氣候變遷下農業生產之韌性與逆境調適

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計畫名稱: 氣候變遷下農業生產之韌性與逆境調適
計畫主持人: 陸明德
共同計畫主持人: 楊智哲;石佩玉;黃基倬;李長沛;張雅玲;謝鴻業;劉啟祥;葉文彬;賴瑞聲;李彥宏;邱國棟;林訓仕;張勝智;劉恩良;趙俊炫;王維晨;蘇彥碩;張淑芬;張芳魁;劉秋芳;廖大經;侯雅玲;楊素絲;蕭巧玲;蔡惠文;羅士凱;宋家瑋;李雅琳;蘇俊峰;曾清山;謝易叡;林詠洲;許嘉閔;黃祥益;夏奇鈮;洪千惠;羅國偉;方信秀;陳富美;李艷琪;蕭建興;余錦安;楊純明;賴明信;蔡耀賢;蘇騰鋐;何佳勳;侯玉娟;許奕婷;施伯明;薛佑光;林彥蓉
計畫編號: 110農科-13.2.1-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 淹水逆境;馬鈴薯;果實品質;灌溉;稻米品質;香蕉;石斑魚;水產養殖;酪梨;復育;耐旱;文蛤;霪雨;溫度逆境;蓮霧;產業韌性;肉牛;國際合作研究;花粉活力;南瓜;二次花穗;韌性生產;過濾器;微噴霧;極端天氣;水份逆境;成熟期;洋蔥;紅棗;水稻;調適技術;保水;高粱;土壤質地;鳳梨釋迦;裂果;木栓化;低溫調適;青蔥;低溫;生長模式;小麥;氣象災害;需冷性;熱緊迫;白蝦;高溫;生產;梨;茶樹;韌性農業;高溫調適;番石榴;著果;稻麥輪作;設施平台;吳郭魚;節水栽培;梨蜜症;氣候變遷;果樹作物;溫度逆境;高通量基因;flooding stress;potato;Fruit quality;irrigation;Rice quality;banana;grouper;aquaculture;avocado;reconversion;drought tolerance;hard clam;continuous rain;Temperature stress;waxapple;industrial resilience;cattle;International research collaboration;Pollen v
摘要: 細部計畫0:因應氣候變遷之水稻韌性及調適技術研究</strong>水稻高溫逆境篩選技術與調適作為本計畫擬建立穩定的水稻高溫逆境篩選圃及有效率、標準的篩選技術,並透過熱感應影像分析、花粉活力檢測、米質分析等技術,建立水稻主要栽培品種在高溫逆境下的韌性指標,提供產業利用之參考;並篩選出耐高溫障礙品種(系),提供水稻高溫韌性進一步研究及水稻品種改良選拔之基礎。除基礎篩選技術平台之建立外,也將透過田間的栽培管理技術,如水分管理、穗肥的調整來緩解水稻在高溫下所造成的稻米產量或品質劣變,以穩定農民收益、永續稻作產業。 極端天氣對水稻產量與品質之影響與調適作為(2/4)本計畫以低溫逆境篩選平台、花粉活力檢測、運用有益微生物栽培水稻,以及使用米質與米糠機能成分分析等技術,建立水稻在低溫逆境下的韌性指標作為品種推薦的依據,以及提供對抗相關逆境的栽培管理建議,以期能降低風險危害、穩定農民收益。 探究乾旱逆境對水稻生產之影響(2/4)本計畫旨在探討並建立高溫與乾旱之氣象災害/逆境對水稻生產負面影響及其因應減防災調適策略與模式模擬,以降低國內稻作之高溫及乾害危害,並藉由本計畫參與MINCERnet2.0國際水稻研究合作計畫,以接軌國際稻作研究潮流,藉由量測與收集氣象資料及水稻冠層內、外微氣象改變,量化高溫及乾旱缺水對稻株抽穗、開花行為及稔實率之影響,以及對生長與產量、米質之效應與關係模式建立,再由穗溫與稻穗外觀形態變化釐清造成穗花不稔之臨界溫度及乾旱程度,調修防減災調適策略與防護技術。 利用早熟水稻作為缺水逆境之韌性生產調適研究本計畫擬透過解明水稻抽穗期基因與生育日數間的關係,發展早熟水稻品種,降低水稻生育用水日數,並增加單位耗水量下之稻穀產量,以提升稻作生產的水分利用效率,降低水資源使用量、調適氣候風險,建置具氣候韌性之早熟水稻優質生產節水栽培體系。本計畫利用來自100個不同國家、地區之水稻種原,進行6個重要抽穗期基因分析,解明臺灣環境下水稻生育日數變化與抽穗期基因間之對應關係。預期可解明臺灣環境下,一、二期作水稻生育日數變化與抽穗期基因間之對應關係,並助益於具氣候韌性之早熟水稻優質生產節水栽培體系的建置。 建立稻麥與不同栽培制度之小麥節水調適技術(2/4)為提升國內小麥栽培產能與減緩氣候變遷對小麥生產造成之影響,本計畫亦將針對不同栽培環境與不同耕作模式,藉由調整播種期程,導入小麥至不同輪作模式中,建立不同栽培模式之小麥節水韌性生產技術,並將之推廣予小麥栽培農戶,預期可較現行栽培節省水資源10%以上,達到韌性農業生產目標,以永續小麥栽培。 <strong>細部計畫0:果樹作物因應氣候變遷調適與栽培管理模式之建立</strong>旱季番石榴灌溉可以提升果實品質與產量。由於灌溉水源及水質問題,番石榴果園多數採用溝灌或淹灌。為改善灌溉水質不佳,灌溉噴頭容易阻塞的問題,本年度擬測試評估旋流泥沙過濾器搭配簡易過濾裝置應用在番石榴果園微噴灌系統的效益。本研究計畫擬藉由建立芒果抗逆指標,篩選具抗耐低溫之品種,當作育種及根砧材料;另一方面藉由探討植物生長調節劑、肥培管理技術、根砧、根域水分管理技術等,篩選具耐低溫逆境之芒果根砧、並建立芒果逆境生理調控技術及應用方式,以穩定芒果生產,提升果實品質及農家營收,減少因為逆境造成的鉅大損失。建立蓮霧果園(印尼大果種)簡易網室自動化系統,於低溫期間自動開關,進行低溫防減之效益評估;另評估蓮霧新品種台農3號黑糖芭比於冬果低溫耐受性,作為日後推廣之參考。酪梨適地適作栽培,以減少因極端天候如強降雨,排水不良,所造成減產或植株死亡的風險,建立密植矮化栽培管理制度,利用修剪技術控制枝梢生長與提高光穿透度、配合藥劑肥培管理,達到強健植株,減少風害造成的損失。梅雨季節與夏季豪雨容易造成香蕉園浸水、排水不良等情況,導致香蕉植株受損,影響果品的採收與產量,需要建立香蕉因應氣候變遷水害逆境栽培管理模式,提升植株存活率,減少災損。  本計畫擬針對柑桔果樹因氣候變遷暖化導致之關鍵問題(如開花及結果異常使果 實產量與品質降低),隨氣候變化及生育時期,利用動態及精緻肥培管理技術與病蟲 害管理技術,改善柑桔果樹在氣候暖化高溫或水分逆境下之產量品質不佳問題,以生產安全高品質柑桔。荔枝於暖冬環境下開花率會受到嚴重影響,宜開發具暖冬調適能力之栽培模式,提高開花率以及著果率,以避免減產。冬季升溫會導致甜柿開花減少與延遲、減產與果品 降低的現象,開發冬季升溫對甜柿減產之管理調適技術,可減緩冬季升溫對甜柿減產的影響,維持甜柿產業正常生產與經濟收益。 <strong>細部計畫0:多重逆境篩選設施平台</strong>面對一連串快速變化的氣候,往往會加劇病蟲害的嚴重發生,增加農業災害損失。災害發生無法預測,同時災害發生常屬於複合性,多重氣象條件下才引發重大農業損失。防災技術研發及災損評估需要一可模擬多重氣象環境之試驗場域,才能提供精準及可重複之試驗數據。為能瞭解快速的氣候變化對農作物與病蟲害發生的關聯性,本計畫將建置能控制快速變化栽培環境的現代化篩選平台,期能在氣候變遷的環境下瞭解其對作物病蟲害發生的影響,進而提出適當的因應措施,以確保農業生產安全。 <strong>細部計畫0:因應氣候變遷之糧食韌性生產</strong>早熟性之耐旱耐高溫高粱篩選以因應氣候變遷之適時適地適種高粱是目前世界五大的穀類作物之一,以耐熱、耐旱聞名,環境適應性很廣,高粱的灌溉量約為玉米的1/5,約為水稻的1/10,尤其TCCIP氣候情境模擬在氣溫上升 1.5°C 臨界值、農業可用水資源短少10% ,所以,推廣高粱能減緩因氣候變遷長期乾旱所造成的糧食短缺和水資源不足之問題。因此,早熟性高粱品系,因生育日數少,栽培使用之農業用水大幅降低,除了增加土地利用性,可與水稻輪作,本研究將與水稻DT3作,水旱田輪作可保留土壤地力,先期在西南部和高鐵沿線和地層下陷農業地區進行高級試驗,推廣適合之品系。將採取搭配次世代定序的高通量SNP資料進行QTL-seq,獲得與早抽穗的SNP用於分子標誌輔助選育,並以自動化、高通量的分子標誌輔助選育,可提升高粱育種達30%之多。此早熟性糯性高粱V9 (貢獻親) 與美國德州高產優良品種BTx623 (輪迴親) 雜交,預計選育高粱新品系2-3個。為了達到高粱與水稻之水旱田輪作制度之建立,本研究將以水稻DT3品系與高粱輪作,水稻DT3為材料,透過三種水份管理模式進行節水管理操作,計畫建立與糯性高粱稔性恢復 R 品系的輪作方式。建立高粱栽培技術,與水稻DT3輪作,基此,降低灌溉需水量10%~30%;推廣耐旱、耐高溫早熟性高粱新品系之栽培面積達2公頃;此適於釀製高粱酒的糯性高粱品系可以增加高粱產值及面積,提升高粱進口替代,可以提升糧食自給率。 水稻節水栽培及南瓜砧木耐低溫指標之建立本計畫針對糧食韌性生產因應調適,扣合農業可用水資源短少10%與減少災變天候損失之情境,擬進行水稻節水栽培及南瓜砧木耐低溫指標之建立,其分工為水稻節水栽培管理之建立,以及南瓜砧木耐低溫指標之建立。水稻為主要糧食,在農業可用水減少10%下,本計畫擬進行水稻節水栽培管理之建立,探討減少10-15%灌溉水下維持韌性水稻生產力與降低溫室氣體甲烷排放之環境親合性水分管理模式。南瓜砧木為目前主要瓜類栽培所用之砧木,為強化重要瓜類蔬菜生產調適技術,研究耐低溫生理指標,篩選對自然災害南瓜砧木韌性品系,促進瓜類順應逆境生產恢復力,穩定瓜類種苗生產、植株生長,以增加農民收益,達成強固氣候韌性糧食生產及耐抗逆境能量。 因應氣候變遷之糧食韌性生產運籌管理專案配合「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫之推動,協助進行檢視輔導、各團隊之績效指標管考、成果發表與效益推估,並針對韌性農業相關科研能量及產業需求進行檢視,評估相關技術應用於產業之可行性,以協助產業政策發展目標之達成<strong>。</strong>(一)蒐集與整理國內外因應氣候變遷之糧食韌性生產科技和產業資訊,提供執行「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫相關單位擬定與發展因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系及糧食韌性生產參考。(二)規劃「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫之資訊交流平臺功能機制。(三)整理與分析適用於「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫執行之農業、氣象及產業資源和資訊,定期發布或隨時通告計畫執行團隊,促進可揭露可用資源和資訊之擴散利用和訊息互動溝通。(四)評估氣候變遷對糧食生產與產業發展影響,規劃辦理相關論壇或研討(習)會1場次,提升「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫執行成效,並強化產官學研之連結。(五)協助「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫科研成果效益評估與績效指標設定,提供計畫執行團隊進行成效考核建議,協助辦理計畫考核工作,並協調計畫統籌機關與各執行機關/單位之間的合作及資訊服務。(六)協助「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫舉辦工作會議、成果分享會或工作坊、審查會議等活動,助益於計畫整合與推動,並提高研發成果的產業推廣利用。(七)提供計畫專案負責人1人和駐點人員至少2人,專責協助計畫之執行及推動,辦理文書作業與相關例行工作,以及處理其他臨時交辦事項等。 <strong>細部計畫0:經濟性淡海水魚蝦貝類養殖因應氣候變遷調適</strong>水產養殖是臺灣重要的產業之一,年產值逾三百億元,然因全球氣候變遷,冬季強烈寒流、夏季熱浪以及短時間內的強降雨等極端氣候,已對養殖漁業造成重大損失。本計畫將模擬環境升降溫模式及極端天候強降雨,探討石斑魚、吳郭魚、白蝦及文蛤等在溫度逆境下的生理狀態,並藉由生理生化指標、分子標誌、營養飼料配方、改善養殖設施等方式來增加研究物種的環境耐受能力。最終研發成果將開發出各種耐氣候逆境之經濟性水產養殖物種,以及最適養殖管理模式,提供高存活率、低災害損失,以維持糧食生產安全,提升養殖產業面對氣候變遷之產業韌性,完成順應氣候變遷情境之逆境管理調適。 <strong>細部計畫0:高溫氣候畜禽因應調適</strong>針對氣候變遷對畜牧業動物產量所造成的影響擬定因應對策,強化國內乳、肉牛及養鵝產業耐熱抗逆境能力與生產效率之調適措施,建立調適性作業技術,選拔適應熱帶氣候且具生長潛能之種畜禽的篩選技術,降低因熱緊迫造成之經濟損失,進而穩定產業供應體系,提升產業競爭力。進行乳牛熱調適措施,於熱季利用調控降溫方式如風扇、淋浴、噴霧等,尋求環境降溫管理模式,減少夏季熱緊迫對懷孕牛及乾乳牛之生理與健康等不利影響。本試驗調查含熱帶牛(<em>Bos indicus</em>)血統肉牛耐熱性能。選用雜交黃牛,於熱季(5-9 月間)下午期間,比較經過熱季調控降溫方式(遮蔭、噴霧或風扇等)測定肉牛之生長性狀,並監控其血液生理值及活動量,以明白經由降溫調適後對於牛隻生產性狀及生理值影響。建立高溫高濕氣候條件下之飲用水降溫調適措施,提升白羅曼鵝耐逆境環境的韌性程度及調適能力。 <strong>細部計畫0:多樣化農業生產及增加農產品供應韌度之研究</strong>台灣農產產值高達2,694億元,其中高接梨、紅棗、百香果、芒果、洋蔥、青蔥、鳳梨釋迦及茶葉,合計324億元,占總產值12%,為重要經濟農作物。臺灣每年遭受氣象災害甚多,包括颱風、豪雨、寒害及乾旱等,而現有災害預報尺度過大,無法適用於農作需求,同時災害事件統計、致災條件釐定、災損估算技術及產業變遷,缺乏長期資料累積或整合,加上農民普遍缺乏積極防災觀念,導致災害救助常成政府財政負擔,同時勘災造成人力耗損。農業災害攸關農民生計及廣大消費者,對於農產品穩定供應非常重要。因此各項作物應積極研發因應措施,本計畫針對各改良場轄區重要作物進行防減災技術開發,建立調適高溫或全球暖化溫度上升1.5°C、水資源分布不均及災害氣象之因應生產技術,減緩不良環境對農作物生產之影響,以提高農產品供應韌度。 <strong>細部計畫0:建立馬鈴薯耐旱生產調適管理技術</strong>針對氣候變化所造成之缺水乾旱問題,以用水需求減少10%以上為目標,本計畫已建立乾旱逆境環境設施、水份監測及供應系統。本年計畫則以建立馬鈴薯耐旱韌性之生理與生育指標,作為栽培管理應用之參考,除可作為品系篩選指標外,更可提供生產者面臨乾旱逆境之早期參考指標,提供管理方針調整之參考。