果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發(第3年/全程6年)

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發(第3年/全程6年)
計畫主持人: 李堂察
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 100農科-4.2.2-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 嘉義大學
全程計畫年: 2011
關鍵字: 紅龍果;Pitaya Fruit;採後處理技術;Postharvest Handling and Technology;失水;Water Loss;溫湯處理;Hot Water Immersion;椪柑;'Ponkan' mandarin;柳橙;'Liucheng' orange;果實品質;fruit quality;新引進品種;newly introduced varieties;果實生長發育;fruit growth and development;貯藏;storage;催色;degreening;益收;Ethrel;2;4地;2,4-D;窯洞貯藏;cave storage;留果量;fruit loading;梨花穗;pear scion;低需冷性梨;low chilling requirement pear;採收成熟度;harvest maturity;果實儲藏;fruit storage;鈣;calcium;番石榴;guava;耐寒性;chilling tolerance;耐熱性;heat tolerance;葉綠素螢光;chlorophyll fluorescence;電導度;electron leakage;礦物營養;mineral nutrition;育種;Breeding;抗氧化力;antioxidant activity;分子標記;molecular markers;柿;persimmon;低溫貯藏;low temperature storage;品質;quality;全球暖化;global warming;逆境;stress;忍受性;tolerance;螢光反應;chlorophyll fluorescence;離子滲漏;ion leakaging;果樹;fruit tree;氣候變遷;Climate change;芒果果園;Mango ochards;網室栽培;Nethouse culture;番荔枝;Sugar apple;鳳梨;Pineapple;套袋;Bagging;裂果;Fruit cleavag;日燒;Sun burn;低溫害;Cold damage;防護;Mitigation;無子葡萄;Seedless grapes;胚培養;Embryo culture;誘變;Induced mutation;氣調;controlled atmosphere;貯運;handling;水果;fruits;採前處理;preharvest treatment;採後處理;Postharvest Handling;品質;Quality;耐低溫;Chilling tolerance;荔枝;Litchi;保鮮;fresh-keeping;貯運;storage and transportation;環刻;girdling;開花;flowering;GA3;GA3;花序形成;inflorescence formation;疏花;flower thining;著果;fruit set;修剪;pruning;結實;fruiting;產量;yield;印度棗;Indian jujube;採後生理;postharvest physiology;熱帶果樹資源開發;Exploitation of tropical fruit trees;蓮霧品種選育;breeding of wax apple;星蘋果;star apple;香蕉;Musa banana;生長與發育;Growth and development;產能;Yield potential;水分逆境;Water stress;組織培養;Tissue culture;試管篩選;In vitro selection;逆境;Stress;黃葉病;Fusarium wilt;保鮮;Preservation;後熟加工;Postharvest ripening;1甲基環丙烯;1-MCP
摘要: 本計畫主要目標在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,因應氣候變遷果樹栽培技術改進,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出13個計畫。這些計畫如下: (一)、外銷紅龍果採後生理與處理技術之研究 國產白肉種紅龍果(Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose)於去年(2010)首度獲准出口到日本市場,但是果實經蒸熱檢疫處理後,苞片易呈現失水萎凋現象,嚴重影響外觀賣相,亟待我方儘速改善。本試驗計畫擬由栽培期間GA3(gibberellin A3)與NAA(naphthalene-1-acetic acid)處理提高紅龍果果皮厚度與苞片強度,及利用減輕失水採後處理技術(如預冷、上蠟、套袋),改善紅龍果儲運期間苞片萎凋問題。此外,採收後病害引起的果腐,亦為紅龍果儲運期間品質劣變的重要因子,本年度嘗試開發溫湯處理技術,以延長紅龍果內、外銷供果期,採後損耗率,以做為該產品長期儲藏之參考。 (二)、柑桔品質改進、新品種研究及採後處理與貯藏技術改良 本研究的目標在研究提高柑桔品質之果園管理技術、新引進品種柑桔之果實發育與果實特性,以及研發實用而低成本的處理與貯藏方法,以增進台灣柑桔之品質並延長其供銷期間。本年度進行六項試驗。1. 研究枝梢抑制劑對椪柑果實產量、品質及貯藏性之影響。2. 研究新引進椪柑品種果實發育、品質與貯藏。3. 追蹤使用不同濃度2,4-D保鮮後在貯藏期間之殘留量變化。4. 比較以「益收」(Ethrel) 催色與乙烯催色椪柑之效果及實用性評估。5. 測定椪柑與柳橙樹冠內外採收之果實耐貯藏性差異。6. 南部生產之柳橙運往比較冷涼之北部,貯藏在普通通風貯藏庫、窯洞貯藏庫及冷藏庫比較其效果。普通貯藏及窯洞貯藏成本低而有節能減碳之特性;研究其實用化是主要目標。 (三)、梨生產改進-著果量對梨穗品質之影響及梨儲藏性改進 本計畫分為以下三部分: 1. 著果量對梨穗品質之影響 本計畫在梨山地區,透過雪梨與其他品種梨果之留果量與梨樹腋花芽發育之關係,建立生產高品質梨花穗生產時,合理之晚生梨留果量指標,同時瞭解臺灣高海拔梨樹適宜之採穗時間。 2. 低需冷性梨採收成熟度及貯藏力之研究 以採收期、套袋與藥劑處理等適當之果園管理,來建立低需冷量梨適宜之儲藏模式。 3. 梨樹果實儲藏性與鈣營養狀況關係之探討 為建立新品種台中二號梨果實不耐儲藏現象與土壤、葉片及肥培管理之關係。持續調查種植台中場新育成低需冷性梨之果園土壤養分、植株葉片與果實營養狀況,同時調查各果園施肥量與時期,並採收果實調查其儲藏性,利用2年之土壤及葉片養分分析資料及貯藏特性,進一步運用迴歸分析建立土壤養分、葉片與果實營養與果實耐儲性間之關係,以供作為今後改進生產之依據。提升新品種梨之推廣發展潛力。 (四)、提升番石榴週年品質、建立耐逆境指標及優良番石榴基因型選育 夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實生長速率以生產高品質番石榴果實。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養成分變化,建立高品質果園最適營養元素含量範圍以及尋求與果實品質下降低之關鑑原因。為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工具,穩定生產。 本計畫的目標包括番石榴品種改良、抗氧化活性評估及基因型專一性標記的發展。基於品種多樣化的需求,除無籽性狀外,同時針對紅肉、更年性、耐熱性及高抗氧化力等性狀進行品種選育。先前所培育的雜交、自交與開放授粉實生後代及F2族群將用以進行性狀評估與優良品系選拔,並從中選擇數品種(系)於不同採收季節進行果實品質穩定性調查。此外,這些番石榴育種品系尤其是F2的果實也將同時用以進行抗氧化活性、亞硝酸鹽清除力等的分析。有鑑於分子標記在基因型鑑定上的重要性,本計畫也將繼續建立指紋圖譜資料庫及發展基因型專一性分子標記的工作。 (五)、柿豐產優質及採收後處理技術之研究 甜柿是台灣地區高經濟的果樹之一,單位面積收益頗高,但仍有樹勢因嫁接不親和而提早老化、肥培管理沒有依據準則、疏果標準未確立、生理障礙嚴重及不耐貯運等問題,本計劃擬自篩選適合砧木品種、建立葉片營養標準及結果密度、降低裂萼發生之道及改善處理作業,冀以獲豐產、優質及貯運力佳等經營流程。 台灣地區柿餅加工主要分布於苗栗、新竹及嘉義縣等地,而苗栗、新竹地區柿餅加工貨源主要為嘉義縣供給,在不同地區之加工技術雖有部份之差異性,但在柿餅的品質差異化並不明顯。本計畫進行相關之柿餅種原收集,並用嫁接方法篩選及季節成活率之評估,以品種開發柿餅之可行性,對提高柿農柿餅品質之改善為最終目標。並進行柿餅加工技術之改進。 (六)、因應氣候變遷果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進 1、中興大學(謝慶昌): 一般而言,人們欲改變氣候變遷對作物生長的影響,可以改變環境或改變植物對環境的反應,但前者所需成本極高。