果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發
計畫主持人: 李堂察
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 102農科-9.2.2-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會農糧署
計畫執行機構: 嘉義大學
全程計畫年: 2013
關鍵字: 紅龍果;Pitaya Fruit;採收成熟度;Harvest Maturity;果實發育;Fruit Development;寄接梨;Top working pears;氣候變遷;Climate change;碳水化合物;Carbohydrate;梨穗品種;Scion cultivar;冷藏需求;Cold storage requirement;果實儲藏;Fruit storage;鈣;Calcium;低需冷性梨;Low chilling pear;番石榴;guava;耐寒性;chilling tolerance;耐熱性;heat tolerance;葉綠素螢光;chlorophyll fluorescence;電導度;electron leakage;礦物營養;mineral nutrition;氣變包裝;Modified Atmosphere Packaging;寒害;Chilling Injury;基因型;genotype;採收成熟度;harvest maturity;無子葡萄;Seedless grapes;胚培養;Embryo culture;誘變;Induced mutation;柿;persimmon;低溫貯藏;low temperature storage;品質;quality;全球暖化;global warming;逆境;stress;忍受性;tolerance;螢光反應;chlorophyll fluorescence;離子滲漏;ion leakaging;果樹;fruit tree;芒果果園;Mango ochards;網室栽培;Nethouse culture;番荔枝;Sugar apple;鳳梨;Pineapple;套袋;Bagging;裂果;Fruit cleavag;日燒;Sun burn;低溫害;Cold damage;防護;Mitigation;疏花序;inflorescence thinning;著果;fruit set;果實品質;fruit quality;花序大小;inflorescence size;溫度;temperature;冬季新梢;winter flush;新引進品種;newly introduced varietiy;果實生長發育;fruit growth and development;貯藏;storage;裂果;splitting;茂谷柑;Murcott tangor;椪柑;'Ponkan' mandarin;柳橙;'Liucheng' orange;檸檬;Lemon;採前處理;preharvest treatment;採後處理;Postharvest treatment;品質;Quality;耐逆境;Stress tolerance;楊桃;Carambole;採後處理;Postharvest handling;1-MCP;1-MCP;蓮霧;waxapple;裂果;fruit crack;熱帶果樹資源開發;Exploitation of tropical fruit trees;熱帶果樹栽培管理;Management of tropical fruit crops;山荔枝;Pulasan;黃皮;Wampi;香蕉;Musa banana;生長與發育;Growth and development;產能;Yield;水分逆境;Water stress;組織培養;Tissue culture;試管篩選;In vitro selection;黃葉病;Fusarium wilt;保鮮;Preservation;後熟加工;Postharvest ripening;1甲基環丙烯;1-MCP;澱粉;Starch
