溫度與預冷對‘宜蘭紅肉’與‘中山月拔’番石榴果實品質之影響

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論文名稱: 溫度與預冷對‘宜蘭紅肉’與‘中山月拔’番石榴果實品質之影響
研究生姓名: 蔡秉睿
指導教授姓名: 郭純德;尤進欽
出版年: 2015
學校名稱: 國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系碩士班
關鍵字: ‘宜蘭紅肉’番石榴;‘中山月拔’番石榴;貯藏溫度;水冷;室冷;冷卻曲線;‘Yilan red’ guava‘;‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ guava;storage temperature;hydrocooling;room cooling;cooling curve
摘要: ‘宜蘭紅肉’番石榴果實分別置於35、25、15及10℃下經11天期間,其腐爛率隨著貯藏溫度與時間的增加而逐漸上升,分別在第3、4、9及11天達100%。果實的失重率,隨溫度的上升而快速增加,35℃者第3天達7%;10℃者第10天達7%。4個貯藏溫度對果皮色澤之L*值影響不明顯,但隨貯藏時間增加而稍微降低(微轉暗);果皮色澤之a*值,於35及25℃者,由負數轉為正數(顏色由綠轉紅),而15及10℃者,均為負值(綠色);b*值,維持在45-50之間,平穩而少變化,隨貯藏時間延長而些微上升(微轉黃)。果實硬度受貯藏溫度高低及貯藏期間影響顯著且迅速降低;4個貯藏溫度的果實硬度,分別由第0天的9牛頓降至第3天的2、2、3及6牛頓;35、25及15℃者與10℃者,2組貯藏溫度之間差異顯著。果實總可溶性固形物含量,在11天期間變化很小,皆維持在9 °Brix左右。可滴定酸含量,35與25℃者,從0.5%下降到0.4%。15及10℃者無變化,維持在0.5%。4個貯藏溫度的抗壞血酸含量在貯藏期間介於150 mg到190 mg/100 ml之間,並無一致性趨勢。果實置於35與25℃者,其呼吸速率,依序在第3天及第4天達呼吸速率最高,而15及10℃者,貯藏9及11天期間其呼吸速率低且趨於平緩。於35與25℃者,其乙烯生成分別於第3天及第4天達最高,15及10℃者,其乙烯生成低且平緩。‘中山月拔’番石榴果實分別置於35、25、15及10℃下為期8天,其腐爛率分別在2、3、6及7天達到100%。果實失重率,隨貯藏溫度上升而增高,35℃者第3天達9%;10℃者第8天達6%。4個貯藏溫度的果皮色澤之L*值,隨貯藏時間增加而下降(微轉暗);a*值由負數轉為正數(顏色由綠轉紅);果皮色澤之b*值,35及25℃者為45,15℃者為48,10℃者為52,且隨貯藏時間增長而些微上升(微轉黃)。果實硬度隨貯藏溫度增加和時間增長而下降,35、25、15℃者,分別在第3天達3牛頓以下,10℃者,第3天維持在6牛頓以上;2組溫度之間差異顯著。4個貯藏溫度的果實總可溶性固形物含量,皆維持在9-10 °Brix間,在8天貯藏期間無明顯變化。可滴定酸含量,貯藏在35及25℃者,從0.6%下降到0.4%;15及10℃者,皆維持在0.6%左右。4個貯藏溫度的抗壞血酸含量在貯藏期間介於150 mg到220 mg/100 ml之間,並無一致性趨勢。果實呼吸速率,於35與25℃者,分別於第3天及第4天達呼吸速率達最高;15及10℃者,貯藏期間其呼吸速率低且趨於平緩。而乙烯之生成,於35及25℃者,依序於第1天及第4天達最高,隨後下降;15及10℃者,其乙烯生成極低且無變化。‘宜蘭紅肉’番石榴果實置於35、25、15及10℃下,其貯藏壽命分別為2、3、8及10天;而‘中山月拔’番石榴則分別為1、2、5及6天。4種貯藏溫度中,以10℃能獲得較佳的品質及較長的貯藏壽命。 ‘宜蘭紅肉’番石榴果實經室冷(10±2℃)處理,套袋(舒果網外加PE袋)與裸果者,依序在340及240分鐘後,溫度穩定,分別為13.8℃及11.3℃。經室冷1/2冷卻時間處理後,溫度降至17.5℃,套袋者需130分鐘而裸果者需60分鐘。經水冷(3±1℃)處理,套袋與裸果者,依序在100及50分鐘後,溫度穩定,分別為3.4℃及2.2℃。經水冷1/4、1/2和7/8冷卻時間後,溫度分別降至19.5℃、14.0℃和5.8℃,套袋者需3、11及54分鐘,而裸果者需1、3及14分鐘。經室冷貯藏於25℃,果實腐爛率,套袋者第6天60%,而對照組100%;裸果者,第6天40%,而對照組60%。經3種水冷(1/4、1/2及7/8冷卻時間),貯藏在25℃,腐爛率,套袋者第3天均為0%,對照組40 %;裸果者,第3天均為0%,對照組20%。經室冷貯藏在25℃,失重率,套袋者第9天1%,對照組3%;裸果者,第9天5%,對照組8%。貯藏在10℃,失重率,裸果者第12天5%,對照組6%。經3種水冷貯藏在25℃,失重率,套袋者第9天0%,對照組第9天2%;裸果者,第9天分別4%、5%及4%,對照組6%。經3種水冷貯藏在10℃,裸果者,經12天3者皆4%,對照組5%。經室冷貯藏在25℃,果皮色澤之L*值,套袋與裸果者均快速上升(果皮較亮);貯藏在10℃,套袋與裸果者,上升幅度平緩。經室冷貯藏在25℃,果皮色澤之a*值,套袋者經6天數值由-12上升達4(果實褪綠),對照組為8(褪綠更多)。經3種水冷貯藏在25℃,果皮色澤之a*值,經6天數值由-12分別上升到5、3及1(果實褪綠),對照組為5。在4種預冷方法下於25℃,果皮色澤之b*值,套袋與裸果者,第6天數值由43上升到50(轉黃);貯藏在10℃,套袋與裸果者,第12天由43上升到50(轉黃)。經室冷貯藏在25℃,果實硬度,裸果者第3天9牛頓,對照組2牛頓;貯藏在10℃,裸果者第3天22牛頓,對照組18牛頓。經3種水冷貯藏在10℃下,果實硬度,套袋者第3天分別為10、15及17牛頓,對照組7牛頓。 ‘中山月拔’番石榴果實經室冷(10±2℃)處理,套袋與裸果者,依序在240及150分鐘後,溫度穩定,分別為11.3℃及11.2℃。經室冷1/2冷卻時間處理後,溫度降至17.5℃,套袋者需40分鐘,而裸果者需10分鐘。經水冷(3±1℃)處理,套袋與裸果者,依序在120及50分鐘後,溫度穩定,分別為3.3℃及2.6℃。經水冷1/4、1/2和7/8冷卻時間後,溫度分別降至19.5℃、14.0℃和5.8℃,套袋者需2、15及60分鐘,而裸果者需1、4及17分鐘。經室冷貯藏在25℃,果實腐爛率,裸果者第3天0%,對照組20%。經3種水冷(1/4、1/2及7/8冷卻時間),貯藏在25℃,腐爛率,裸果者第6天均為40%,對照組60%。經室冷貯藏在25℃,失重率,裸果者第6天6%,對照組9%;貯藏在10℃,裸果者第9天4%,對照組5%。經3種水冷貯藏在25℃,失重率,套袋者第6天分別為1%、0%及0%,對照組1%;裸果者第6天分別為7%、6%及6%,對照組7%。經3種水冷貯藏在10℃,失重率,裸果者第9天分別為6%、4%及4%,對照組6%。經室冷與3種水冷貯藏在25℃,果皮色澤之L*值,套袋與裸果者經6天數值均從60上升至70(果皮轉亮);貯藏在10℃,上升平緩維持在60到65之間。經室冷貯藏在25℃,果皮色澤之a*值,套袋者第6天數值由-13達3(褪綠),對照組為6(褪綠較多)。經3種水冷貯藏在25℃,果皮色澤之a*值,第6天數值分別由-13上升達2、2及1,對照組為5。在4種預冷方法下於25℃,果皮色澤之b*值,套袋與裸果者第3天由45上升到50(微轉黃);貯藏在10℃,套袋與裸果者,第9天由45上升到50(微轉黃)。經室冷貯藏在10℃,果實硬度,套袋者第3天11牛頓,對照組3牛頓。經3種水冷貯藏在10℃,果實硬度,裸果者,第3天分別為15、15及14牛頓,對照組8牛頓。綜之,‘宜蘭紅肉’與‘中山月拔’番石榴果實經預冷(室冷及3種水冷),以套袋包裝和裸果,貯藏在低溫下(10℃),可以維持較佳的品質而且增加貯藏壽命。