熱帶果樹研究團隊-建構優質安全熱帶果樹生產體系(第2年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 熱帶果樹研究團隊-建構優質安全熱帶果樹生產體系(第2年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 陳駿季
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 99農科-4.2.2-農-C4(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所
全程計畫年: 2010
關鍵字: 品質;quality;遮陰;shading;品種多樣化;caltivar diversity;包裝;packaging;外銷;exporting;預冷;precooling;檢疫;quarantine;複合肥料;compound fertilizer;香蕉;Musa;非農藥;non-pesticide;生物防治;biocontrol;乳汁圬斑;sapburn;鳳梨;pineapple;栽植期;planting time;產量;yield;品質;quaility;芒果;mango;果腐;fruit rot;防治;control;運輸;Transportation;品質;Quality;水果;Fruit;椪柑;ponkan;灌溉;rrigation;施肥;fertilizer;番石榴;Psidium guajava;立枯病;Nalanthamala psidii;半選擇性培養基;semiselective medium;番石榴;guava;番石榴;Psidium guajava;整合性生產管理;integrated cultural management;區域防治;area-wide control;蟲害管理;pest management;防治策略;control strategy;鳳梨;Pineapple;採收後處理;Postharvest treatment;海運;Surface shipment;害蟲;pest;管理;management;番石榴;Guava;芒果;Mango;蓮霧;Wax Apple;香蕉;Banana;施肥推薦;Fertilizer Recommendation;營養診斷;Plant Nutrition Diagnosis;熱帶果樹;Tropic fruit;種原;Genetic resources;特性評估;Characterization;蓮霧;wax apple;印度棗;Indian jujube;貯藏壽命;storage life;裂果;fruit splitting;水分管理;water management;肥培管理;fertilizer management;植物菌植體;phytoplasma;媒介昆蟲;vector insect;不時花;off-season flowering;產期調節;forcing culture;蓮霧;wax-apple;裂果;cracking;環刻;girdling;催花;flower forcing;營養;Nutrition;微生物;Microorganism;黃葉病;Fusarium wilt;檬果;mango;重要害蟲;important pests
摘要: (一)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-熱帶果樹貯運與良質果品生產技術研究(委辦) 熱帶果樹在台灣為重要果樹經濟果樹,探討熱帶果樹技術研發上,香蕉長期肥培處理,土壤易酸化,為提高施肥效益,配製具環保概念之有機複合肥料,降低成本和蕉園的酸化。另外,在番石榴立枯病為重要病害,對農友收益影響甚鉅,故以有益微生物篩選及改良之配方,期能穩定水果品質,提高生產效率及安全果品生產技術。為了提高外銷潛力,建立鳳梨採後優質安全貯運體系,減少果實貯運期間腐損。香蕉品種間差異及催熟加工後轉色,使品質不一之問題,故瞭解品種多樣化後,改善香蕉轉色。芒果櫥架壽命短,且乳汁在果皮上造成褐化污斑,需改善外銷作業流程及田間管理操作,提高輸日果品相。另外在番石榴上,貯運及檢疫問題降低果實品質,因此建立外銷之貯運技術,以提昇台灣熱帶水果之國際競爭力。 (二)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-不同栽植期對鳳梨果實產量及品質之影響 為了解不同栽植時期之鳳梨植株生長發育狀況,對果實生長發育、產量及品質之影響。試區設於南投、嘉義及屏東,分別於春、夏、秋、冬季種植,栽植後調查植株的生長發育與果實品質分析,期能獲得最適的栽種時期,以提升產量與品質並能調節產期,穩定供果及市場價格。 (三)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-引起檬果果腐病因探討及綜合管理策略研究 建立2個愛文芒果試驗園,並完成第一年病蟲害及果腐防治效果評估。出版檬果病蟲害防治摺頁供農友參考。發表期刊報告1篇。 (四)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-台灣外銷水果運輸儲運環境對品質影響之研究 農產品(水果)自產地收穫後到達消費者手中,要經過一連串的運銷通路,稱之價值鏈(value chain)。價值鏈中每一停留點或路徑,皆會因為物理、化學或時間因素使水果的品質發生變化,影響農產品儲架壽命與最終售價。年度重要工作項目有: 基本運輸儲運環境資料蒐集:以儀器蒐集蓮霧、芒果、鳳梨等外銷水果儲運環境溫溼度與運輸振動之物理條件,並調查目前常用的包裝材料與裝箱型式。 建立運輸過程模擬試驗之檢測模式:藉由電磁式振動模擬測試平台並配合複合式環境試驗機,以前項匯集所得的參數條件進行振動模擬預備試驗,建立標準化之檢測模式與流程。 規劃儲運模擬試驗設計:應用前項標準化運輸模擬檢測模式,規劃設定外部條件(運輸工具、溫溼度、時間等),以現行包裝模式與保鮮技術為模擬處理條件,試驗後進行果品品質調查,探討水果於儲架期間品質的變化情形。 本計畫預期針對現行外銷水果(蓮霧、芒果、鳳梨等)包裝模式與材質選用,以及配合採後處理保鮮技術研究試驗與儲運環境調控模式進行模擬測試,以評估其儲運後延長儲架壽命之效果。期將研發成果導入相關儲運實務,提供外銷水果產業應用。 (五)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-柑桔及鳳梨栽培技術改進之研究 本計畫預計完成山坡地椪柑果園肥培及水分管理模式3年試驗調查,並根據結果提出具體建議。進行茂谷柑防曬處理對裂果率影響評估第1年試驗。調查‘台農4號’、‘台農17號’及‘台農20號’等品種在各供貨季節之果實品質變化,並進行貯運性評估試驗。以物理處理及施用配方肥料等方法,提早外銷供貨期試驗。降低鳳梨果肉斑點發生率試驗,以提高栽培管理技術。期能獲得下列結果: (一)、柑桔部份:期望能維持甚至增加椪柑栽培面積,並提高農友將柳橙轉作為椪柑或茂谷柑之意願。 1. 椪柑部份(山坡地椪柑果園肥培及水分管理模式之研究): (1).獲得灌溉及覆蓋對果實產量及品質之影響。 (2).獲得提早或延長果實採收期之數據,建立雲嘉地區生產排程訂定參考。 2. 茂谷柑部份 (管理模式對茂谷柑裂果率之影響):獲得防曬處理對減少裂果率影響之數據。 (二)、鳳梨部份: 1. 解決外銷供果園之問題 (1). 獲得農糧署輔導之供果園的栽培管理模式及各供果期品質變化之數據 (2). 解決供果空窗期之困擾。 2. 提高栽培管理技術 (1). 減少鳳梨果實劣變所衍生之問題。 (2). 推動增加其他鮮食品種之栽培面積,以分散產期集中之壓力。 (六)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-番石榴立枯病生態調查與病害管理模式之建立 番石榴立枯病在台灣為番石榴重要病害之ㄧ。