最後並整合乾旱逆境之生理生育指標,鋪蓋處理或噴水帶應用等方法,提供與建立馬鈴薯因應水份減少10%之韌性生產調適管理技術,以強化我國馬鈴薯生產者因應逆境之管理與調適生產能力。Research on Rice Resilience and Adaptation Technology in Response to Climate Change</strong><strong>Development of Screening Technology and Cultivation Techniques for Heat Stress Temperature Stress in Rice</strong>To cope with climate change and the impact of temperature stress on rice yield loss and rice quality deterioration, this project will establish a stable screening platform and efficient standard screening technology for high temperature stress in rice.  The major goals are to establish the resilience index of commercial rice cultivars under high temperature stress through thermal sensing image analysis, pollen viability detection, and rice quality analysis.  As well as to screen the heat tolerance genetic resources for further utilization of research and on rice variety improvement. In addition, the adjustment of water management and fertilizer utility will be conducted for increasing rice resilience under high temperature stress during the flowering stage to the mature stage. It is expected that the results of this study would stabilize rice yield for sustainable rice production. <strong>Influence on and adaptation for rice yield and quality under extreme weather threats (2/4)</strong> In response to the climate change for chilling stress and flooding influences on the impact of rice yield and quality, this project establishes a stable screening platform for approaching the tolerant rice cultivars and the related culture and field management methods. Through pollen viability detection, applying beneficial microorganisms, rice quality and its bioactive ingredients analyses technologies, the indicative markers for tolerant traits will be obtained and the adjustment of cultivation methods will be suggested to improve the rice production system to reduce the loss and to stabilize the farmers’ income when facing chilling and/or flooding stress. <strong>Effect of drought stress on rice production</strong> The objectives of this 3-year research project are to study how rice growth and production is influenced by heat/high temperatures and water deficits/drought and the underlying mechanisms so as to develop adaptation strategies, protection practices and simulation models to reduce or prevent rice damage and yield loss. The research program will be linked up with the MINCERnet2.0 International Rice Research Collaboration as one of the ten regional cooperative projects. In the second year, efforts will be continued on the quantitative effects of heat and drought on panicle emergence, flowering behavior and fertility of rice panicles, as well as growth, yield and grain quality. The threshold ranges of temperature and water stress level resulting in sterility of spikelets will also be the focal points that may lead to establish techniques and strategies for disaster prevention and mitigation and for improving growth and yield models. <strong>Using early-maturing rice as a resilient production adjustment under water shortage</strong> Heading date is an important agronomic traits in rice. Early