果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發
計畫主持人: 李堂察
共同計畫主持人: 謝慶昌;蔡智賢;陳幼光;陳右人;熊同銓;阮素芬;陳京城;李淑英;張哲嘉;郭純德;梁佑慎;林慧玲;顏昌瑞;柯立祥;羅惠萍;吳俊達;楊耀祥;林榕華;張栢滄
計畫編號: 103農科-9.2.3-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 嘉義大學園藝學系
全程計畫年: 2014
關鍵字: 保鮮;水分逆境;柳橙;寄接梨;採前處理;誘變;貯藏;柿;楊桃;逆境;低溫害;冬季新梢;溫度;套袋;無子葡萄;寒害;裂果;香蕉;螢光反應;採收成熟度;防護;試管篩選;品質;逆境;採後處理;電導度;品質;誘變;熱帶果樹資源開發;黃葉病;耐熱性;碳水化合物;番石榴;低溫貯藏;生長與發育;澱粉;日燒;椪柑;蓮霧;果實品質;紅龍果;檸檬;裂果;忍受性;果實發育;胚培養;1甲基環丙烯;氣候變遷;低需冷性梨;產能;疏花序;網室栽培;新引進品種;鳳梨;番荔枝;黃皮;離子滲漏;芒果果園;鳳梨;品質;著果;礦物營養;果實儲藏;Preservation;Water stress;'Liucheng' orange;Top working pears;preharvest treatment;Induced mutation;storage;persimmon;Carambole;Stress;Cold damage;winter flush;temperature;Bagging;Seedless grapes;Chilling Injury;splitting;Musa banana;chlorophyll fluoresce
摘要: 本計畫主要目標在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,因應氣候變遷果樹栽培技術改進,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出11個計畫。這些計畫如下:紅肉種紅龍果(Hylocereus polyrhizusH. costaricensis)是我國新興外銷水果,主要出口市場為中國大陸、香港及加拿大。紅肉種產期長、果肉可溶性固形物高、富含甜菜苷色素(betalains)、抗氧化能力佳,有別於東南亞常見的白肉種(H. undatus),不論內外銷市場均具競爭優勢。雖然臺灣民間已選育出多種優良紅肉品種,然而,有關不同紅肉種紅龍果品種之內外銷採收成熟度、對蒸熱檢疫處理的耐受性、採後果實基礎生理與貯運條件資料並不多,亟待我方迅速建立,以作為我國紅龍果拓展內外銷市場的後盾。因此,本計畫第二年將針對‘大紅’、‘蜜寶’及‘石火泉’三個品種不同採收成熟度對蒸熱處理的耐受性、品質變化、貯藏壽命進行比較,並調查採後果實劣變原因,作為未來外銷到非果實蠅疫區市場適合品種選擇與最適當採收成熟度之參考。(二)、多元梨穗品種調查及應用之評估本計畫調查四個具潛力之寄接梨穗品種。102年度由梨山與卓蘭地區調查10種梨高接後表現,自其中選出4種,調查其低溫需求、花芽形成與枝條及葉內養片分含量,以確定作為寄接梨穗品種其潛力。(三)、提升番石榴週年品質,貯運保鮮技術,耐逆境指標及基因組草圖之建立一、中興大學林慧玲(提升週年品質貯運保鮮及耐逆境指標)夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同材質紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實生長速率,並利用環刻處理使葉片蓄積較多之光合產物,以生產高品質番石榴果實。並評估其貯運品質及壽命。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養成分變化顯示氮鈣及鎂濃度有較大之差異,本年度擬利用葉面噴施硫酸鎂及不同型式之鈣源期能提升光合效率及果實品質。另外為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境篩選指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工具,穩定生產。二、宜蘭大學郭純德(更年型番石榴果實採後處理技術)夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同材質紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實生長速率,並利用環刻處理使葉片蓄積較多之光合產物,以生產高品質番石榴果實。並評估其貯運品質及壽命。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養成分變化顯示氮鈣及鎂濃度有較大之差異,本年度擬利用葉面噴施硫酸鎂期能提升光合效率。另外為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境篩選指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工具,穩定生產。三、屏東科技大學陳幼光(紅肉番石榴果實品質和貯藏性) 本計畫主要的目的在於瞭解不同採收成熟度對於紅肉番石榴‘西瓜拔’果實品質、抗氧化力及貯藏性的影響。果實的採收成熟度將依果皮顏色分成深綠色、淺綠色和黃綠色三個階段參考開花日期進行測試。另冬季和夏季所採收果實的品質也將加以比較,以瞭解季節對果實品質的影響。本研究的結果將有助於建立紅肉番石榴最佳採收成熟度判斷標準及穩定其果實品質。 四、屏東科技大學陳幼光(建構番石榴基因組草圖) 番石榴為桃金孃科重要熱帶經濟果樹。除果實可供鮮食及加工外,其葉片和其他部位也具有醫藥的價值。本計畫主要的目的在於利用次世代定序技術以建構一個番石榴的基因組草圖。首先先建置全基因組短序列基因庫和成對配對基因庫二種基因庫,然後用對讀定序方法加以定序。除基因組的組裝外,也將利用生物資訊學工具進行基因秘碼序列的預測和基因功能註解等分析。 五、中興大學張哲嘉(乾旱逆境生理指標)因全球氣候變遷之影響,近年台灣旱涝交替及極端氣候的頻率增加,台灣番石榴的主要產區-中南部降水亦逐年減少、旱季延長,勢將對可週年生產的產業造成衝擊。雖然番石榴已為國際重要經濟果樹,然國、內外有關其水份生理之研究及報告極為缺乏,尤其是乾旱逆境下的反應與調適,亟待建立。一般大型木本果樹之生長量與光合作用生理等對植株水份與土壤水份含量敏感。本研究擬以二年為期,分別以國內主要栽培品種‘帝王拔’(第一年,102年)及‘珍珠拔’ (第二年,103年)盆株為材料,除進行短期/循環乾旱及復水對植株生長量之影響外,並同時比較其土壤相對含水率(土壤張力)與葉片之水勢(water potential ) 、相對水份含量、淨光合作用速率及葉綠素螢光反應速率(chlorophyll influorescence;Fv/Fm)等,盼能界定影響番石榴生育之水勢閥值(threshold)、瞭解其於乾旱下的生理反應與指標,並可為日後果園栽培管理及後續生理研究之參考。 (四)、柿豐產優質及採收後處理技術之研究甜柿是台灣地區高經濟的果樹之一,單位面積收益頗高,但仍有樹勢因嫁接不親和而提早老化、肥培管理沒有依據準則、疏果標準未確立、生理障礙嚴重及不耐貯運、品種太少、甜柿生理落果日益嚴重等問題,本計劃擬由A.修正真空脫澀法之溫度及時間。B.高接市田柿及蜂屋品種。C.建立鑽石蜜柿脫澀技術。D.探討甜柿生理落果之時期及原因。等面向改善栽培及處理作業,冀以獲豐產、優質及貯運力佳等經營流程。(五)、多倍體無子葡萄選育與簡易溫室葡萄修剪技術開發本計畫103年度主要工作目標包括:1. 三倍體葡萄新品系田間植株性狀調查。2. 新的雜交三倍體葡萄選育。3. 新的雜交四倍體葡萄選育。4. 雜交後代選拔之RAPD分子標誌開發。5. 耐逆境葡萄新品系選育體系之建立。6. 四倍體無子葡萄新品種竹峰產地試種。7. 不同時間回剪對翌年結果母枝生長發育之影響。8. 不同時間回剪對植株儲藏養分之影響。(六)、砧木對‘糯米糍(73-S-20)’荔枝嫁接親合性、成活率及果實品質的影響為成就台灣荔枝產業新階段之佈局,嫁接具有就地更新換種(top-working)、矮化及節省種苗成本等優點,因而建立‘73-S-20’荔枝嫁接技術以更新中部地區部份‘黑葉’(最主要)、‘玉荷包’、 ‘桂味’等之成株(top-working),並確認砧木是否影響果實品質,更加重要。