另外,園藝作物中蔬菜和花卉大都屬短期作物,針對氣候變遷,以改變栽植時期及栽培地區或利用簡易設施即可因應。但果樹為長期作物,自栽植至結果約需5-10年,經濟年限可達30年,所以氣候變遷對果樹產業的影響較嚴重,需提早研發因應對策。氣候變遷及暖化已有報告指出對果樹的影響有栽培地的轉移、果實品質不良(如著色不良、果實肥大、貯藏性下降、不正常後熟等)、休眠不足、開花異常、病蟲害情況改變等,其它如根群發育、果皮障礙等亦易發生。所以短期而言,會因栽培成本的增加及品質的下降,而影響農家收入及水果供應量,長期而言若無妥適的對策,將使整體果樹產業萎縮,進而使食物供應發生不足。而最有可能解決的對策即透過品種以忍受各種逆境。 2、中興大學(陳澤民): 此計畫之目的為應付氣候變遷以穩定芒果生產。工作項目包括: (1) 建立芒果網室微氣候監測點,長期監測日照量、光質、溫度、相對濕度、葉溫、地面水分、土質肥份等質料。 (2) 建立長期果樹生長性狀與病害程度調查之對比資料 (3) 比較果實設施生產之產量與品質,包括色澤、甜度、重量等級等。 (4) 建立噴灌系統控制機制並評估在芒果果園蟲病害防治與氣候適應作為之有效性。 計畫之成果可以適時提出預警,降低不良氣候對芒果果樹所產生之影響,建制新的栽培環境設施與系統,維持芒果之產業與國際競爭實力。 3、屏科大(唐琪): 本研究第一部份預期將可開發番荔枝套袋的裂果防護技術,減輕裂果對番荔枝品質的影響,提高農民之收益。研究工作主要探討不同套袋對番荔枝裂果防護效果之調查及比較,及果園試區內微氣象環境測定,以減低番荔枝果農因裂果所造成的損失,進而提升番荔枝果實品質及果農收益。本研究第二部份預期將可瞭解夏季鳳梨果實日燒與冬季低溫傷害之原因,評估防護夏季日燒與冬季低溫傷害措施之效益,提供農民進行災害預防及經營管理之參考,提高農民收益。 (七)、無子葡萄選育技術開發 本計畫100年度主要目標包括: 1. 尋找葡萄EMS化學誘變之適當處理條件,以利後續相關研究之進行。 2. 開發RAPD分子標誌,以供早期篩選變異株之用。 3. 改進二倍體貝利A與四倍體巨峰葡萄雜交後代之胚培養條件,以提高胚珠萌芽率及幼苗存活率,增加後代選拔效率。 4. 完成無子變異株與巨峰葡萄之雜交及胚培養條件之測試,期能獲得較多之雜交後代,以供後續優良植株選拔之用。 (八)、鳳梨釋迦等水果氣調貯運技術之研究 1. 評估氣調式水果儲運試驗海運貨櫃之改善技術,可長期調節並監測儲存環境之溫度與氧氣氮氣二氧化碳等相關氣體濃度。 2. 各種水果之氣調儲運試驗,並建立品質評估指標。 3. 完成海運模擬試驗,評估各項儲運環境因子對水果運輸品質之影響性。 建立釋迦等水果貨櫃氣調貯運技術,以協助國內鳳梨釋迦等水果產品之儲運能力,擴大外銷產量,以增加農民收益。 (九)、鳳梨品種改良和品質改進技術之研究 本計畫主要在於採收前與採收後技術,以提昇鳳梨品質和開發耐低溫鳳梨品種選拔。本年度有 5 個工作項目: 1. 研究套袋和抗逆境藥劑對提昇冬果鳳梨品質效果之研究。 2. 研發採後熱處理以提昇冬果鳳梨品質之方法。 3. 調查分析不同鳳梨品種及同一品種不同地區生產之果實低溫忍受性之差異。 4. 測試鳳梨組培小苗在不同低溫條件下之耐受性。 5. 測試鳳梨組培小苗在低溫培養條件下對EMS誘變處理之耐受性。 (十)、荔枝修剪模式、開花調控、產期調節與採收後保鮮之研究 1. 荔枝為台灣重要的經濟果樹之一,2009年荔枝外銷總量雖僅1,339公噸,但對於穩定國內市場價格及增加農民收益,貢獻甚大。荔枝採收後之褐變及腐敗為採後處理之主要問題,亦是影響消費者購買之主要因素,此一問題不解決,對於外銷之拓展為一大瓶頸。本研究乃針對荔枝果實保鮮、褐變及果實腐敗之問題及貯運技術進行研究。根據民國99年荔枝採後果皮褐變控制及保鮮技術改進研究計畫結果顯示,荔枝果實採後預冷、使用Chitosan和Na2S2O5等化學藥劑配合酸化處理以及包裝等方式都可以有效延長荔枝果實的貯藏壽命。因此,本計劃延續上述之研究,更近一步確認各處理方式之效果,開發未來荔枝保鮮之新技術。 2. 荔枝為台灣重要果樹,以玉荷包及黑葉種最多。品種單純及產期過於集中為栽培上最大問題。主要荔枝產期自5月下旬至7月上旬只有短短一個半月,其間價格差距極大,不只對農民收益影響極大,對消費者之供應需求亦未能充分配合。如能以栽培方法調節產期,再配合品種及地區之調配,將可有效延長產期,解決盛產傷農之問題。本研究以環狀刻傷、益收及化學藥劑等處理玉荷包等荔枝品種,以達到促進開花之目的,並探討最適合之產期調節方法以延長荔枝產期。 3. 玉荷包荔枝(Litchi chinensis Soon)生產過程中疏晚梢與疏花需耗費大量人力。本試驗欲探討不同時間處理GA3與人工疏花對‘玉荷包’荔枝結果之影響,將‘玉荷包’荔枝花序誘導過程,分成六個不同時間,每次對不同組植株葉面噴施100 mg/LGA3,對照組不以GA3處理,開花後對所有植株部份之條行人工修剪花序。試驗結果顯示,經處理GA3後無需人工疏花處理,即可提升‘玉荷包’荔枝產量,特定時間處理GA3更可使結果數大於僅以人工修剪之一般生產方式。 4.本研究將連續三年(98/99和99/100等2個cycle)探討採收後不同程度之修剪(強、中、弱)對’糯米糍(7 3 - S - 2 0)’荔枝對當年營養生長(c u r r e n t vegetative growth)與翌年生殖生長之影響,俾建立其修剪模式。去年(98年)下半年於彰化縣芬園鄉8年生’糯米糍(73-S-20)’果園之試驗已證明,樹冠於採收後進行中剪者,其當年生枝梢之營養生長量較弱剪與強剪為高,本研究乃於今年(99年)上半年賡續比較該等枝梢於之開花、結實與產量之表現。三種修剪處理對植株之開花率(84.3-91.7%)、開花期(3月1日至3月4日)及採收期(6月19日至6月23日)無差異,惟強剪處理者完成生殖生長所需之日數較其餘處理多出7天。每果穗留果數及產量以弱剪最高(21、316g),其次中剪(18、290g),強剪最低(11.5、133g);惟單果重則以中剪最高(17.1g),弱剪次之(15.8g),強剪最低(14.8g),但三者之果肉糖度殆無差異(18.2-18.6 %)。上半年之樹幹截面積增加率亦以中剪最高(12.4 %),其次弱剪(9.2 %),強剪最低(7.1 %)。第一年(1st cycle)之結果顯示,於採收後進行中剪之’糯米糍(73-S-20)’植株在翌年有最好的果實生產。為進行連續第二年之評估(2nd cycle),同批植株與枝條於99年6月30日(果實採收後1週)對樹冠進行弱、中及強等三種修剪,繼而比較迄本年11月上旬停梢期(quiescence)為止,當年生之枝梢生長、樹幹截面積(TCSA)增加率、葉面積指數(LAI)與光截取率(Light interception, LI)。經扣除受9月19日凡那比颱風毀損之樣品後得知,枝梢生長量與修剪強度呈反比,經強、中、弱剪之枝梢長度(包括梢數及葉片數)分別為22.6cm(2次梢、12枚葉)、55.8cm(3次梢、21枚葉)及51.9cm(3次梢、19枚葉)。修剪後至萌發第1次梢所需日數及萌芽率以強剪者最高(25d、52%),次為中剪及弱剪(均為22d、46%)。中剪及弱剪植株之TCSA增加率分別為12及8%,高於強剪之6%;LAI及LI亦以中剪者最高(2.9、81 %),弱剪次之(2.4、72 %),強剪最低(1.7、55 %)。結果顯示,經連續二年進行中剪之植株,仍可於進年下半年迄停梢期獲得最大之營養生長量,今年(100年)將持續觀察其開花結實之表現,以確立其連年穩產之修剪技術。 (十一)、印度棗採後保鮮及貯運技術之開發 印度棗為台灣南部地區重要的經濟果樹之一,自民國95年起農政單位已經印度棗正式列為外銷供果園輔導項目之一,並積極輔導拓展外銷市場。唯蔬果外銷最重要的工作就是要有良好的採後處理及貯運技術。本研究之主要目的為開發印度棗採後保鮮與貯運技術,提供優良之外銷果品。根據民國99年印度棗採後保鮮與貯運技術計畫之研究結果,本年度將針對不同的包裝方式、1-MCP對印度棗低溫耐受性影響和檢疫處理後之品質影響進一步分析研究。 (十二)、熱帶果樹資源之開發及利用 熱帶果樹為台灣園藝之特色,也是發展重點。近年來因地球暖化造成氣候異常,短期暴雨已成常態,使台灣果樹栽培經歷數度風雨災害。品種為農業最重要的關鍵,由以往經驗證明,品種的開發對產業有最重要的影響。台灣原生果樹種類有限,現有重要水果多為早年分別自中國、東南亞國家及中南美國家直接或間接引進,經多年及眾人的努力,對經濟民生均有重要貢獻。本研究期能經由熱帶果樹種類之開發及選育,配合果樹品種多元化之推行,增加果樹種類,降低栽培成本,減少環境污染及水果產品之農藥毒害,克服氣候異常對水果產業之損害。本計畫包括熱帶果樹之引進及選育,並以現有保存約36科115種400多品種,加以選種及探討栽培管理技術,尤其以巴西櫻桃、星蘋果、白柿、山荔枝及黃晶果為主要研究重點,進行引進果樹實生品系之選育,建立適當之栽培制度及繁殖方法,以提高農民收益。 蓮霧為我國重要果樹,以屏東地區為主,本計畫持續以往在蓮霧品種改良之工作,進行蓮霧品種間果實性狀之調查及雜交授粉,選拔優良株系以推廣並改進蓮霧產業。 (十三)、抗耐水分逆境及香蕉黃葉病之台蕉品種選育、生育特性及外銷大陸香蕉保鮮及包裝技術之開發 1. 香蕉抗旱逆境及黃葉病品種改良快速篩選技術之建立 建立華蕉屬及芭蕉類品種之試管篩選(in vitro selection) 耐抗逆境因子 (乾旱、黃葉病)之技術作為品種改良之快速途徑。大量繁殖華蕉屬及芭蕉類商業化栽培品種之白色球狀芽團,在試管篩選具耐抗非生物性逆境因子:乾旱(添加PEG於培養基) 及生物性逆境因子:黃葉病(添加黃葉病毒素於培養基)之體細胞變異株系(somaclonal variant)。