目前推薦的防治方法包括修剪後施用保護性藥劑,若病害嚴重時則建議砍除病株。然而,目前卻尚無推薦於修剪後保護傷口使用的化學藥劑。因此,本研究的目的在於篩選及評估現有推薦於防治番石榴其他病害的化學藥劑,做為番石榴修剪後傷口保護劑的可行性,同時亦開發番石榴立枯病菌的半選擇性培養基,作為偵測立枯病菌殘存研究之用,並期望藉由上述資訊的累積,做為建立番石榴立枯病病害綜合防治的依據。 (七)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-建構優質安全熱帶果樹生產體系-番石榴整合性生產模式之建立 番石榴為台灣最重要經濟果樹之一,因果實品質差異大與果品安全性使產業發展受到限制。本研究經由整合採前栽培管理技術,如樹形改造、肥培管理、病蟲害保護和採後處理技術,並經由教育訓練,建立並落實完整的番石榴安全生產體系。本年度於番石榴主要產區高雄縣,選擇1處果園,訂定番石榴合理栽培管理原則,並依地區土壤、氣候及銷售產量目標訂出合理栽培行事曆進行示範研究。 (八)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-番石榴蟲害管理整合性區域防治策略與技術研發 番石榴果樹生產時遭受東方果實蠅(Bactrocera dosalis Hendel)及粉介殼蟲(Planococcus minor Maskell)最為嚴重,因此針對此類害蟲防除工作則刻不容緩。本計畫擬針對現有東方果實蠅及介殼蟲田間防除技術,如誘引劑、食物誘餌、化學藥劑、套袋及田間衛生管理等,以嚴謹密度監測技術,搭配地理資訊系統(GIS),就現地田間作物相生長季節,研擬ㄧ套番石榴田間區域防治綜合蟲害管理規範,減少生產成本,增加番石榴產值。 (九)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-鳳梨中長程海運保鮮技術之開發 本研究著重於鳳梨果實對低溫貯藏之耐受改善,包括食品級保鮮液、1-MCP保鮮燻蒸或熱處理等方法,期能延長貯運壽命達20日以上,供作外銷產業之應用與參考。 (十)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-鳳梨安全生產之蟲害綜合管理研究 本計畫目標在於了解鳳梨害蟲在台灣主要發生種類及生態為害狀況,配合期安全生產及拓展外銷之目的,尋求適當蟲害管理政策之擬定。 (十一)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-熱帶果樹(鳳梨、番石榴、芒果、蓮霧、香蕉)土壤養分管理及診斷技 作物營養管理影響資源利用與環境保護備受重視,過度與不平衡施肥普遍存在。果農更是面臨見趨複雜的管理、土壤肥力性質的變遷、高品質的生產以及經濟施肥與永續經營的需求。土壤與植體分析配合有效的診斷技術之建立,能夠符合上述需求。 本計畫擬建立針對地域、品種、不同產期與栽培模式,建立鳳梨、番石榴、芒果、蓮霧之植體營養診斷與施肥推薦發法,期能達到合理化施肥之目的。 (十二)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-熱帶果樹種原收集與特性評估 本計畫主要目標為盤點國內現有保存之熱帶果樹種原,以及協辦國外種原之引進。首先針對的是鳳梨、番石榴、芒果、蓮霧及香蕉五種具有市場潛力的熱帶果樹種原。預期成果為藉由本計畫之執行,希能服務果樹育種專家,提高育種效率,提升市場競爭力。 (十三)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-蓮霧及印度棗外銷貯運保鮮技術之研究 蓮霧果實採收後已裂果,果實裂開的部分容易造成霉菌的滋生而腐敗,不易做好採收後處理與保鮮。因此如何有效降低貯運過程的蓮霧果實損傷,並通過貿易國的檢疫關卡,是當前極為重要的課題,透過本次計畫的研究,以期能建立蓮霧保鮮及採後處理作業標準規範。台灣印度棗的栽培技術及品質皆領先全球,是台灣具有外銷潛力的果樹之一,印度棗海運外銷需要在低溫貯運15~20日,但是在0℃或5℃下貯藏會發生寒害情形,且部分外銷國有低溫檢疫殺蟲(1℃,15天)的需求,目前並無有效解決方法,本研究擬解決低溫檢疫寒害及貯運之技術。 (十四)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-蓮霧園土壤水分及肥培管理對果實品質及成分影響之研究 目前蓮霧生產上的瓶頸在於裂果問題,只要一裂果,病菌即可由傷口侵入,造成果實快速腐爛。蓮霧在艱難之產期調節催花技術已大致成熟,若不能克服最後成熟期之裂果發生,將使整個完美蓮霧生產過程功虧一匱。 本計畫將由蓮霧植體如果實、果柄、葉片、葉柄等快速營養診斷技術,監測其不同生長期,植體內營養元素濃度之變化,以適時進行妥善之肥培管理,增加蓮霧果實良品率。及由葉片、葉柄之營養元素濃度變化試驗,判斷出新梢是葉芽或花芽,以提高蓮霧催花之成功率。並分析蓮霧園不同水分及肥培管理模式下,果實之成分差異和果品品質的相關性,以提供生產高品質蓮霧方法之參考。最終目的是建立一套有效解決蓮霧裂果問題之土壤水分及肥培管理方法,以增進農戶之收益。 (十五)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-蓮霧新興病蟲害防治研究 植物菌質體屬於革蘭氏陽性細菌之Mollicutes綱,為一種重要植物病原細菌,不具細胞壁,生存於植物韌皮部。由於目前無法人工培養,因此其基因組成及生理生化特性仍無法做全盤深入之瞭解。全世界目前已發現之植物菌質體種類多達28群,可在數百種植物上造成1000多種病害。目前國內已有多群(group)植物菌質體存在,例如翠菊黃萎病群菌質體造成之病害、花生蔟葉病、梨衰弱病及木瓜菌質病害。本計畫利用高靈敏度之PCR檢測工具調查新興之蓮霧菌質病之病株菌系、媒介昆蟲、發病生態及影響範圍。 (十六)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-優質芒果栽培技術改進 為穩定果實品質與供貨以利外銷市場的開拓,本計畫擬從收集之優良品種(系)中進行評估,評估指標為鮮紅或橙紅色果皮,纖維量少,果實不易劣變,可提早採收追熟及耐貯運等。另外,擬利用卓安南品種的不時花特性,配合修剪、肥培管理及其他處理方式來調節芒果產期,以達週年生產。 (十七)、熱帶果樹研究團隊–優質蓮霧栽培技術改進研究 近來蓮霧生產常有果形小或不穩定、果色著色差及高裂果率等產業問題,本試驗將就上述問題進行探討研究。本研究除將粉紅種、大果種、泰國之紅寶石(Thub Thim Chan)及印尼大果種等品種進行各品種之果實特性調查,建立各品種之耕作管理要點,做為栽培管理之參考。另將以磷酸二氫鉀等肥料進行蓮霧催花效益評估取代原有藥劑,探討其催花效益外,更能降低環境污染及保障農友健康;另調整選留合適位置留果,並改變留果數或套袋數,控制每果穗內之果數,藉此建立合理之栽培管理供為參考。另利用易產生裂紋之大果種為材料,適時進行環刻處理,進行裂果減緩之效益評估。 (十八)、營養調控與微生物菌劑在香蕉黃葉病防治之應用 香蕉黃葉病(Fusarium wilt)是目前影響台灣香蕉產業發展之最大限制因子,本計畫擬利用營養調控與微生物接種,以降低香蕉黃葉病之罹病率或減輕病害程度。本年度先調查臺灣地區香蕉主要產區與試驗地點之土壤理化性質與微生物相。試驗品種為北蕉(Pei Chiao, AAA)。根據試驗田之土壤理化性質,適度添加鈣、鎂、鉀或鐵、硼等肥料,使香蕉營養供給足夠;施用有機質肥料、蟹殼粉與草生栽培,增加土壤微生物之多樣性;香蕉苗接種菌根菌、假單胞菌與木黴菌,增加對鐮刀病原真菌具有抗性的微生物之數量。本年度的預期效益為(1)完成臺灣地區香蕉主要產區土壤理化性質分析與微生物相調查。(2)完成不同微生物接種對香蕉黃葉病防治效果之比較試驗。 (十九)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-檬果重要害蟲鑑定、監測調查及田間管理策略之研究 檬果通常與其他果樹一樣,受2~3種主要害蟲、數種次要害蟲及許多地區性的偶發性害蟲所危害。