本研究擬以四年為期,就張(2003)之初步研究成果為基礎,接續探討不同砧木(包括中間砧,interstock)對‘73-S-20’荔枝嫁接親合性、成活率、樹勢及果實品質(包括焦核率與裂果率)的影響。試驗成果將能建立‘73-S-20’就地更新品種之技術,選拔親和性最高、成活率最佳、影響果實品質最少之穗/砧組合(scion/stock union),以利產業之推展。(七)、柑橘促成栽培,減少裂果和乾米及採後處理技術之研究本年度主要針對柑橘促成栽培,減少裂果和乾米及採後處理技術之研究,期能提高柑橘品質和延長市場供貨期,本年度主要工作項目有:1. 麻豆文旦促成栽培之研究。2. 探討鈣和植物生長調節劑處理對減少椪柑乾米率之效果。3. 研究植物荷爾蒙處理減少茂谷柑果實裂果之效果。4. 改進外銷日本椪柑之品質及貯運技術(八)、採前和採後處理減少鳳梨果實腐損之研究本研究主要目的為研發減少鳳梨生理劣變之技術,本年度重要工作項目如下:1、採前藥物處理以漸少鳳梨生理劣變之效果。2、評估採後以水揚酸和1-MCP等處理對果實壽命和生理劣變之效果。(九)、楊桃外銷貯運技術改進計畫楊桃為臺灣重要的外銷果品之一,為第六大主要出口水果,主要外銷香港、加拿大、美國、中國大陸、新加坡等國家,其外銷潛力不容忽視。本計畫主要目的為改進現行楊桃保鮮貯運技術,延長貯藏壽命,維持供貨品質,拓展外銷市場。本計畫將分析不同品種與產季之楊桃果實採後品質與貯藏壽命之變化,開發最佳的貯運條件與適合的外銷包裝處理,利用1-MCP處理對其果實品質與貯藏壽命之影響,並評估檢疫處理對楊桃品質的影響,建立楊桃採後保鮮處理相關技術之資料。(十)、改善蓮霧品質栽培技術之研究屏東縣林邊鄉、佳冬鄉及枋寮鄉等蓮霧的主要產區被歸為嚴重地層下陷區域,氣候暖化也將引發海平面上升,土壤鹽害勢必更加嚴重,因此未來對屏東沿海重要蓮霧產區造成莫大威脅。藉由本研究可了解蓮霧重要產區的土壤、水質的鹽害威脅現況。並了解鹽分對果實品質影響。  砧木的利用是果樹因應氣候變遷的方法之一,利用逆境下品種的篩選,以獲得抗逆品種,並與經濟品種嫁接後再進行逆境試驗,觀察其生育狀況,以便日後加以推廣利用,減少氣候變遷對蓮霧產業的衝擊。 (十一)、耐香蕉黃葉病、鹽分逆境之新品種選育及後熟貯運新技術之改進1.香蕉新品種選育(1)利用體細胞變異連續田間篩選抗/耐香蕉黃葉病和耐鹽化逆境之‘北蕉’之1089品系、TC1-2010品系、‘台蕉5號’之早花2111品系等優良品系。(2)利用P4T二合一球狀芽團誘導及其改良型技術,配合試管抗/耐香蕉黃葉病和耐鹽化逆境連續篩選優良株系。(3)利用試管添加疊氮化鈉誘變劑,誘導白色球狀芽團變異,配合試管抗/耐香蕉黃葉病和耐逆境連續篩選優良株系。(4)自香蕉種原庫選育具推廣潛能之‘Grande Naine’、‘Williams’、‘KluaiKhai’和‘Senorita’、‘Xiem’、‘Saba’、‘南華蕉’和‘蘭嶼蕉等品種進行抗/耐香蕉黃葉病和耐鹽化逆境連續篩選優良品種。(5)上述品(系)種組培繁苗後,進行網室及田間抗黃葉病特性、耐鹽化逆境篩檢,選育抗/耐香蕉黃葉病和耐鹽化逆境之品(系)種,評估其在國內蕉園適種能力。2.外銷集運青蕉黃化檢定技術之開發:利用香蕉色帶管理,採用超過生理果齡試驗,形成香蕉黃化的條件,利用此樣品進行果皮顏色及果肉澱粉及糖度變化分析其與黃化的關係,剔除可能黃化的香蕉。由於避免香蕉黃化測試技術的開發,農民將落實香蕉抽穗色帶管理,將能增加秋冬外銷數量2500頓。3.‘台蕉7號’催熟技術之研究:探討現行催熟溫度模式對‘台蕉7號’不同熟度與不同季節有機香蕉後熟品質之影響,調整並尋求可改善‘台蕉7號’後熟品質之最佳催熟溫度模式。了解不同催熟溫度模式對不同季節有機蕉後熟品質之影響。建立適當之‘台蕉7號’催熟溫度模式,確保並提升‘台蕉7號’之後熟品質,增進消費者對‘台蕉7號’之喜愛信心,有助於‘台蕉7號’之市場推廣。The objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competition power of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 11 projects of current year. There are: (1)、Studies on the Postharvest Physiology and Handling Technology in Red-fleshed Pitaya FruitRed-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus and H. costaricensis ) has recently become a new export fruit product in H. undatus), massively produced in South Asia, red-fleshed pitaya is characterized with longer period of fruit availability, higher total soluble solids in the pulp, betalains-containing flesh, and better antioxidant activities.  It is expected that red-fleshed pitaya possesses a better commercial potential than white-fleshed one in either domestic or international market.  However, the researches for harvest maturity, tolerance capacity of vapor heat treatment, basic postharvest physiology, and optimum conditions of storage and transportation for red-fleshed pitaya fruit are barely found.  In order to make availability of this commodity to domestic and international markets, it is urgently needed to build up the information about postharvest biology and technology of red-fleshed pitaya fruit.  Therefore, the second year research of this proposal is planning to evaluate the tolerance capacity for vapor heat quarantine treatment, changes of quality attributes, storage life, and postharvest deterioration among ‘Da Hong’,’Mi Bao’, and ‘Shih Huo Cyuan’as well as various harvest maturities of  each cultivar tested.  The results of this investigation will be beneficial for determination of best cultivar(s) as well as for establishment of optimum harvest maturity of red-fleshed pitaya for oriental fruit fly-free markets in the near future.