評估華蕉屬及芭蕉類栽培品種誘導癒合組織(callus culture) 之最有效方法。若能利用胚性癒合組織在試管篩選後直接誘導小植株,無需經過體胚懸浮培養,對華蕉屬而言,是品種改良方法之重大突破。 2.水分逆境對台蕉主要栽培品種生長及發育之影響 香蕉向為我國重要果品,目前栽培面積約11,500公頃,年產量20萬公噸,9成外銷,1成內銷。蕉農戶數在1萬人以上。三倍體AAA華蕉類品種「北蕉」為我國主要栽培品種,其次為藉體細胞變異方式選育出來對黃葉病菌(Fusarium oxysporum f. spcubense, tropical race 4, FOC TR4)有抗病力之品種「寶島蕉」及「台蕉5號」。 本研究目的旨在探討湛水及乾旱水分逆境對「北蕉」類主力栽培品種蕉株生長發育及產能之影響。藉由過量、適量及不足水分三種水分管理方式之處理,瞭解雨量改變對我國主要香蕉品種在溫室及田間生長及產能之影響。進行本項試驗研究可瞭解「北蕉」等華蕉類品種蕉株抗耐水分逆境能力,作為未來香蕉水分管理及品種改良之參考,同時藉由於台蕉在氣候變遷下試驗資料之建立,可有效彰顯我台蕉產業良好之研發能量。 3.外銷中國大陸之台蕉保鮮及包裝技術開發 香蕉是世界四大重要果樹之一,年產量約8千萬噸,僅次於水稻、玉米,目前全球大約130個國家生產香蕉,其中印度、巴西、中國、菲律賓、厄瓜多爾等佔全球75%總生產量。 台灣香蕉栽培區位亞熱帶地區,其口感風味佳且甜度高。台灣香蕉年產量20萬噸,其中少於1萬噸銷往日本及少量銷往中國大陸。對於我國與中國簽署ECFA後,香蕉外銷數量勢必增加,將來中國市場將成為日本以外最重要的市場,然而對於集運包裝方式並未加以深入之研究,均以外銷日本方式作參考,不符業者實際需求,以致造成事倍功半的效果。 探討高錳酸鉀製作的乙烯吸收劑以及1-MCP在香蕉催熟前後,利用各種不同濃度處理方式,探討其保鮮效果。建立外銷中國台蕉包裝PE袋的型式及包裝方式。藉由本研究之執行開發台蕉保鮮技術,建構一套合適外銷中國大陸台蕉的包裝方式及有效提昇台蕉年外銷數量,避免產銷失衡,增進蕉農收益。The objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competition power of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 13 projects of current year. There are: (1)、Studies on the postharvest physiology and handling technology in export pitaya fruits White-flesh pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose) from Taiwan was first time to approve to entering Japanese market in 2010. Poor appearance, because of bract wilting resulted from vapor heat treatment, of the commodity is the major limiting factor and needs to be improved for exporting. In order to reduce water loss during postharvest handling and transportation period, the project proposed to enhance the peel thickness and bract strength of pitaya by treatment of GA3(gibberellin A3)+ NAA(naphthalene-1-acetic acid)during fruit development or/and to utilizing anti-transpiration postharvest technology such as precooling, waxing, and film packaging. Furthermore, pathological decay is another key factor that renders postharvest loss of pitaya fruit, according to the previous results of this project. Different treatments of hot water immersion are planned to investigate for diminishing decay by postharvest diseases, and, therefore, to extend storage life of pitaya. The results of this research will be beneficial for establishment of optimum conditions for storage and transportation in pitaya fruits. (2)、Quality upgrading, new variety studies, and postharvest technology improvement for citrus fruits This research project involves pre-harvest methods to upgrade fruit quality, understanding the growth and quality features of new varieties, and post-harvest technologies for handling and storage of citrus fruits in order to improve the quality while extending the market period of the fruits. There are 6 experiments to be executed this year. 1. Trial of growth control treatments which may improve fruit quality and storability. 2. Studying fruit growth, quality, and storability of newly introduced citrus varieties. 3. Monitoring 2,4-D residues in 'Ponkan'mandarins and 'Liucheng' oranges after the chemical being applied at various concentrations and the fruits being stored for various periods. 4. Degreening 'Ponkan' with Ethrel in comparsion with ethylene. 5. Differences in the storability of 'Ponkan' and 'Liucheng' fruits harvested from inside vs. outside of tree canopies. 6. Storing southern grown 'Liucheng' in common ventilated storage, cave storage and cold storage located in the cooler northern area. The major goal is to test the practicality of low imput and low energy-demand common storage and cave storage for Taiwan citrus. (3)、Improvement of pear production - 1.effect of fruit loading on flower bud quality, 2.Storage Ability Improvement This project divided into three sub-title: 1. Efect of fruit loading on flower bud quality: This project study the relationship between fruit loading and axillary flower bud quality, to establish the reasonable fruit loading of axillary flower bud production pear tree and the optimun axillary flower bud harvest season. 2. Storage ability improvement and harvest maturity of low chilling requirement pear: Establish the optimum storage model of low chilling requirement pear by appropriate orchard management, such as harvest season, bagging and chemical treatment. 