已知可危害台灣檬果的害蟲約有143種,其中僅有東方果實蠅、蛀食性螟蛾、葉蟬及薊馬需要全年防治。至於次要害蟲一般多在經濟為害水平之下,但可能在栽培措施及栽培品種改變的狀況下、或任意使用殺蟲劑等等因素,變成主要害蟲。本研究將於2010年1~12月份於台南及台中實施,研究內容包括:(1) 於檬果生態系進行檬果害蟲的調查及採集,(2) 以顯微鏡進行物種鑑定,(3) 從事葉蟬及薊馬族群監測、及生物學與取食行為的研究,(4) 檬果害蟲整合管理研究。因此,本研究目的包括提供危害台灣檬果的有害生物鑑定、生物學及生態學等資訊,並期望發展更有用的檬果害蟲防治及管理策略。(1)、Team of Tropical Fruits Tree Research- Study on Posthavest Technology and Quality Fruit Production of Tropical Fruits. Tropical fruit trees are important economy trees in Taiwan. In this study, we discuss two major topics- technology development and export potential of tropical fruit trees. Development of tropical tree technique are listed as follows: for banana, using fertilizer of long term cause soil acidification, so using organic complex fertilizer would increase fertilizer efficiency and decrease cost and acidification problem. For guava, Myxosporium Wilt is serious disease to affect farmers’ income, so using improved herbicides would steady fruit quality, and increase fruit production and fruit safety technology. Increasing export potential are listed as follows: for pineapple, we build excellent and safety postharvest transportation system to decrease fruit rot while transporting. For banana, the differences between varieties and unsteady quality color turning incompletely after ripening are main problem in banana planted, so we should understand the differences between varieties and improve banana color turning problem. For mango, short shelf life and brown spot in fruit skin, which caused by sap are major problems, so we should improve export proceed and field management to increase fruit quality that export to Japan. For guava, storage, transportation and quarantine are major problems, so we should build suitable storage and transportation technology for export market to increase our international competitiveness of tropical fruit. (2)、Effect of planting time on fruit yield and quality of pineapple For understanding how growth conditions of pineapples planted in different periods influence the growth, yield and quality of fruits, we have planted pineapples in experiment areas established in Nantou, Chiayi and Pingtung separately in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The growth of plants are examined and the qualities of fruits are analyzed after planting. We expect to acquire the most suitable planting time in order to increase yield and quality, to adjust producing seasons and to stabilize supplies and market prices. (3)、The study of causing agents and control strategy for mango fruit rot Two Iwin mango orchard will be set up for the study of causing agents and control strategy of mango fruits rot. A mango pest and disease control guarding sheet will be published according to the result of field experiment. And the data about the causing agents and control strategy will be published by the scitific paper form. (4)、Study on quality of Taiwan export friut during transtortation and storage When the farm product (fruits) gathered from its place and sent to consumers, a series of transportation is needed, called the value chain. Every handling or trip would cause changes of the quality of farm product. Due to the change, the physical, chemical or time factor and the storage will change the final price. The main subjects of this project: 1. The collection of the basic situation of transportation and storage: to use the precision instrument to collect the environmental condition and the physical factor of wax apple, mango, pineapple and other exported fruits. 