熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第2年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第2年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 林榮貴
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 95農科-1.3.2-農-C3(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會農業試驗所鳳山分所
全程計畫年: 2006
關鍵字:
摘要: 一. 芒果實生品系選拔及利用不時花品種調節產期之研究:為改善現有栽培品種的缺點,並增加品種的多樣性,本計畫擬從優良品種(系)的自然雜交授粉實生後代中進行選育,選育目標為鮮紅或橙紅色果皮,纖維量少,果實不易劣變,可提早採收追熟及耐貯運之優良品系。本計畫完成後,預期可選育出品質優、豐產、果實不易生理劣變及耐貯運的優良品系,供栽培選擇與利用。已完成之重要執行成果包括:將收集之優良品種實生後代進行編號與定植,培育之實生苗共計1200株,已開花結果調查者有64株,初選出85FS-008、85FS-201、88FS-36-3、807C-2-3等品系,目前繼續進行實生苗高接繁殖及植株生長調查。另外,擬利用卓安南品種的不時花特性,配合修剪、肥培管理及其他處理方式來調節芒果產期,以達分散產銷風險及提高農民收益之目的。 二. 蓮霧品種選育與試植:蒐集自六龜及佳冬產地代號FS-1、FS-2及FS-3等三種具有大果形芽條變異蓮霧品系,果形明顯較對照南洋種大20%以上,冬春果單果重約150公克以上,果皮上具有明顯且密集之隆紋,果寬大於果長,可溶性固形物10-12 °Brix,果肉組織較無海綿體組織,果實密實沉重,肉質脆,質地細~略粗、果肉多汁、果色深紅等特點。試驗發現,大果品系忌低溫寒害,九月以後催花果園生產之冬春果常有寒害發生,因此建議採八月底前催花十二月底前採收,但需注意催花前耕作處理期間颱風之危害,催花前維持樹體適時枝梢更新,配合蓋黑網處理,維持正常催花率外,可降低樹體受害程度,生產果形大、果色深紅、果肉脆而多汁及糖度高的優質蓮霧。 三. 荔枝早熟品種選拔及優良品系區域試驗:本計畫目標在選拔早熟質優品種,使荔枝產業能有多樣化品種,藉以錯開產期,使產期有4-5個月之久,解決產期集中之產業瓶頸。試驗分品種選拔及區域試驗兩方面,品種選拔之試驗材料為前期育種計畫之雜交組合獲得之實生苗及早花品種自然授粉之機會苗,利用高接及盆植嫁接苗低溫處理縮短幼年期,提早選拔機會,獲選品系繁殖準備品系比較試驗。區域試驗繼續供試品種SY-1、SY-6、SY-7、NMC.S-2、T.S-2及對照品種玉荷包等之管理、樹型養成、生育調查,及新品系嫁接觀察。供試品系在鳳山分所之品系比較試驗表現優質特性,預期在區域試驗完成後可更明確適合栽培地區及潛力表現,上選品種命名推廣後,將可改善荔枝品種單一化之產業瓶頸。 四. 新興熱帶果樹開發與區域試作:為提供農民更多栽種選擇,滿足消費者趨於多樣化與好奇心理,同時降低台灣加入WTO所帶來的衝擊,本計畫分別引進國外優良果樹種類或新品種進行適應性調查。其成果為: 1. 利用嫩梢嫁接繁殖上年期初選8株系婆羅蜜供下年度複選。 2. 調查8年生實生苗榴槤蜜之結果率僅40%,仍有一半以上植株尚未達結果齡,顯示其幼年期很長;結果樹少者僅2果/株,多者173果/株。 3. 分析本分所及三地門、佳冬、太麻里試作區之榴槤蜜果實性狀及品質,果重818~11410 g,果肉率15.7~45.4%,種子數1-159個,糖度21-33°Brix。 4. 初選離核紅毛丹、黃毛丹及牛奶果各一優良單株,嫁接或扦插繁殖苗木供下年度試作複選。5.黃金果選出鳳試3-4及4-1二株果肉較不褐化之株系,並在萬巒試作園選出7-1、11-2、12-1三個大果單株。6.收集”蜜寶”紅肉紅龍果及粉紅色果肉各1種,果實可大至1公斤以上,且不易裂果,頗具發展潛力。 五. 鳳梨果實裂目之生理與防治研究:本年度擬在果實的各發育階段,利用組織切片觀察果實的形態結構,觀察果皮細胞形成的變化,並做鈣肥處理。計劃完成後可瞭解鳳梨果實形態結構與果皮細胞的變化,藉以推斷果實裂目的發生與防治方法。 六. 楊桃品種改良試驗及網室栽培模式之建立: (一) 楊桃在台灣的栽培歷史悠久,早期大多作為庭園觀賞樹種,因此未有經濟商業生產;近二十幾年來開始進行品種引進及雜交育種的選育工作,民國79年鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所曾選育出楊桃「台農1號」,然因其果皮薄不耐擦壓傷、果色偏綠白色,果農種植意願不高,因此極待果色深、高糖、低酸、風味口感佳之新品系出現,以取代現有栽培品種帶有酸、粗、澀之缺失,加上楊桃在外銷市場上具有發展潛力,因此栽培品種必需具有耐低溫檢疫及耐貯運之特性,以提高楊桃在國際市場之競爭力。 (二) 楊桃採行網室生產,具有防東方果實蠅等病蟲、減少農藥施用次數、保障消費者與施用者之健康、減少風疤果、落果等優點,更可調節套袋人力,解決套袋僱工不易之缺失,因此近年採行面積逐漸 增加。惟因設施設計時,沒有僱及作業動線,無形中會增加田間作業人力,為方便田間作業,有必要整體設計田間作業管線,以降低生產成本。 七. 番木瓜病毒病抗(耐)病育種及區域試作:本年度雖遭水災及多次強颱嚴重為害,所幸以網室栽培保存不抗(耐)病毒病之木瓜種源12品系仍採得自交種子,可供育種親本材料。培育上年期檢定選獲18個抗(耐)病毒病檢定及果實品質性狀調查,發現代號4、5、6、7、8、15、16等七個品系或雜交組合之健株高達100%,顯示具高度抗病,可供下年度繼續分離、選拔及抗(耐)病性檢定。另為選育適合外銷之小果番木瓜共11個雜交組合或品系,亦因天災為害,無法得到正確調查資料,下年度必須重做品系比較試驗,期能快點篩選出果型、大小、品質及貯運性均能符合外銷市場之需求。 八. 印度棗品種改良及修剪時期對產期之影響研究:採用雜交育種方法進行印度棗品種改良,目的希望選得大果、高品質、耐白粉病及貯藏性之早熟或晚生品種,俾能提昇市場競爭力。為改良果實外觀及品質,以台農1 號、高朗1號、高雄2 號、蜜棗、翠蜜等優良品系為親本材料進行雜交工作,再由雜交後裔選拔優良株系,93年初選SⅡ355、SⅡ331二品系進行複選評估,SⅡ355屬大果晚生品系,樹勢強健,結果穩定,肉質甜脆細緻多汁,口感甚佳,經調查其在多種園藝性收表現皆優於目前主要經濟品種-蜜棗,預計下年度擬移至產區嫁接,進行地區適應性及經濟潛力評估;SⅡ331單株為大果豊產晚生品系,經再次評估發現,果實品質表現未如預期穩定,而予以淘汰。