maturity rice variety have shorter heading date and shorter growing period, increase the yield of early maturity rice can improve water use efficiency. Many heading date related genes have been identified, including <em>HD1</em>, <em>EHD1</em>, <em>HD6</em>, <em>DTH8</em>, and <em>RFT1</em>, how did this gene effect the heading date under Taiwan's climate is still unclear. In this study, 100 accessions collected from different geographical origins in Asia will be investigated in two crop seasons under natural field. High grain number gene(<em>Gn1a</em>) and grain size gene(<em>GS3</em>) will be introduce to NKY1041071 , an early maturity line, to improve water use efficiency. <strong>Establish of water conservation and adaption technology of wheat for rice-wheat rotation system(2/4)</strong> This project will establish water conservation technologies under different rotation cropping system by regulating sowing date of wheat for the different cultivation environment and cropping system. By promoting this cropping system to farmer, It is expected to save more than 10% of water resources compared to current cultivation and achieve the goal of resilient agricultural production and sustainably cultivate of wheat.  <strong>0:Fruit tree crops adapt to climate change and establishment of cultivation management model</strong>Guava irrigation in the dry season can improve fruit quality and yield. Due to the problems of irrigation water source and water quality, most guava orchards adopt furrow irrigation or submerged irrigation. In order to improve the problem of poor irrigation water quality and easy clogging of irrigation sprinklers, this year we plan to test and evaluate the benefits of the cyclone sediment filter combined with a simple filter device in the micro-sprinkler irrigation system of guava orchards.In this study, we established a mango stress resistance index to screen varieties with low temperature resistance as breeding and rootstock materials. On the other hand, we explored plant growth regulators, fertilizer management techniques, rootstocks, root zone water management techniques, etc. To screen mango rootstocks with low temperature tolerance and establish mango stress physiological regulation techniques and application methods to stabilize mango production, improve fruit quality and farm income, and reduce major losses caused by adversity. In order to set up simple and automatic net house system during chilling period in wax apple orchard. Therefore evaluated new varieties wax apple (cv. Tainung No.3 Suagar Barbie) of winter fruit was evaluated for future industry using.Avocado species are suitable for cultivation in place to reduce the risk of reduced yield or plant death due to extreme weather such as heavy rainfall and poor drainage. Establish a dense planting dwarf cultivation management system use pruning technology to control the growth of shoot tips and increase light penetration, and cooperate with chemical fertilizer management to achieve strong plants and reduce losses caused by wind damage. The rainy season and summer heavy rainfall are likely to cause