理與溫度管理技術,減少貯後果梗端切口感染率至10%以下。本年度亦探討益收催花對鳳梨之影響,本試驗以台農17號為材料,以益收配合不同肥料配方,並利用灌心或葉面噴施的方式進行催花,探討不同催花方式之催花率及對鳳梨果實形質之影響,期能建立一套省工、高效率之鳳梨催花方式。(1)、Tropical Fruit Research Group- Cultural Practice Improvement of Fruits in Kaohsiung District-Cultural Practice Improvement of Guava For investigating of the effect of facility on guava production, a net house is established in the height of 2.6 m and with 16 mesh net covering in this experiment. Five to six years old guava trees are observed about flowering and fruiting inside the house. The effect of the microclimate inside house on guava plant growth, development and fruit quality, and the effect of windproof in summer on fruit production during fall to winter are discussed. One set of guava cultural management model will be established in this research, and give a reference for practical applications. (2)、Tropical Fruit Research Group- Cultural Practice Improvement of Fruits in Kaohsiung District- Cultural Practice Improvement of Waxapple Forcing culture is an essential techenology in Taiwan waxapple production. Because there’s no index of the status of trees for effective flower induction, flower inducing rate is not stable. The leaf/fruit ratio is caused by pruning after flower induction, and thereby affects fruit quality. In this project, the relationship between total carbohydrate/nitrogen ration in tissue and flower inducing rate or fruit quality are investigated, and supply a reference for improvement of flower induction and pruning practice. This research is worked in two parts, one is an experience of the effect of different fertilizations on leaf total carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio and flower induction rate, and another one is investigation of the effect of the strength of pruning after flower induction on fruit total carbohydrate/nitrogen ration and quality. The establishment of indexes for flowering induction or fruit quality and plant nutrition and pruning management before and after flower induction from this research are expected. (3)、Tropical Fruit Research Group- Cultural Practice Improvement of Fruits in Kaohsiung District-Cultural Practice Improvement of Mango The objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of nethouse culture on mango fruit set, quality and plant disease formation rate. Simultaneously, this study is attempted to compare the effects of bagging time on mango quality. The results were expected to apply mango production. (4)、Tropical Fruit Research Group- Cultural Practice Improvement of Fruits in Kaohsiung District-Cultural Practice and Postharvest Technique Improvement of Pineapple This project is aim to improvement of postharvest and flower induction technology in pineapple, and expected to enhance the arrival quality of export pineapple and establish a low labor cost method for flower induction to increase farmer’s income. In the research of postharvest technology, the effect of storage temperature and concentration of alcohol spray for antimicrobial treatment on the infection of cut surface of fruit bottom end are investigated to establish a set of postharvest technology to reduce infection rate to less than 10%. The effect of using ethephon as flower induction agent on ‘Tainon 17’ is also investigated in our research. By the treatments of spraying ethephon with different kind of fertilizers on leaf surface or pouring into plants heart, some informations about the effect of ethephon on pineapple flower induction and fruit shape and quality are collected to establish a low labor cost flower induction method by ethephon.
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