摘要: 本計畫主要目標在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,因應氣候變遷果樹栽培技術改進,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出13個計畫。這些計畫如下: (一)、紅肉種紅龍果採後生理與處理技術之研究   紅肉種紅龍果(Hylocereus polyrhizus與H. costaricensis)是我國新興外銷水果種類,主要出口市場為中國大陸、香港及加拿大。紅肉種產期長、果肉可溶性固形物高、富含甜菜苷色素(betalains)、抗氧化能力佳,有別於東南亞常見的白肉種(H. undatus),不論內外銷市場均具競爭優勢。雖然臺灣民間已選育出多種優良紅肉品種,然而,有關不同紅肉種紅龍果品種之內外銷採收成熟度、對蒸熱檢疫處理的耐受性、採後果實基礎生理與貯運條件資料並不多,亟待我方迅速建立,以作為我國紅龍果拓展內外銷市場的後盾。因此,本計畫第一年將針對國內主要紅肉種紅龍果栽培品種果實成熟度品質變化與貯藏壽命進行調查比較,分析採後果實劣變原因,作為內外銷品種選擇與各栽培種最佳採收成熟度之參考。 (二)、梨生產調節與改進之研究 本計畫包含三子計畫 1. 抗逆境寄接梨生產技術:探討寄接梨花苞寄接前後不同碳水化合物處理對寄接成活率、著果率及果實生長與品質之影響。並進一步探討碳水化合物處理對花苞副梢葉片生長與功能之影響,以改進現行寄接技術,以安全的碳水化合物取代化學生長調節劑,提高寄接成活率及梨穗抗逆境能力,可實質降低果農生產風險及成本,且減少天然災害發生時農政單位對受災果農之救助經費支出。 2. 多元梨穗品種調查及應用之評估:為增加國內高接梨接穗品種多元化,調查目前國內栽培的東方梨品種及進一步篩選出梨穗品種,同時調查梨穗採收適期及冷藏時間,以瞭解梨穗適當採穗時間及滿足低溫需求所需之冷藏時間,進一步直接應用於產業。以田間調查方式,選定約10個品種,完成品種高接後之生產表現。再由其中選出2-3個表現優異之品種,進行冷藏需求試驗,探求出最佳採穗及冷藏條件。 3. 梨樹果實儲藏性與鈣營養狀況之探討:建立台中二號晶圓梨果實不耐儲藏現象與土壤、葉片及肥培管理之關係。瞭解土壤、葉片與果實鈣營養與果實耐儲性之關係,以進一步提升新品種梨之推廣發展潛力。調查植株葉片與果實營養狀況,並採收各株果實調查其儲藏性,利用葉片養分分析資料及貯藏特性,進一步運用回歸分析建立葉片與果實營養與果實耐儲性間之關係。同時在果實極不耐儲藏之果園,葉面施行五種鈣肥,以及土壤施用有機質與鈣肥進行改良,探討改善果實貯藏性之效果。 (三)、提升番石榴夏果品質、耐逆境生理及採後處理技術改進之研究 1. 中興大學(林慧玲)   夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同材質紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實生長速率,並利用環刻處理使葉片蓄積較多之光合產物,以生產高品質番石榴果實。並評估其貯運品質及壽命。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養成分變化顯示氮鈣及鎂濃度有較大之差異,本年度擬利用葉面噴施硫酸鎂期能提升光合效率。另外為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境篩選指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工具,穩定生產。 2. 台灣大學(吳俊達)   番石榴( Psidium guajava L.)屬寒害敏感型熱帶水果,利用低溫貯運技術來維持品質與抑制病害受到大幅限制,無法長程運輸;且低溫檢疫處理後往往誘導寒害發生,嚴重阻礙行銷國際市場。