(2)、The evaluation of pear varieties for scion production in TaiwanThe object of this project was investigated 4 scion cultivars for top-graft pear uses.The experiment was conducted in Li Shan and Cholan. Four cultivars, which were selected from 10 pear scion cultivar, were used. Chilling requirement was measured and flower bud formation was observed, and leaf and stem nutrients content was analyzed in this project to decided their potential.(3)、Studies on Improving Fruit Quality, Electing Indices for Stress and Constructing a Draft of Genome in Guava一、The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high  temperatureand high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE+EPNS bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE +EPNS bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques to increase the storage life and quality.Furthemore, we try to use th trunk girdling and MgSO4 and Calcium foliar application to increase the sucrose accumulation in the leaves and inhence the fruit quality . The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods . In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding.二、The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperatureand high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE+EPNS bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE +EPNS bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques to increase the storage life and quality.Furthemore, we try to use th trunk girdling to increase the sucrose accumulation in the leaves and inhence the fruit quality .  The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods and MgSO4 foliar application. In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming.  Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding.三、The main purpose of the current project is to investigate the effect of different harvest maturity on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity and storability of red-flesh ‘Watermelon’guava. The harvest maturity of fruits, as judged by skin color, will be divided into deep green, light green and yellow-green stages using flowering date as a reference. Furthermore, the quality of fruits harvested in winter and summer will also be compared to understand seasonal effects. The results obtained from this study will be helpful for establishing the standard of optimal harvest maturity and stabilizing fruit quality of red-flesh guava. 四、Guava, which belongs to the family of Myrtaceae, is an economically important tropical fruit tree. Aside from the consumption of fresh fruits, the leaves and other plant parts of guava are also valuable for their medical usage. The main purpose of the current project is to establish a draft genome sequence for guava using next  generation sequencing technology. Both whole genome library and Mate pair 2K library will be constructed first and then paired-end sequencing protocol will be used in this sequencing project. In addition to genome assembly, bioinformatics tools will be employed to predict the coding sequences and annotate the gene function. 五、Drought/flooding stress fluctuates toward the extreme in recent years in Taiwan, especially southern regions where the main guava production zone due to global climate changing. So far, little is known on drought stress and tree growth and fruit production as well in guava. Although guava has been reported to be drought tolerant; however, adequate irrigation is needed for economical cultivation from field experience. In general, vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting are sensitive to water status of plant and soil