2. To construct the model of testing transportation process: by the electronic vibration equipment with standardized control pattern. 3. To scheme the experimental test to simulate actual transportation and storage stage: to apply the former standardized transportation control pattern as the external factor (the transportation condition, temperature, humidity and duration) to investigate the quality of tested fruits and find the quality changing during and after transportation. This project will be expected to assess the proper packaging pattern and material by fruit quality evaluation. The final objective is to offer the application of the related experience for the exported fruit trading. (5)、Improvement of the culture technology in citrus and pineapple Accomplished relationship between water and fertilizer management and fruits quality of ponkan mandarin, and prevent sun dispose to split fruit rate affect evaluate in the 1st years experiment. Investigation ‘TN 4’, ‘TN 17’ and ‘TN20’ pineapple wait for breed season's fruit quality change at each, and proceed store evaluation experiment. Usage physics means and recipes fertilizer wait for export supply experiment advance, debase pineapple pulp flecker incidence experiment. And obtain: 1. Citrus: A. Ponkan mandarin Expectation can maintain even increase ponkan mandarin cultivate area, and to make replacements Liu-cheng orange and technical innovations to ponkan mandarin. B. Murcott. Acquire prevent sun dispose to decrease fruit splitting rate of murcott. 2. pineapple: A. Settles export supply orchard problem (a). Acquire supply orchard's cultivation administration mode and each season fruit quality change data. (b). Settle supply empty window edition disturb. B. Enhancement cultivation management technique (a). Decrease pineapple fruit inferiority change generation problem. (b). Push increase other fresh food breed cultivation area, as asunder breed edition gather pressure. (6)、Ecological survey and establishment of disease management system on guava wilt disease caused by Nalanthamala psidii Guava wilt caused by Nalanthamala psidii is a destructive problem on guava production in Taiwan since 1970s. Recommended methods to manage the disease currently available are to spray fungicide soon after trimming or to rouge diseased trees. However, there are no officially recommended fungicides on protecting the wounds after trimming of guava trees. Therefore, the purposes of present study are (1) to screen effective fungicides for the protection of wounds after trimming of guava trees. (2) To develop a semiselective medium for detection of Nalanthamala psidii and try to evaluate the efficiency of the semiselective medium. (3) To study the ecology of Nalanthamala psidii , including survival and distribution of the pathogen in soil and in diseased guava debris. (4) To develop a quick screening system for screen of guava wilt resistant or tolerant guava line (variety) . Based on the results of our research, we hope to establish integrated guava wilt management system. (7)、The Construction of Integrated production system Guava is one of the most important commercial fruit crops in Taiwan. The development of guava industry is limited to fruit quality and safety. This