本計畫將以低密度聚乙烯與聚丙烯塑膠袋兩種材質進行被動氣變包裝,以及充填氧氣3、5、7%與二氧化碳2.5、5%完全排列組合之 6種大氣成份的主動氣變包裝,比較不同氣變包裝條件對0~1℃低溫貯藏14天檢疫處理‘珍珠拔’番石榴品質的影響。另外,也將探討真空包裝‘珍珠拔’在低溫檢疫期間氣體組成變化,以及擴增真空包裝大小(每批12果置於果盤)對‘珍珠拔’低溫檢疫處理品質的影響,評估實際產業運用的可行性與效果。計畫結果將有助於外銷番石榴低溫長期貯運與低溫檢疫處理問題的解決。 3. 中興大學(張哲嘉)   因全球氣候變遷之影響,近年台灣旱涝交替及極端氣候的頻率增加,台灣番石榴的主要產區-中南部降水亦逐年減少、旱季延長,勢將對可週年生產的產業造成衝擊。雖然番石榴已為國際重要經濟果樹,然國、內外有關其水份生理之研究及報告極為缺乏,尤其是乾旱逆境下的反應與調適,亟待建立。一般大型木本果樹之生長量與光合作用生理等對植株水份與土壤水份含量敏感。本研究擬以二年為期,分別以國內主要栽培品種‘珍珠拔’及 ‘帝王拔’盆株為材料,除進行短期/循環乾旱及復水對植株生長量之影響外,並同時比較其土壤相對含水率與葉片之水勢(water potential)、相對水份含量、淨光合作用速率及葉綠素螢光反應速率(chlorophyll influorescence;Fv/Fm)等,盼能界定影響番石榴生育之水勢閥值(threshold)、瞭解其於乾旱下的生理反應與指標,並可為日後果園栽培管理及後續生理研究之參考。 4. 屏東科技大學(陳幼光)   本計畫主要的目的在於瞭解紅肉番石榴包括更年與非更年番石榴基因型不同採收成熟度對果實品質、抗氧化力及貯藏性的影響。此外,有鑑於番石榴低溫儲藏對於外銷貯運的重要性,本計畫對於不同基因型間果實耐低溫儲藏特性的差異也將進行評估,以探索番石榴基因型在這個特性上的遺傳歧異度。 5. 宜蘭大學(郭純德)   本計畫目的,以員山紅肉拔及頭城中山月拔為材料,從貯藏適溫、不同包裝試驗,及果實生育著手探究良好採收成熟度,闡明其採後生理特性,並逐步改善採後處理技術。主要工作如下列:(1)紅肉拔及中山月拔適當貯藏溫度及採後包裝方式試驗;(2)紅肉拔及中山月拔果實生育調查及採收成熟度之研究。 (四)、無子葡萄選育技術開發   本計畫102年度主要工作目標包括: 1. 四倍體無子葡萄新品種竹峰產地試種。 2. 三倍體葡萄新品系田間植株性狀調查。 3. 二倍體無子葡萄秋水仙素誘變處理。 4. 新的雜交三倍體葡萄選育。 5. 耐逆境葡萄新品系選育體系之建立。 (五)、柿豐產優質及採收後處理技術之研究   甜柿是台灣地區高經濟的果樹之一,單位面積收益頗高,但仍有樹勢因嫁接不親和而提早老化、肥培管理沒有依據準則、疏果標準未確立、生理障礙嚴重及不耐貯運、品種太少、甜柿生理落果日益嚴重等問題,本計劃擬由A.修正真空脫澀法之溫度及時間。B.高接市田柿及蜂屋品種。C.建立鑽石蜜柿脫澀技術。D.探討甜柿生理落果之時期及原因。等面向改善栽培及處理作業,冀以獲豐產、優質及貯運力佳等經營流程。 (六)、因應氣候變遷果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進   一般而言,人們欲改變氣候變遷對作物生長的影響,可以改變環境或改變植物對環境的反應,但前者所需成本極高。另外,園藝作物中蔬菜和花卉大都屬短期作物,針對氣候變遷,以改變栽植時期及栽培地區或利用簡易設施即可因應。但果樹為長期作物,自栽植至結果約需5-10年,經濟年限可達30年,所以氣候變遷對果樹產業的影響較嚴重,需提早研發因應對策。   氣候變遷及暖化已有報告指出對果樹的影響有栽培地的轉移、果實品質不良(如著色不良、果實肥大、貯藏性下降、不正常後熟等)、休眠不足、開花異常、病蟲害情況改變等,其它如根群發育、果皮障礙等亦易發生。所以短期而言,會因栽培成本的增加及品質的下降,而影響農家收入及水果供應量,長期而言若無妥適的對策,將使整體果樹產業萎縮,進而使食物供應發生不足。而最有可能解決的對策即透過品種以忍受各種逆境。 (七)、荔枝開花與結實之調控 1. 