moisture in most fruit trees. Besides, photosynthesis including CO2 exchange rate and chlorophyll fluorescence has been indicated to have a rapid decline with decreasing plant water potential, thus could serve as the physiological index when plants are under drought. The purposes of this research are to document the effects of drought on tree growth and accessing its physiological index in guava. Potted trees of two main cultivars will be treated with two cycles of water withholding and recovery. Comparison of vegetative growth, CO2 exchange rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf water potential, relative leaf water and soil content and chlorophyll content were conducted between control and treatment. From the data we obtain, the transit and permanent wilt point of plant water potential in guava could be acquired. In addition, a rapid and convenient physiological indices for guava when plants are under various drought stress are also available.(4)、Studies on high productivity and improvement of postharvest techniques of persimonSweet persimmon is the most important commercial fruit crop of Taiwan according to high return. The development potential for sweet persimmon in Taiwan is limited due to their incompatibility with rootstock, lacking in leaf nutrient standard, no information about crop load, serious physiological disorder, and high perishability. Our objective is to make appropriate selection from different lines for rootstock, to establish optimum leaf nutrient status and levels of crop loading, to decrease hysiological disorder in fruit by cultivation practices, and to improve postharvest handling technology. Furthermore, the management program for stable yield, high quality and storability is obtained. Taiwan'sdried persimmon processing which is mainly distributed in Miaoli, Hsinchu and Chiayi region, but Chiayi has the best source of dried persimmon processing compare to Miaoli and Hsinchu , Although there is slight different in processing technology in different county, there is no obvious difference in the quality of the dried persimmon. The collection of the dried persimmon is currently and in progress, and the grafts appraisal screening method, the seasonal survival rate, and the feasibility of the cultivars for development of dried persimmon, to enhance the quality of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon is our ultimate objective.improvement of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon quality as the ultimate objective. Additionally, we try to improve the processing thchniques for dry fruit.(5)、Breeding for polyploid seedless grapevines and development of pruning techniques for PE greenhouse grapevinesThe major objectives of this project in the 103 fiscal year include:1. Field evaluation of the new triploid grapevine lines.2. Breeding of new triploid grapevine lines.3. Breeding of new tetraploid grapevine lines.4. Development of RAPD molecular markers for hybrid progeny selection.5. Establishment of an efficient selection system for stress tolerantgrapevines.6. Field evaluation of the new tetraploid seedless cultivar Juphon.7. Effects of pruning time after harvest on growth and development of fruiting canes next season.8. Effects of pruning time after harvest on nutrient contents of plants.