The ‘Yilan Red’ guava fruit was placed under 35, 25, 15, and 10℃ for 11 days. The decay rate gradually increases with increases in storage temperature and time, reaching 100% in day 3, 4, 9, and 11. The weight loss rate of the fruit rapidly increase with an increase in temperature, reaching 7% on day 3 at 35℃. The four storage temperatures has no obvious effect on the L* value of the peel color, but with an increase in storage time, the value slightly decreases (slightly turns dull); the a*value of the peel color at 35 and 25℃ turns from a negative value to a positive value (the color turns from green to red); at 15 and 10℃, the values are both negative (green); the b*value, maintained at 45-50 show stability with little change. However, with an extended storage period, it slightly increases (slightly turns yellow). The fruit firmness decreases from 9 on day 0 to 2, 2, 3, and 6N on day 3.; at 35, 25, 15℃, and 10℃, the two groups show obvious differences in temperature. The total soluble solids content of the fruit show little change during the 11 days, maintained at around 9℃ °Brix. The titratable acidity 35 and 25℃ reduce from 0.5% to 0.4%, while 15 and 10℃ show no change, maintained at 0.5%. The ascorbic acid content at the four storage temperatures during the storage period is between 150mg to 190mg/100ml, showing no trend of consistency. The fruit placed under 35 and 25℃ reach the peak in respiration rates one after another by day 3 and day 4, while at 15 and 10℃, the shelf day 9 and 11 show low and flat respiration rates. At 35 and 25℃, the ethylene production reaches the peak on day 3 and 4; at 15 and 10℃, the ethylene production is low and flat. The ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ guava fruit is placed at 35, 25, 15, and 10℃ for eight days. The decay rate reaches 100% on day 2, 3, 6, and 7. The weight loss rate of the fruit increases as the storage temperature increases. At 35℃, the rate reaches 9% on day 3; at 10℃, the rate reaches 6% on day 8. The L* value of the peel color stored at four temperatures decreases with increases in storage time (slightly turns dull); the a* value turns from a negative value to a positive value (turns from green to red); the b* value of the peel color at 35 and 25℃ is 45; at 15℃, it is 48; at 10℃, it is 52. Additionally, the value slightly increases with increases in storage time (slightly turns yellow). The fruit firmness increases with an increase in storage temperature and decreases with an increase in time. At 35, 25, and 15℃, it reaches below 3N on day 3; at 10℃, it is maintained at over 6N. The temperatures of the two groups show significant differences. The total soluble solids content of the fruit at four storage temperatures is maintained at 9-10 °Brix. During the 8-day shelf period, no significant change is seen. The titratable acid content for storage temperatures of 35 and 25℃ decreases from 0.6% to 0.4%; at 15 and 10℃, it is maintained at around 0.6%. The ascorbic acid content at four storage temperatures is between 150mg and 220mg/100ml, without the trend of consistency. The respiration rate of the fruit at 35 and 25℃ reach the respiration peak on day 3 and day 4; at 15 and 10℃, the respiration rate is low during the shelf period; it is flat and without a peak generated. On the other hand, ethylene production at 35 and 25℃ reach the peak on day 1 and day 4, which