study proceeded in guava farm selected from main guava production area. This study is to establish good production calendar that is appropriate for group production (regional adoption), for export and domestic markets. Consequently the production and quality will in accordance with market demand from this integrated production system. (8)、Team of Tropical Fruit Trees Research---Area-wide control stratedgies and techniques of pest management on guava Two pests of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dosalis Hendel)and mealbug (Planococcus minor Maskell) seriously subjected to damage the production of guava fruits. It is urgently necessary to develop control fruit fly and mealbug. The project intends to address the existing field control techniques, such as attractants, food baits, pesticides, bagging and field sanitation, strictly detect pest densities with geographic information system (GIS), and include crop growing season. The object is to develop sets of area-wide integrated pest management for guava farms to decrease the cost of production and increase the value of product. (9)、Studies on postharvest treatments and optimum conditions of surface shipment for export pineapples. Studies on postharvest treatments and optimum conditions of surface shipment for export pineapples: Effects of postharvest treatments, such as pre-heating, surface coating, 1-MCP fumigation, etc. on mitigating chilling injuries of pineapples will be tested. Optimum shipping conditions for pre-treated pineapples will be studied. The goal is to maintain the fruit quality for at least 20 days after harvest. (10)、Integrated pest management of safety pineapple production in Taiwan The subject is aimed to realize the occurrence ecology and damage of the pests of pineapple in Taiwan. Base on these results, and provide the basic information for the deciding of the integrated pest management strategies of safety pineapple production. (11)、Research and Development on the Approaches to Fertilization and Plant Nutrition Diagnosis in Pineapple, Guava, Mango, Wax Apple, and Banana Nutrient management in agriculture is attracting close scrutiny from natural resource managers and environmental protection authorities.In Taiwan, overuse of chemical fertilizer is a common problem and another problem is that fertilizer applications are often unbalanced. In particular, too much nitrogen fertilizer is often applied at the expense of other nutrients.In recent farmers are confronted with increasingly complex production systems, changing soil fertility, demands for high product quality, and a requirement to be both economically competitive and sustainable. As known, plant chemical analysis can help achieve these outcomes, when supported by reliable interpretative guidelines, often in conjunction with other diagnostic tools such as soil testing. For bulding the techniques of sreal-time diagnosis of plant nutritional status as well as standard fertilizer recommendations to meet the nutritional needs of different growth phases and climate conditions. The project will setup the approaches to fertilization and plant nutrition diagnosis in Pineapple, Guava, Mango, Wax Apple, and Banana. Thus, the rational use of fertilizer could be realized and implemented to help farmers achieve accurate fertilizer application and the goal of producing high-quality agricultural products. (12)、The