另為延長產期進行的修剪試驗觀察,初步認為印度棗於八至九月間進行二修剪處理,依修剪時間及強度之差異,有延後結果期1-7週之效果。 九. 番石榴品種改良:本育種計畫自四個果肉脆、不易軟熟品系(A1-02、C3-25、D4-76、G3-48),選出G3-48品系進行區域試驗。本品系之特性介於珍珠拔與二十世紀拔之間,品質風味較二十世紀拔為優,且修剪後易抽生結果枝,管理較為省工。其貯藏性佳,果肉質脆,但果肉質地略粗不及珍珠拔細緻,夏季高溫不易軟化的特性優於珍珠拔。此品系栽培管理不當時,酸度偏高為其缺點,對番石榴潰瘍病亦不具抗性,本品系與珍珠拔皆具良好之抗氧化性。本品系果實品質受栽培管理、季節、氣候等因素影響,差異甚大。三處試區果實品質以採分散著果方式果實品質較為穩定,但田間管理較費工。本品系與珍珠拔市場平均價格差異因行銷管道與品質有所差異,批發價差在0-10元/斤,零售價最高達60元/斤。1. Mongo breeding and adjustment production by off-season flowering varieties: The purpose of this program is improving the mango varieties. It will expect to breed the strains with good quality, high yield, without fruit disorder and fine storage capabilities. We give number and planting of collected seedlings from hybrid and natural crossing generations of excellent varieties in passed four years. There were already collected 1200 seedlings, those had 64 seedlings blossoming and fruiting, include: 85FS-008, 85FS-201, 88FS-36-3, 807C-2-3, W2-2, W2-2, W2-14, W2-32, S1 4-15, S1 1-1 and S1 4-11. We still proceed with grafting and investigate the growth characters of those plants. The off-season mango such as Chok-Anan and others were used as source for seedling selection. We collected 350 seedlings from off-season mangoes for investigating the characters of those plants and also investigating the flowering and fruiting characters of the breeding line we had collected and grafted. We also compare the effects on different trimming and other treats for flowering time and numbers of Chok-Anan. 2. Selection and regional test for strains of wax-apple: Three excellent branch clones with large fruit shape those were selected from Liu-gui and Jia-don area. The stains number were arranged as followed as FS-1、FS-2、FS3 and the check stain is nan-yang. Their characters were observed as followed as fruit weight is larger than check variety (nan-yang) about 20%, the fruit weight for winter or spring wax-apple was above 150 grams, fruit width is small than fruit length, high soluble solid content was 12-13。 °Brix, crispy flesh, ,juicy flesh, dark-red skin. In our experiments, we found these large shape stains were sensitive in chilling environment about flower forcing time after September. We suggest the optimal flower forcing time of wax-apple is adjusted before August, the harvest time is before December. It is important to improve the tree strength before covering by pruning in optimal time. In order to avoid the stress, the flower forcing time was adjusted after August, we got the high fruit quality of wax-apple before December. 