subsequently decreases; at 15 and 10℃, the ethylene production is extremely low and without change. The shelf life of the ‘Yilan Red’ guava fruit placed at 35, 25, 15, and 10℃ is 2, 3, 8, and 10 days respectively; the shelf life of the ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ guava fruit is 1, 2, 5, 6 days respectively. Among the four storage temperatures, at 10℃, there is better quality and a longer shelf life. For the ‘Yilan Red’ guava fruit, after room cooling(10±2℃) treatment packaged fruit (Polystyrene net sleeve and PE bag) and naked fruit show stable temperatures after 340 and 240 minutes, 13.8 and 11.3℃ respectively. After 1/2 of cooling time treatment in the room cooling, the temperature decreases to 17.5℃, the packaged fruit requiring130 minutes, and the naked fruit requiring 60minutes. After the hydrocooling (3±1℃) treatment, the packaged fruit and naked fruit reach stable temperatures after 100 and 50 minutes, 3.4 and 2.2℃ respectively. After hydrocooling at 1/4, 1/2, and 7/8 cooling time, the temperatures reduce to 19.5, 14.0, and 5.8℃ respectively, the packaged fruit requiring 3, 11, and 54 minutes; the naked fruit requiring 1,3, and 14 minutes. After storage in the room cooling at 25℃, the fruit decay rate is 60% for packaged fruit on day 6; it is 100% for the control group; the rate for naked fruit on day 6 is 40% ; it is 60% for the control group. Through three kinds of hydrocooling (1/4, 1/2, and 7/8 cooling time), when stored at 25℃, the decay rate is 0% for packaged fruit on day 3 ; it is 40% for the control group; for the naked fruit, the rate is 0% on day 3 ; it is 20% for the control group. Stored at 25℃ in the room cooling, the weight loss rate for the packaged fruit on day 9 is 1% ; it is 3% for the control group; for the naked fruit, the rate is 5% on day 9 ; it is 8% for the control group. Stored at 10℃, the weight loss rate for the naked fruit on day 12 is 5% ; it is 6% for the control group. Stored after 25℃ through three kinds of hydrocooling, the weight loss rate for the packaged fruit on day 9 is 0% ; it is 2% on day 9 for the control group; for the naked fruit, the rates are 4%, 5%, and 4% respectively on day 9 ; it is 6% for the control group. Stored at 10℃ through three kinds of hydrocooling, for the naked fruit, all the three are 4% after 12 days ; it is 5% for the control group. Stored at 25℃ in the room cooling, the L* value of the peel color rapidly increases for both the packaged fruit and the naked fruit (brighter fruit peel); stored at 10℃, the degree of increase for the packaged fruit and naked fruit is slower. Stored at 25℃ in the room cooling, the a*value of the peel color increases from -12 to 4 after 6 days (the fruit’s green fades out) ; it is 8 for the control group (more green fades out). Stored at 25℃ through three kinds of hydrocooling, the a*value of the peel color increases from -12 to 5 , 3, and 1 (fruit green fades) after 6 days ; it is 5 for the control group. At 25℃, under the four kinds of precooling methods and at 25℃, the b*value of the fruit peel color for the packaged fruit and naked fruit increases from 43 to 50 on day 6 (turns yellow); stored at 10℃, the value for the packaged fruit and naked fruit increases to 50 on day 12 (turns yellow). Stored at 25℃ in the room cooling, the fruit firmness for the naked fruit is 9N on day 3 ; it is 2N for