collection, characterization of tropic fruit genetic resources The objectives of this project are to investigate the domestic tropic fruit genetic resources and to assist the overseas plant introduction. In the first, the targets are pineapple, guava, mango, wax apple, and banana which are the tropic potential fruits in market. The expected achievement is to give service to fruit tree breeder to improve breeding efficiency and promote market competition. (13)、Studies on postharvest handling technology of wax apple and Indian jujube for sea transportant Wax apple fruits after harvest fruit cracking. Fruit splitting part of the easily lead to mold breeding corruption. Not easy to do a good job dealing with post-harvest preservation. Therefore, how to effectively reduce the storage and transportation process of wax apple fruit injury, and quarantine the country through trade barriers, is currently an extremely important issue. Through this research project with a view to the establishment of wax apples fresh and post-harvest handling specifications.The cultivation technique and quality of indian jujube lead the world in Taiwan. Indian jujube has sell potentiality to other areas in taiwan. Indian jujube need in lowtemperature store and transport 15 - 20 day for sea transprtant , but it store can chillinginjury in 0~5 degree.In the other country have low temperature for quarantine (1 degree, 15 days ).There is no effective solution at present. This research plans to solve the lowtemperature quarantine for chilling injury and transport technology. (14)、Effect of soil water and fertilizer management on fruit composition and quality of wax apple The fruit splitting of wax apple has been affecting its industrial development. The purpose of this study was to investigate and develop a rapid technique for nutrition diagnosis of wax apple to reduce fruit splitting rate. This technique will to monitor the changes in the concentration of plant nutrient elements at different growth stages, and immediately provide fertilizer information for farmer. The effect of soil water and fertilizer management on fruit composition and quality of wax apple will be further investigated this year. The results will be to establish useful soil water and fertilizer management technologies for the produce high quality wax apple, and moreover, help to increase farm income. (15)、The study of newly occured wax apple pests and diseases Phytoplasma is an wall-less phytopathogenic prokaryote that can cause many importnat plant diseases. Up to now, the limited prokaryote still resist to be cultured in any available culture medium. It is also very difficult to isolate phytoplasma cells to the purity that will meet the requirement for various biological and biochemical studies. Now, there are more than 1000 different plant diseases are now known to be caused by over 800 phytoplasma species. Based on the in silico RFLP-analysis, these phytoplasmas are now classified into 28 groups, but only 26 Candidatus Phytoplama species names were suggested for few of them. In Taiwan, there are many important diseases such as pear decline, peanut witches'-broom, periwinkle leaf yellowing werecaused by phytoplasmas. In this study, various PCR-based detection strategies will be applied for the identivication and detection of newly discovered wax apple phytoplasma disease. The insect vectors will be identified. The