banana plantations flooding, poor drainage, etc., resulting in banana plants damaged, affecting fruit quality and yield. The need to establish banana cultivation management model in response to water stress damage of climate change and to enhance plant survival reduces disaster loss. The plan aims to address key problems caused by climatic warming of citrus fruit trees due to climate change (such as reduced fruit yield and quality due to abnormal flowering and fruiting). Dynamic and sophisticated fertilizer management techniques and pest management techniques will be used with climate change and growth periods improve the quality and quality of citrus fruit trees under the high temperature or water stress to produce safe and high quality citrus fruit. The project main goat is establishment acultivation model to increase lychee flowering rate in warm winter. To avoid higher winter temperature lead to decrease lychee yield. Development of adaptive cultivation techniques for sweet persimmon in response to winter warming to slow down the impact on the low yield and maintain the profit of sweet persimmon industry. <strong>0:Multiple environmental stress screening facility platform</strong>Faced with rapidly changing in climates, it will often aggravate the serious occurrence of crop pests and diseases resulting in the increasing loss of agriculture. In order to understand the relationship between rapid climate change and the occurrence of crop pests and diseases, this project will establish a screening platform that can control the environmental factors. And then it will be used to study the impact on crop pests and diseases in the climate change environment. Further appropriate countermeasures are proposed to ensure the safety of agricultural production. <strong>0:Resilient food production to cope with climate change</strong> Breeding of Drought- and Heat- Tolerant Sorghum with Early Maturity for Cultivation in Suitable Seasons and Areas Encountering Climate Change Sorghum, one of the major 5 cereal crops in the world, is known for its heat and drought tolerance and adaptation to diverse environments. The irrigation water for sorghum is about 1/5 for maize and 1/10 for rice. The promotion of sorghum can mitigate food shortage and insufficient water caused by prone climate change, specific in temperature increasing to threshold of 1.5°C and 10% reduction of water for agriculture. Thus, selecting and breeding new sorghum lines of short-growth period and high-yield can improve land utilization and crop rotation with drought-tolerant rice, DT3 line, leading to preserve soil fertility. We will adopt a next-generation sequence technology to obtain high throughput SNP genotypes by genotype-by-sequencing (GBS). The SNPs will be applied to QTL-seq to map QTLs conferring maturity, and those SNPs closely linked to early maturity will applied to marker-assisted selection to breed new sorghum lines of high yield and waxy endosperm. The platform of sorghum marker-assisted backcross breeding will increase 30% of selection efficiency more than traditional phenotypic selection. V9, the donor parent