楊桃細菌性斑點病菌之特性

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論文名稱: 楊桃細菌性斑點病菌之特性
研究生姓名: 陳谷婷
指導教授姓名: 徐世典
出版年: 2000
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 植物病理學系
關鍵字: 楊桃;細菌性斑點病;病原鑑定;病菌特性;carambola;Pseudomonas syringae;identification of pathogen;characteristics of pathogen
摘要: 楊桃細菌性斑點病為台灣發生之新病害,其最顯著之病徵為葉片上形成紫紅色斑點,周圍有明顯黃色暈環,且葉片易黃化脫落。由罹病組織分離的病原菌在King’s B medium(KB)上會產生螢光色素,再經由生理生化特性測試,顯示此病原菌為Pseudomonas syringae之菌株,但無法判定其屬於P. syringae中的哪一個病原型(pathovar)。利用Biolog system鑑定結果,本病原菌與P. syringae pv. pisi有較高的相似度(0.407-0.782),或與P. syringae pv. syringae較為接近(0.541-0.810),但以已知之pv. pisi及pv. syringae之供試菌株接種於楊桃葉片上並無病原性。楊桃病原菌可感染馬來西亞種、秤錘種、軟枝種、酸味種等四種所測試的楊桃品種。本病原菌以產生syringomycin的基因專一性片段之引子對(syrD1、syrD2)進行PCR偵測,可從對照菌株P. syringae pv. syringae產生專一性片段,而楊桃菌株則無,顯示後者無此類毒質之產生。以PCR偵測ethylene-forming enzyme gene時,楊桃菌株無法增幅出該基因片段;直接用氣體色層分法測定菌株培養液上之乙烯時,發現供試菌株可產生0.03-20.92 ppm/hr—5ml culture不等的乙烯。將所分離病原菌菌株接種在大豆、豌豆、四季豆、豇豆、煙草、蕃茄、甘藍、胡瓜、波羅蜜、桑椹、甜柿、芭樂、蓮霧、龍眼、荔枝、三月桃、甜桃、大青梅、紅肉李、枇杷、橫山梨、唐梨、山楂、文旦、金棗、葡萄柚、檸檬、椪柑、茂谷柑、蘋婆、鳳梨釋迦、人心果、百香果、橄欖、芒果、葡萄等各種不同的植物上,結果皆無法產生病徵,顯示其寄主可能只有楊桃。由以上的結果,可確定楊桃細菌性斑點病的病原菌為Pseudomonas syringae之菌株,且可能屬於Pseudomonas syringae的新病原型。Bacterial spot is a new disease of carambola in Taiwan. The typical symptoms on leaves are purple spots surrounded by yellow haloes, and the infected leaves turn yellow and fall easily. The pathogen isolated from diseased tissues produced fluorescent pigment on King’s B medium. Based on physiological characteristics, the pathogen was identified as a strain of Pseudomonas syringae. The analysis by the system of Biolog GN Microplate showed that the pathogen had higher similarity with P. syringae pv. pisi(0.407-0.782), or was more closely related to P. syringae pv. syringae(0.541-0.810). But there were no symptoms appeared when the known pv. pisi and pv. syringae were inoculated to carambola. The pathogen could infect carambola cultivars Malaysia、Tsen Tsway、Erh Lin Juan Chih、and Sour. When a specific syringomycin gene fragment was detected by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)with primer pair syD1/syD2, only the reference strain of P. syringae pv. syringae produced the specific fragment, but carambola strains didn’t. A specific ethylene-forming enzyme gene fragment was not amplified from carambola strains by PCR. However, small amounts(0.03-20.92 ppm/hr—5ml culture)of ethylene were detected from the cultures of carambola strains of P. syringae grown in liquid 523 medium by gas chromatograph. Inoculation of carambola strains to soybean、pea、kidney bean、cowpea、tobacco、tomato、cabbage、cucumber、jack fruit、mulberry、persimmon、guava、wax-apple、longan、litchi、peach、plum、prune、loquat、pear、buntan shaddock、grapefruit pomelo、lemon、mandarin orange、ping pong、sugar apple、sapodilla、passion fruit、olive、mango、and grapefruit did not produce any symptoms. The carambola strains were only pathogenic to carambola. The results indicated that carambola strains belong to Pseudomonas syringae, and they may be a new pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae.
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