(6)、Rootstock effect of scion/stock union on compatibility, rate of success and fruit quality in ‘No Mai Tsz (73-S-20)’litchi for top-working production systemTo solve the short-season constraint caused by extensive mono-cultivar  ‘Haak Yip’ of litchi industry in Taiwan, the policy of the ‘Appropriate cultivar with excellent fruit quality at appropriate region’ has been implemented through top-working i.e. changing the cultivar of the mature tree. Top-working of ’73-S-20’ litchi, a branch of ‘No Mai Tsz’, is encouraged to gradually replace ‘Haak Yip’ or ‘Yu Her Pau’ in Central Taiwan because of its superior fruit quality, high proportion of edible part, late-maturing and high-price. However, the rate of success of grafting in ‘73-S-20’ is often poor, probably owing to scion/stock incompatibility i.e. rootstock effect. In addition, no attention has been paid to the idea of using rootstocks for tree manipulation such as size, vigor, yield, fruit quality and physiological disorders. The purpose of this study is thereby to document the rootstock effect of scion/stock union on compatibility, rate of success and fruit quality in ‘No Mai Tsz (73-S-20)’ litchi for top-working production system. Top-working through bark-grafting ‘73-S-20’ onto trunks or sprout of mature trees in ‘Haak Yip’, ‘Yu Her Pau’ or ‘Yu Her Pau’/‘Haak Yip’ (‘Yu Her Pau’ as an interstock) would be conducted in early March in 2014 on an orchard with various cultivars in Miaoli, Central Taiwan. Graft compatibility, rate of success, tree vigor and fruit quality including the rate of shrivelled seed and cracking among various scion/stock unions grafted at trunks or sprouts would be examined. From the results, we will obtain a best scion/stock union without/reducing changing fruit quality for ‘73-S-20’ litchi, and thus a potential orchard production system to renew the current cultivar using top-working can be developed as well.(7)、Studies on forcing culture, reducing the degree of splitting and granulation, and improved postharvest technologies of citrus fruits.The aim of this research project is to studies on fStudies on forcing culture, reducing the degree of splitting and granulation, and improved postharvest technologies of citrus fruits. in Taiwan. The goal is to produce high quality fruit and to maintain the quality for extended periods for market adjustment and expansion. There are major studies scheduled for this year.1. Forcing Culture of Matou Wentan (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck)2. The degree of granulation of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin fruir were evaluated by spraying different treatment including calcium and plant regulator.3. Studies on reduction splitting of ‘Murcott’ tangor fruit by plant regulator treatment.4. Improvement of Postharvest Technology and quality of ‘Ponkan’ Fruit for Exporting Japan.(8)、Studies on reduction decay by pre- and postharvest treatment of pineapple fruitThis research project is aimed to development of techniques for reducing decay and physiological disorder of pineapple.There are 2 experiment scheduled for this year.There are1. Effect of camical treatment before harvest on the phsiological disorder of  pineapple.2.  The storage life and disorder of pineapple fruit were evaluated by spraying different treatments including 1-MCP and salicylic acid .