疏花序對糯米糍(73-S-20)荔枝著果與果實品質之影響:疏花序已被用於改善'玉荷包'荔枝之著果,但其效益不一、機制未明且所費不貲。近年該技術亦被用於中部之'73-S-20'果園,然其成效需科學性之評估。為探討疏花序能否影響該品系之果實生產及釐清其可能原因,本試驗擬連續兩年(民國101年至102年)於彰化縣芬園鄉簡氏之11至12年生果園(行株距 2. 冬季修剪對‘玉荷包’荔枝開花結果之影響:本計畫在於瞭解冬季修剪枝梢對‘玉荷包’荔枝的開花與結果之影響。從冬季不同時期修剪,來觀察其對‘玉荷包’荔枝花序發育與結果的影響,以建立‘玉荷包’荔枝最佳冬梢修剪時機。 (八)、柑桔果實發育及改良採後處理與貯藏技術之研究   本年度主要針對台灣新引進之柑橘品種探討果實發育、品質、產量和貯藏性,期能提高柑橘品質和延長市場供貨期,本年度主要工作項目有7: 1. 研究新引進柑橘品種果實發育、品質和貯藏特性。 2. 探討砧木對新引進柑橘品種果實發育和品質之影響。 3. 研究尿素和植物荷爾蒙處理減少茂谷柑果實裂果之效果。 4. 以化學藥品控梢和除去秋梢對茂谷柑裂果之影響。 5. 以相當量而且多重複的精密試驗比較柳橙在普通貯藏、窯洞貯藏與冷藏之效果。 6. 試驗不同採收期與不同貯前處理之檸檬長期貯藏之潛力。 7. 研發提早測知該年度生產高品質果實的椪柑植株,可據以採得可靠的優質外銷椪柑的技術。 (九)、鳳梨耐逆境育種和降低果實酸度技術之開發   本計畫主要在於鳳梨耐逆境育種和降低果實酸度技術之開發。本年度有 6個工作項目: 1. 研究PE處理對提昇冬果鳳梨品質效果之研究。 2. 研發採後熱處理以提昇冬果鳳梨品質之方法。 3. 探討熱處理前以甲殼素和水楊酸處理對鳳梨果實保鮮之效果。 4. 鳳梨黑心劣變與果肉內含物之相關性分析。 5. 測試培養基中羥脯氨酸之適當使用濃度。 6. 建立鳳梨癒傷組織誘導與增殖系統。 (十)、楊桃採收後保鮮技術改進計畫   楊桃為臺灣重要的外銷果品之一,為第六大主要出口水果,主要外銷香港、加拿大、美國、中國大陸、新加坡等國家,其外銷潛力不容忽視。本計畫主要目的為改進現行楊桃保鮮貯運技術,延長貯藏壽命,維持供貨品質,拓展外銷市場。本計畫將分析不同品種與產季之楊桃果實採後生理、品質與貯藏壽命之變化,開發最佳的貯運條件與適合的外銷包裝處理,利用1-MCP和幾丁聚醣處理對其果實品質與貯藏壽命之影響,並評估檢疫處理對楊桃品質的影響,建立楊桃採後保鮮處理相關技術之資料。 (十一)、改善蓮霧品質及裂果栽培技術之研究   蓮霧為台灣重要經濟果樹,具有外銷潛力水果之一,但果實品質及裂果率因品種、季節、氣候及栽培管理等之影響而不同,近年來受氣候變遷之影響,不穩定氣候頻率增加,造成品質下降,裂果率增加,逐漸成為產業之問題,使面積逐漸減少,損害農民收益。   本研究經由調查品種、季節及栽培管理對蓮霧品質及裂果之影響,了解四主要栽培產區品種間、季節間及不同栽培管理間蓮霧品質及裂果之差異。以田間覆蓋及水分管理,藉由地表覆蓋減少外在水分的干擾,維持土壤水分環境的穩定性,配合3種控制給水的方式,以求降低裂果率,調查對果實品質之影響。並經由肥培管理,自蓮霧可見花苞後進行控制,減少氮肥施用(50%),提高磷、鉀肥施用量(50%),期望控制果實生育,提高果實對環境水分變化的耐受性,進而減少裂果,提升果實品質。 (十二)、熱帶果樹資源之開發及利用   熱帶果樹為台灣園藝之特色,也是發展重點。近年來因地球暖化造成氣候異常,短期暴雨已成常態,使台灣果樹栽培經歷數度風雨災害。品種為農業最重要的關鍵,由以往經驗證明,品種的開發對產業有最重要的影響。台灣原生果樹種類有限,現有重要水果多為早年分別自中國、東南亞國家及中南美國家直接或間接引進,經多年及眾人的努力,對經濟民生均有重要貢獻。本研究期能經由熱帶果樹種類之開發及選育,配合果樹品種多元化之推行,增加果樹種類,降低栽培成本,減少環境污染及水果產品之農藥毒害,克服氣候異常對水果產業之損害。