3. Relationship between pear fruit storage and calcium Establish the relationship between low chilling pear fruit physiological disorder and nutrient condition: Investigate orchard soil available nutrients content, leaf and fruit nutrient condition, fruit storage ability, fertilization dosage and seasons, and analyze their relationship. The results can be utilized as the cultivation guide line of low chilling requirement pear. (4)、Studies on improving fruit quality and electing indices for stress and breeding and selection of elite genotypes with quality stability in guava The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperature and high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques. The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods. In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding. The objectives of the current project include cultivar improvement, antioxidant activity assessment, and genotype-specific marker development in guava. Because of the demand for diversified cultivars, characteristics such as red flesh, climacteric fruit, heat tolerance and high antioxidant activity in addition to seedlessness will be evaluated in breeding for new cultivars. Previously established F2 populations as well as the progeny produced by crossing, selfing, or open pollination will be employed in trait evaluation and elite line selection. From these materials, several breeding lines will be chosen to investigate quality stability of fruit harvest in different seasons. Furthermore, the fruits of these breeding lines, particularly those from F2, will be used for analyses of antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging ability. In view of the importance of molecular markers in genotype identification, the work of establishing fingerprinting database and developing genotype-specific molecular markers will also be continued in this project. (5)、Studies on high productivity and improvement of postharvest techniques of persimmon Sweet persimmon is the most important commercial fruit crop of Taiwan according to high return. The development potential for sweet persimmon in Taiwan is limited due to their incompatibility with rootstock, lacking in leaf nutrient standard, no information about crop load, serious physiological disorder, and high perishability. Our objective is to make appropriate selection from different lines for rootstock, to establish optimum leaf nutrient status and levels of crop loading, to decrease hysiological disorder in fruit by cultivation practices, and to improve postharvest handling technology. Furthermore, the management program for stable yield, high quality and storability is obtained. Taiwan's dried persimmon processing which is mainly distributed in Miaoli, Hsinchu and Chiayi region, but Chiayi has the best source of dried persimmon processing compare to Miaoli and Hsinchu , Although there is slight different in processing technology in different county, there is no obvious difference in the quality of the dried persimmon. The collection of the dried persimmon is currently and in progress, and the grafts. appraisal screening method, the seasonal survival rate, and the feasibility of the cultivars for development of dried persimmon, to enhance the quality of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon is our ultimate objective.improvement of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon quality as the ultimate objective. Additionally, we try to improve the processing thchniques for dry fruit. (6)、Breeding and improvement of production techniques of fruit tree for climate change and variablity 1. Recently, the impact and influence of global warming on crop production has been received a great deal of attention. In general, change of growth environmental factors and increase of plant tolerance to stress are two efficient methods for reducing the effect from global warming. It is expensive to change the environment for fruit tree production. The large size and long growing duration of fruit trees have making them difficult to change plant area or to produce under the shelter. Many reports showed that fruit quality, chilling requirement, flowering, disease and pest are affected by global warming. In the all, global warming maybe make the production decrease and the cost increase, and the fruit industry will disappear in the future. In this study, we evaluate and screen methods for stress tolerance in fruit tree in Taiwan. 