contributing early maturity and waxy endosperm, will be crossed to BTx623, the recurrent parent which is the elite variety introduced from Texas, USA. We expect to obtain BC<SUB>3</SUB>F<SUB>2 </SUB>individuals possessing waxy endosperm and early maturity in the second year, which 2-3 new sorghum lines will be expected . The rice DT3 will be used for establishing crop rotation system. In the first two years, three different levels of water-saving cultivation practice will be applied to DT3 and sorghum R line with waxy endosperm. In the third year, the system will be implemented as cultivating rice at the first crop season and sorghum at the second season for 0.13 hectare at the Xikuo Farm, Chiayi Agricultural Experimental Branch. In the fourth year, crop rotation practice of DT3 with new waxy sorghum lines with early mature will be extended to Tainan, Chiayi, and Yulin areas with irrigation deficiency.      The achievements of this project are expected: 1 sorghum cultivation practice protocol for sorghum industry, and 1 rotation practice protocol of rice-sorghum as well. It is anticipated that promotion of crop rotation of DT3 with the new sorghum lines of heat tolerance, drought tolerance, early maturity and waxy will reduce10~30% of irrigation water and increase cultivation areas up to 2 hectares, leading to increase sorghum cultivation areas and production and alternation of imported sorghum.    Establishment of Rice Water-saving Irrigated Cultivation and Pumpkin Rootstock's Low Temperature Tolerance Index  The research aimed on adaptation the resilient of food production under deducting 10% of the agriculture available water and the loss of climate risks. Here, we plan to establish water-saving cultivation of rice, and cold-resistance of pumpkin rootstock. Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Under the 10-15% reduction of the irrigation, we plan to study the potential of the rice yield and reducing of methane emission. Pumpkin as the grafted rootstock mainly used for the cultivation of the cucurbit. Study the physiological index of low temperature resistance for screening the pumpkin rootstock lines. The production of tolerant low temperature of pumpkin rootstock can promote cucurbit plant restoration after stress, stabilize cucurbit seedling production and plant growing. The advantage will increase farmer income, stable food production and the energy of tolerant stress.  Resilient food production to cope with climate change   The collaborative project is operating the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change with aim to evaluate the team performance, published result, and prediction of efficiency. It is also focused on evaluating the resilient agriculture research within the academy and industry and availability of applied technologies to assist with policy development in agricultural industry.  1. Collected and organized the relevant industry information toward resilience of agricultural production system at home and abroad to provide corresponding government offices to construct frameworks and policies. 