the control group; stored at 10℃, the naked fruit is 22N on day 3 ; it is 18N for the control group. Stored at 10℃ the fruit firmness on day 3 for the packaged fruit through three kinds of hydrocooling is 10, 15, and 17N respectively ; it is 7N for the control group. For the ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ guava fruit after room cooling treatment (10±2℃), the packaged and naked fruit show stable temperatures after 240 and 150 minutes respectively, 11.3 and 11.2 ℃ respectively. After 1/2 of cooling time treatment in the room cooling, the temperature decreases to 17.5℃, the packaged fruit requiring 40 minutes and the naked fruit requiring 10 minutes. After hydrocooling (3±1℃), the packaged fruit and naked fruit show stabilize temperatures after 120 and 150 minutes respectively, 3.3℃ and 2.6℃ respectively. After 1/4, 1/2, and 7/8 of cooling time through cooling, the temperatures decreases to 19.5, 14.0, and 5.8℃ respectively, the packaged fruit requiring 2, 15, and 60 minutes and the naked fruit requiring 1, 4, and 17 minutes. Stored through room cooling at 25℃, the fruit decay rate for the naked fruit is 0% on day 3 ; it is 20% for the control group. Through three kinds of hydrocooling (1/4, 1/2, and 7/8 cooling time, stored at 25℃, the decay rate for the naked fruit on day 6 is 40% ; it is 60% for the control group. Stored at 25℃ through room cooling, the weight loss rate for the naked fruit on day 6 is 6% ; it is 9% for the control group; stored at 10℃, the naked fruit is 4% on day 9 ; it is 5% for the control group. Stored at 25℃ through three kinds of hydrocooling, the weight loss rate for the packaged fruit is 1%, 0%, and 0% for the on day 6 ; it is 1% for the control group. The rates for the naked fruit on day 6 are 7%, 6%, and 6% respectively; it is 7% for the control group. Stored at 10℃ through three kinds of hydrocooling, the weight loss rates for the naked fruit on day 9 are 6%, 4%, and 4% respectively; it is 6% for the control group. Stored at 25℃ through three kinds of room cooling, the L* value of the peel color for the packaged fruit and naked fruit increases from 60 to 70 after 6 days (fruit peel turns brighter); stored at 10℃, the increase is slow, maintained at 60-65. Stored at 25℃ through room cooling, the a*value of the peel color for the packaged fruit on day 6 turns from -13 to 3 (green fades), and the control group is 6 (more green fades). Stored at 25℃ through three kinds of hydrocooling, the a* value of the peel color increases from -13 to 2, 2, and 1 on day 6, the control group is 5. At 25℃ through four kinds of precooling methods, the b* value of the peel color for the packaged fruit and naked fruit increases from 45 to 50 on day 3 (slightly turns yellow); stored at 10℃, the fruit firmness for the packaged fruit is 11N on day 3 ; it is 3N for the control group. Stored at 10℃ through three kinds of hydrocooling, the fruit firmness for the naked fruit on day 3 is 15, 15, and 14N respectively, and the control group is 8N. In summary, the ‘Yilan Red’ guava fruit and the ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ guava fruit, through precooling (room cooling and three kinds of hydrocooling), can maintain better quality and increase the shelf life through packaged and naked fruit stored under a low temperature (10℃).
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