2. The purposes of this project are to copy the climate change and stabilize the Mango production. The working items include: 1) to establish the microclimate observation site of the Mango net-house, the long-term monitoring factors are solar radiation, light quality, air temperature, r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y , l e a f t e m p e r a t u r e , s o i l m o i s t u r e a n d s o i l fertilization, 2) to establish the long-term fruit growth characteristics and disease conditions for two kinds of culture systems, 3) to compare the quality and quantity of the Mango fruits produced from different systems, 4) to establish the misting irrigation system and its control mechanism to copy the climate change and pest management. The results of this project could offer the pre-cause system to reduce the effects of bad climate stress, establish the novel protected culture and maintain the high completive ability. 3. The first part of this study is focused on bagging mitigation technique to decrease the damages by fruit cleavage for sugar apples. The works for this part is mainly included, observing micro-meteorological environment in orchard plot, and evaluating the effectiveness of different forms and materials of bagging to prevent fruit cleavage. Since the study results of this part are expected to decrease the loss from sugar apple fruit cleaved, and increase both the quality of sugar apples and the income of farmers. The second part of this study is focused on mitigating the damages of sun burn in summer season and cold damages in winter season to pineapples. There are tow works of this part including 1. exploring the causes of sun burn and cold damages, and 2. designing proper mitigation techniques. The results of the study are expected to reduce the sun burn and cold damages to fruits, which could increase both the quality of pineapples and the income of farmers. (7)、Development of techniques for seedless grape breeding The major objectives of this project in the 100 fiscal year include: 1. Searching for a suitable EMS mutation induction treatment for grapevines which will be very helpful for following studies. 2. Developing RAPD markers for early selection of induced mutants. 3. Improve cultural conditions for embryo rescue of hybrids from Muscat Bailey A(2X) and Kyoho (4X) grapevines in order to increase the germination rate and the efficiency of progeny selection. 4. Establish a suitable embryo cultural condition for hybrids from the seedless mutant and Kyoho in order to obtain more progenies for further selection. (8)、Study the controlled atmosphere technology for fruits The objectives of this research are: 1. to establish the controlled atmosphere testing platform. The oxygen, nitrogen and CO2 concentrations and temperature of the storage environment could be monitor and controlled. The long-term monitoring of the fruit respiration rate could be executed. The release gases from fruits were served as the interfacing factors to modify the storage environment. 2.to perform the storage test of the Atemoya fruits and other fruits. The quality evaluating indexes were established. They included the surface hardness of fruits, change of the color, weights and shapes. 3.to evaluate the affecting factors on the transportation quality of fruits. The key point was the mixing ratio of several gas concentrations. (9)、Development of technologies for varity improvement and fruit quality upgrade in pineapple This research project is aimed to improve the winter pineapple fruits quality by pre harvest and -postharvest for the production and marketing of high quality pineapple fruits, and to develop an efficient method for in vitro somaclonal mutation induction and selection of chilling tolerance of pineapple cultivars. There are 5 experiment scheduled for this year. There are 1. effect of bagging and chemical treatment before harvest on the fruit quality of winter pineapple. 