3. Selection of precocious varieties of lychee and regional tes: The project is carried out in Fengshan Horticultural Experiment Branch and farmer's lychee orchards.The goal of experiment is to select varieties with good quality, stable product and more precocious character, and to make multiplicity for lychee idustry. The test seedling for test were got in last breedling project, in order to shorten juvenility period of seedling, two method are utilized, one is top-graft, and other one is treated with low temperature in green house for forcing floralinitiation. Better seedling which are pass by evaluattion, it will be propagated for comparative test in next step. The purpose of regional test is to select good seedling, some better basic characters will be evaluated, such as stable yield, regular-bearing, and good quality. There are five seedling lines (SY-1, SY-6, SY-7, NMC.S-2, T.S-2) and one commercial cultivar (Yu Her Pau) for test in this experiment project. while the experiment is completed, new selected seedling will be order a name and released to farmers. 4. Development of new promising tropical fruit trees and regional test.: There are 8 lines of Jackfruit were propagated by young shoot grafting for next year's re-examination in this year. The fruit setting percentage of seedling Chempedak is about 40%from eight-year tree. And the fruit weight is 818-11410 kilograms, flesh ratio is 15.7-45.4% and seed number is 1-159, the sugar content is 21-33° °Brix that were all investigated from Feng-Shan branch station, Sun-Di-Mion, Chia-Tong and Tai-dong regional test. Two trees (F.S 3-4 & F.S 4-4) of Abiu were selected because they showed the fruit's flesh did not easy to turn-brown, and 3 large fruit size of Abiu trees were selected in Wann-Luan regional test field; Sugar baby an pink varieties were collected, which showed large sized hard to crackle, fruit weight more than 1 Kg showed promising. 5. Study on physiological and control of pineapple: The major subject is fruit tissue structural observation of different development stage in this year. 6. Studies on variety improvement and net culture model of establishment in carambola: To elevate the quality and production stability of carambola in Taiwan, and to develop export business, our laboratory target to cultivate carambola, which can bear big fruit, with more production, high sweetness, low acid, high hardness, endurable in transportation and suitable for low temp storage. Using hybrid, seed selection and introducing variety to proceed carambola improvement. Cultivated 240hybrids, and picked 1 during it's flowering and fruiting. From seeding selection, planted 500 seeds, 350 grew into seeding, picked out 6 plants. Both first selectes plants were used to proceed high grafting on to growed-up trees to promote fruiting for early evaluation. At the same time provided grafts of superior variety to local farmers to observe it's growth. In introducing variety aspect, have brought from Malaysia, Australia and Hawaii. 