transmission electron microscopic examination will also be applied in this study. (16)、Team of Tropical fruit trees research -Study on the improvement of excellent mango technique cultivation The purpose of this program is improving the mango varieties. It will expect to estimate the strains with good quality, high yield, without fruit disorder and fine storage capabilities.. We also compare the effects on different trimming and other treats for flowering time and numbers of Chok-Anan (17)、Team of tropical fruit trees research- Study on the improvement of excellent wax-apple technique cultivation. (18)、Both nutrient management and microbial inoculation in the control of fusarium wilt of banana Fusarium wilt is the major limiting factor in the banana industrial development of Taiwan. In this project, the effort is to be made through the management of fertilizer and application of microbial inoculation to lower the incidence or to moderate the severity of fusarium wilt. In the first year, a general survey of soil physical and chemical property and microbial flora in the main production areas and experimental site will be carried out. The testing cultivar of banana is Pei Chiao, AAA. In order to improve the nutrient status of banana, proper amendment of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, or boron is made based on the soil analysis. The incorporation of compost and shrimp-crab power and orchard grass cultivation are helpful in the diversity of soil microbial flora. The inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Pseudomonas and Trichoderma species is made to increase the antagonistic flora of fusarium pathogens. The expectant benefits include the completion of (i) floral and soil survey in main banana production areas, (ii) a comparative experiment in the control of fusarium wilt through microbial inoculation. (19)、Studies on the identification, population monitoring, and management strategy of important insect pests of mango Mango (Mangifera indica), like most fruit tree crops, is usually attacked by two or three key pests, several secondary pests and a large number of occasional pests in localized areas where it is grown. Of 143 species of insects and mites that have been recorded as minor and major pests of mango from Taiwan. Among which, the three or four key pests, including oriental fruit fly, tree borer, leafhoppers, and thrips, require annual control measures. Secondary pests generally occur at sub-economic levels, but can become serious pests as a result of change in cultural practices and mango cultivars or because of indiscriminate use of insecticides against a key pest. This study will be carried out during January – December 2010 at the Tainan county and Taichung county of Taiwan, ROC. The study consisted of four components: (1) field collection of mango pests in mango ecosystems, (2) microscopic examination for the identification of the collected species, (3) studied on the population detection, biology, and feeding behavior for mango leafhoppers and thrips, and (4) study on the integrated pest management of mango pests. The purpose of this study is to provide the identification, biological and ecological information on mango pests which are harmful to mango in Taiwan, and to contribute to more-effective strategies for control and management of mango pests.
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