2. effect of heat treatment on the reducing acidity of winter pineapple. 3.investigating the difference in chilling tolerance of fruits produced from different locations and fruits of different pineapple cultivars. 4. examining the chilling tolerance limit of pineapple tissue culture plantlets. 5. examining the tolerance of pineapple tissue culture plantlets to the EMS treatment under different low temperature condition. (10)、Studies on pruning system, flowering regulation,forcing culture and post-havest handling of litchi in Taiwan 1. Litchi is one of the important economic fruit in Taiwan. The amount of exported fruit in 2009 was 1,339 MT. The litchi exportation was stabilize domestic price and increase the revenues benefit. The browning and decay were main problems during litchi postharvest chain, therefore, the development of exported market was limited. The research focus on the problems during litchi postharvest and develop new postharvest techniques. Depend on the results of program (postharvest pericarp browning control and improvement of fresh-keeping techniques on Litchi fruits) in 2010, the procooling, different chemicals (chitosan and Na2S2O5 ) and package way were significantly prolong storage life of litchi. Therefore, the research is going to continue to following the research last year and confirm the results by these treatment. It expected to develop new postharvest techniques for litchi industry. 2. The litchi, mainly ‘Yu He Pau’ and ‘Hak Ip’ varieties, is one of the important fruit crops in Taiwan. However, few cultivars and short season (0nly 1.5 month from late May to early June)??are the main problems for the growers. The dramatic variation of market price for short season affects both growers and consumers as well. The development of season regulation technique will benefit the industry in Taiwan. The girdling, ethrel spray and chemical treatments will be conducted to promote the flowering in litchi. The method of season regulation by variety, physical and chemical will be evaluated. 3. Late vegetative flush and inflorescence thinning during the cultivation of ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Soon) is highly laborintensive. Applying GA3 at certain intervals has been proven effective in reducing flowering intensity in mango and avocado trees. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of GA3 application timing and hand inflorescence thinning on ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi fruiting. In this study, ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi trees were separated into seven separate groups. Six groups of trees eceived 100 mg/L GA3 foliar sprays at different times during inflorescence induction and one control group did not receive any application of GA3. Afterwards, all trees in the study were hand-thinned to selectively reduce the number of flowers on each inflorescence . The results of this study showed that ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi trees receiving application of GA3 did not require hand inflorescence thinning and produced a greater litchi yield. Additionally, the application of GA3 at specific times were shown to produce a yield much greater than trees cultivated using traditional methods of hand inflorescence thinning. 4. The purpose of this study is to establish a suitable harvesting pruning intensity for '73-S-20' litchi during 2 consecutive cycles of 3 years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011, respectively). In the first cycle (2009/2010), light, moderate and severe pruning were applied on 8-year-old field grown trees in Chunghwa on late June of 2009 to document the effects on current vegetative growth from harvesting pruning to winter quiescence and on reproductive performance the following year (2010). In the first cycle (2009/2010), moderate pruning of 8-year-old field grown trees in Chunghwa in 2009 appeared the greatest cumulative