(9)、Improvement of storage technigues for Carambola exportCarambola fruit(Averrhoa carambola L.) is one of important export fruits in Taiwan. It is sixth largest export fruit, mainly exported to Hong Kong, Canada, the United States, China, Singapore. Its export potential cannot be ignored. The main purpose of this project is to improve current carambola fruit postharvest handling techniques to extend storage life, maintain fruit quality and expand export market. The project investigates the change of quality and storage life in different cultivars and seasons. It invents optimal storage conditions and suitable for export packaging processing and examines the effect of 1-MCP for carambola fruit quality. At the same time, Itestimates the quality and storage life of carambola fruit after quarantine treatment. Finally, it establishes the postharvest handling(10)、Improvement of Fruit Quality in WaxappleWax apple is one of important and potential fruit crop in Taiwan. However, The fruit quality are affected by variety, season, climate and management. Climate change and more unstable environments such as salt stress had decreased the quality and increased fruit crack. This has hampered the industry and decreased the production area and growers’ income in Taiwan in past decades.The project is to study the salt on fruit quality and crack in wax apple among locations. Variety tolerant to salt stress are screened and used as rootstock to study the effect of grafting on the qualty and growth. The results will be useful for improvement of fruit quality and decrease the effects of unstable environments.(11)、Improvement on Fusarium wilting and salt stress resistant banana cultivars selection and ripening, packing technology1.Selection of banana cultivars(1) Selected Fusarium wilting and salt stress resistance clones from GCTCV-1089, TC1-2010, TC5-2111 with somaclone mutation.(2)Selected Fusarium wilting and salt stress resistance clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced with P4T and its’ improvement tissue culture technology.(3)Selected Fusarium wilting and salt stress resistance clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced with P4T tissue culture and mutagenesis with Sodium azide (NaN3) mutagen.(4) Selected Fusarium wilting and salt stress resistance cultivars from germplasm bank, such as ‘Grande Naine’, ‘Williams’, ‘Kluai Khai’, ‘Senorita’, ‘Xiem’, ‘Saba’, ‘Namwa’ and ‘Labyu banana’ with popularization potential cultivars.(5)Estimation the optimal clones or cultivars within the field in 2.In this study, factors which are associated with pre-ripening of banana, approaches to early detect the degreening of peel, physiological change of pulp starch and soluble sugar content of pulp in packed preripened green banana, will be analyzed and developed, respectively. By developing the effective pre-ripening diagnosis tool for green banana in the packing station, can then the pre-ripened banana be rejected and more volume of fine-quality Taiwan banana can be shifted to foreign markets in autumn season.3. Study of the differences in the post-harvest quality between‘Pei-Chiao’ and ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’ ripened under current ripening model for‘Pei- Chiao’. To establish an optimum ripening model for ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’ to promote the post-harvest quality and the commercial value of ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’. To realize the effect of ripening temperature on the post-harvest quality of seasonal ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’. The establishment of optimum ripening temperature condition for ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’ has the effectiveness of promoting the post-harvest quality and the marketing of ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’, and the consumers’inclination for ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’.
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