76-B-10 variety introduced from Malaysia was named Tai-Noon No.2 in 2002 and formerly presented to farmers for planting. Besides, to promoted carambola export business, 7. Papaya breeding for resistance (tolerance) to ringspot virus: Despite of flood and typhoon, we have harvested self-inbred seeds from 12 accessions of papaya plants which are not virus resistant in the net house. These accessions can be used as breeding materials in the future study. In ddition, 7 papaya lines or hybrids with 100% healthy plant showed high resistance to PRV were selected by farm native obseration from 18 lines in this year and can be used for further selection. Finally, 11 combinations which were small fruit size for export were failed to get data in the field due to natural disaster. We have to repeat this experiment in order to select the right combination for the export. 8. Studies on breeding and prunning of Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauriatiana Lam.): Seedling selection and hybridization are used in Indian jujube variety improvement. In order to be more competitive in the market, varieties of high quality and big fruit, resistant to powdery mildew, long shelf life, earlier or later than the existing variety are expected. In order to improve fruit size, soluble solids et. of indian jujube , A lot of progenies were raised from Tainung No1., Kaolang No1., Kaoxyong No2., Myizhao, Shyhjih in 2004. Among them SⅡ355 was an late variety, fruit shape ovate, averaging 130g per fruit, crispy and juicy, good flavor, TSS 14.4° °Brix, branch soft and bouncy fruiting branch few soft spines, easy to manage. SⅡ331 was not stable fruit characterize. Our would not give up the evaluation. Trees of Zizyphus mauritiana cultivar cvs Myizhao and HsyantaoMyihao were pruned to the secondary mildly or severely on frist week August or frist week September in 2005 and the effects of these treatments on fruit periods were assessed. Among the different pruning periods, August and September secondary pruning showed late fruit period about one to seven weeks compared to April pruning periods. 9. Guava Breeding: Almost the local commercial cultivars are belong to climatic fruit and all the commercial varieties has its own problems. The goal of this project is to solve the problem of economic varieties and breed more varieties for farmers in Taiwan. We have selected 4 superior lines from 4533 seedlings. The four superior lines are A1-02、C3-25、D4-76 and G3-48. According to the results of comparison between new lines, G3-48 is better than others. This line has coarse surface, crisp flesh, long shelf life and with good flavor. Generally speaking this line has the characteristics of G3-48 is between “Jen-Ju bar” and “Shyh-jii bar” varieties. There major defect is the flesh texture coarser than “Jen-Ju bar” cultivar. The fruit quality is affected by cultivation, season and climatic variations. In order to estimate the acceptability of farmers and consumers, we selected three different region for regional trial.
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