current vegetative growth of the new flushes, increasing rate of trunk cross section area (TCSA), leaf area index (LAI) and light interception (LI) among treatments. At harvest season of 2010, those bearing shoots arose form moderate pruning had the highest yield and single fruit weight per cluster of all the treatments, despite no difference of sugar content was recorded. From the data obtained from the 1st cycle, we concluded that moderate pruning at harvest has the best vegetative growth of current year and the best fruit production the following year for '73-S-20' litchi, in the view of flush management. In 2nd cycle (2010/2011), we repeated the consecutive harvesting pruning intensity onto the same trees on late June of 2010 and thus evaluated the effects on their cumulative current vegetative growth till winter quiescence. We found that moderate pruning resulted in maximum of new flushes with the longest stems and most leaves, the highest increase rate of TCSA, and LAI as well as LI of canopy, followed by light and severe pruning, respectively. We concluded that moderate harvesting pruning also has the greatest vegetative growth of current year for '73-S-20' litchi, in the 2n d cycle. Effect of pruning intensity on flowering, fruiting and quality will be examined in 2011. (11)、Postharvest fresh-keeping and storage techniques of Indian jujube Indian jujube is one of important economic fruits in Taiwan. The crop is included one of a items of good quality fruit orchards for export in 2006 by Agriculture and Food Agency, Council of Agriculture. However, the most important item for fruit export, need a good postharvest handling and storage techniques, is established. The aim of research is going to develop new postharvest fresh-keeping and storage techniques of Indian jujube for providing good quality fruit to exported. Depend on the results of program (Postharvest fresh-keeping and storage techniques of Indian jujube) in 2010, the research focus on different type of package, 1-MCP treatment for chilling injury and quarantine for exportation. (12)、Exploitation and utilization of tropical fruit crop resoureces Tropical fruit is the most important characteristics and industry among horticultural crops in Taiwan. However, the impact of climatic disaster due to global warming on fruit crops became more serious than before. The improvement of tropical crops is one capable method to decrease the damage and avoid climatic disaster. Meanwhile, introduction and exploitation of new fruit crops have significantly contributed and promoted to fruit industry in Taiwan. The research is also to increase new fruit crops for farmers and to decrease cost, environmental pollution and pesticide residues in fruit production through evaluation and promotion of new potential fruit crops. The research will emphasize on conserved collections of tropical fruit trees at campus orchard of the university. Selection, cultural management and propagation of Brazil cherry, star apple, white sapote, pulasan and abiu will be conducted. Wax apple is one of the most important economic fruit crops and potential fruit for export in Taiwan and most located in southern Pingtung area. The research is to study variation of fruit characteristics among collected varieties and to breed new variety for the industry. Controlled pollination will be conducted and percentage of fruit set among varieties will be evaluated. The variation of seedlings and factors affecting genetics of fruit characters and breeding will be studied. (13)、Selection and growth characteristics of banana cultivars with resistance or tolerance to water stress and Fusarium wilt , and technology development on preservation and packing of Taiwan bananas for export to Mainland 1. Establishment of in vitro selection technique for the improvement of banana cultivar with resistance to drought and Fusarium wilt. The objective of the present study is to establish the in vitro selection system for the selection of somaclonal variants of banana cultivars for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance (draught and fusarium wilt tolerance). To