2. Build up an information exchange platform for the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change. 3. Collating and analyzing data of agriculture, meteorology and industry information to inform updated information to the project teams and improve the data utilization and communication efficiency. 4. Evaluated the impact of climate change on food production and industrial development. Organized one relevant conference or seminar to reinforce the relationships between government, industry and research institute and improved the efficiency of project execution. 5. Assisted with evaluating the scientific research results and set up the performance indicators for the project “the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change” to provide the suggestion to executive project team and coordinate the cooperation work and information services between government offices. 6. Assisted in organizing the activities such as work meeting, experiences shared session, workshop and review meeting of the project the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change “which are helpful to integrate and promote the project results to industry. 7. Provided one project manager and at least two station staffs for the assistance of project execution, including document work and temporary assignment. <strong>0:Adaptation strategies of economic aquaculture fish, shrimp and mollusk species to climate change</strong>Aquaculture is one of Taiwan's important industries, with an annual value of more than 30 billion NTD. However, due to global climate change, extreme cold weather in winter, heat waves in summer and heavy rainfall in a short period of time, it has caused significant losses to aquaculture fisheries. The project will manipulate rising and falling temperature modes, and explore the physiological state of grouper, tilapia, white shrimp and hard clam in temperature stress, and evaluate through physiological and biochemical indicators, molecular markers, nutrient feed formula, facility improvment, to increase the environmental tolerance of the aquaculture species. The final research results will develop a variety of economic aquaculture species resistant to extreme weather and adversity, as well as the optimal aquaculture management model, providing high survival rate and low disaster losses to maintain food production safety and enhance the industrial resilience of the aquaculture industry in the face of climate change scenarios. <strong>0:The adaptation for livestock production in high temperature climate</strong>In order to solve the impact of climate change on the production of animal husbandry, the aim of the study is to strengthen domestic dairy, beef cattle and goose industries to adapt to heat stress and promote production efficiency by establishing adaptive operation system, and to reduce the economic loss caused by heat, and thus stabilize the industrial supplement system and enhance industrial competitiveness.Carry out heat cooling adjustment measures such as fans, showers, sprays, etc. in the hot season to reduce the adverse effects of summer heat on the physiology and health of pregnant cows and