mass produce cauliflower-like bud clumps of commercial banana cultivars for the in vitro selection of somaclonal variants tolerant to drought (applying PEG as the selecting agent) and fusarium wilt (applying fusarial toxin). To evaluate the most effective method in the induction of callus culture of important commercial cultivars. The goal is to explore the feasibility of inducing embryogenic callus in triploid Cavendish cultivars and to attain plantlet regeneration without going through the suspension culture stage. The production of a large amount of embryogenic cells through callus culture for in vitro selection will be a breakthrough in the selection and improvement of banana cultivars through biotechnology. 2. Effect of water stress on the growth and development of major banana varieties in Taiwan Banana is one of the most important fruit crops in Taiwan. The current economic growing acreage of banana is up to 11,500 Ha, the annual production is 200,000 metric tons, and about 10,000 households related to banana farming is estimated. ‘Pei-Chiao’, Cavendish AAA, is the dominant banana variety, followed by ‘Formosana’ and ‘Tai-Chiao No.5’ which are two somaclonal variants selected from ‘Pei-Chiao’ and characterized by their moderate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense, tropical race 4. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of water stresses, water logging and drought, on the growth and yield potential of three major cultivars of banana. Three water treatments, including excess, optimun, and deficiency of water supply based on field capacity and water tension of soil will be applied to plants derived from tissue-culture seedling, sucker and ratooning of three different Cavendish banana varieties studied. By conducting this study, information about responses of different cultivated Cavendish varieties to water stress will be collected. The establishment of water stress database related to global climate change will be useful for advancing breeding efficiency of Taiwan bananas. 3. Development of the technology for freshness maintenance and package of Taiwan banana exported to mainland China Banana is one of the four most important staple food crops in the world, and its annual yield production is up to 80 million tons, only behind that of rice, wheat and corn, respectively. Currently, banana is cultivated over 130 countires even though it is mainly produced from 10 major countries including India, Brazil, China, Philippines, Ecuador, Indonesia and etc, sharing 75% of total annual tonnage produced worldwide. Taiwan banana, featured by cultivation areas located at subtropical zone, is well-known for its good eating-quality such as high sugar content, excellent aroma and taste. Despite of the fact that 200,000 tons of Taiwan banana is available yearly, at present, only less than 10,000 tons of banana can be shifted to Japan and very limitedly to Mainland China. Since Taiwan has completed a memorandom, Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA), with China in 2010, hopefully China will become a promising new export market for Taiwan banana. Due to the facts that present packing standards for banana exported is established for Japan’s market only and a suitbale packing method for shipping Taiwan banana to China is not available now, initiation of a study about the development of an appropriate packing technology for China’s market is essential. In this study, two ethylene absorbents, one derived from Potasium permanganate and the other one called Monocyte Chemotatic Protein-1 (1-MCP), will be applied to see how effective they are to preserve the freshness of banana under different concentration treatments when banana samples are kept under shipping simulation temperature for China. Also, comparison of the effects of perforated and non-perforated polyethylene (PE) bags on storage time and fruit freshness will be conducted. Through this study, a proper ethylene absorbant to keep good freshness of Taiwan banana and the ideal packing approach for China’s market will be developed.
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