dry cows.This project also investigates the heat tolerance of beef cattle including tropical cattle strain (Bos indicus). Comparing the growth performance of the hybrid yellow cattle through the cooling methods such as shading, spray or fan, etc. during the afternoon in the hot season (May-Sep), and monitoring their blood physiological data and activity levels to understand after cooling adjusting measures. It will affect the production traits and physiological value of cattle.The drinking water cooling adjustment will also be set up in this project under high temperature and high humidity climate conditions to improve the resilience and adaptability of the White Roman goose and to endure the adversity environment. <strong>0:Study on diverse agricultural production systems to increase the resilience of agricultural products</strong>Taiwan's agricultural output value is as high as 269.4 billion, of which pear, jujube, passion fruit, mango, onion, shallot, atemoya and tea accounting for 12% of the total output value. Every year Taiwan suffers a lot of meteorological disasters, including typhoons, heavy rain, low temperature damage, and drought. The disaster weather forecast scale is too large to be suitable for farming used. At the same time, we are lacking disaster event statistics, determination of disaster conditions, disaster estimation techniques, and industrial changes. The accumulation or integration of long-term data, coupled with the general lack of active disaster prevention concepts among farmers, has led to disaster relief often resulting in government financial burdens, and at the same time surveying disasters has caused manpower loss. Agricultural disasters are related to farmers' livelihoods and consumers, and are very important for the stable supply of agricultural products. Therefore, various crops should actively research and develop corresponding measures. This study to develops disaster prevention and reduction technology for important crops in various improvement areas, and establishes corresponding production for adjusting high temperature or global warming temperature to rise by 1.5 °C, uneven distribution of water resources, and disaster weather. Technology to mitigate the impact of adverse environmental conditions on crop production in order to improve the tenacity of agricultural product supply resilience. <strong>0:Establishing production adaptation and management techniques for drought-tolerant potato</strong>In view of the impact of climate change due to water shortage, the drought tolerance production model and low water demand drought tolerance index and water shortage environment simulation equipment were established in the facility. And water supply measurement system was constructed, index construction depending by the crop growth characteristics and specific components, cumulative, environmental (accumulated temperature, sunshine quantity). Establishment of drought tolerance test system setup and assessment methods, and provide management policies and models for drought environment cultivation.
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