本計畫包括熱帶果樹之引進及選育,並以現有保存400多品種,加以選種及探討栽培管理技術,尤其以巴西櫻桃、黃皮、星蘋果、白柿、山荔枝及黃晶果為主要研究重點,進行引進果樹實生品系之選育,建立適當之栽培制度及繁殖方法,以提高農民收益。 (十三)、香蕉新品種選育及外銷貯運技術之改進 1. 香蕉抗水分逆境及黃葉病品種改良快速篩選技術之建立:(1)進行華蕉屬及芭蕉類品種之試管篩選及網室及田間抗性檢定。(2)評估華蕉屬及芭蕉類品種以癒傷組織應用於試管篩選之效果。建立試管篩選程序(in vitro selection),大量繁殖白色球狀芽團為材料,篩選具抗水分逆境及抗黃葉病之體細胞變異株系。探討利用華蕉屬及芭蕉類品種之胚性癒傷組織,大量繁殖供試管篩選後,直接育成小植株之效率,評估胚性癒傷組織應用在抗水分逆境及黃葉病品種改良之效用。 2. 水分逆境對台蕉主要栽培品種生長及發育之影響:評估田間湛水及乾旱逆境處理對「北蕉」、「寶島蕉」與「台蕉5號」3個華蕉品種宿根栽培生長發育與產量之影響。藉由台蕉主要栽培品種在湛水及乾旱逆境下之研究,可了解各品種生長潛能,進而作為品種還育及推廣策略之參考。建立台蕉主要栽培品種在水分逆境下之基本資料,對我國在國際上及時因應氣候變遷、制定台蕉產業合適之發展策略及研發能量上具有提昇國際形象的明顯助益。 3. 外銷中國大陸之台蕉保鮮及包裝技術開發:確立高錳酸鉀製作的乙烯吸收劑以及1-MCP在香蕉催熟前後之使用濃度及處理方式,增進香蕉保鮮效果。建立外銷中國各地台蕉集運保鮮及包裝方式。藉由本研究之執行開發台蕉保鮮技術,建構一套合適外銷中國大陸台蕉的包裝方式及有效提升台蕉年外銷數量,避免產銷失衡,增進蕉農收益。 4. 外銷集運青蕉黃化檢定技術之開發:利用香蕉色帶管理,採用超過生理果齡試驗,形成香蕉黃化的條件,利用此樣品進行果皮顏色及果肉澱粉及糖度變化分析其與黃化的關係,剔除可能黃化的香蕉。由於避免香蕉黃化測試技術的開發,農民將落實香蕉抽穗色帶管理,將能增加秋冬外銷數量2500頓。The objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competition power of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 13 projects of current year. There are: (1)、Studies on the Postharvest Physiology and Handling Technology in Red-fleshed Pitaya Fruit Red-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus and H. costaricensis ) has recently become a new export fruit product in Taiwan for the markets of China, Hong Kong, and Canada. When compared with white-fleshed spices (H. undatus), massively produced in South Asia, red-fleshed pitaya is characterized with longer period of fruit availability, higher total soluble solids in the pulp, betalains-containing flesh, and better antioxidant activities. It is expected that red-fleshed pitaya possesses a better commercial potential than white-fleshed one in either domestic or international market. However, the researches for harvest maturity, tolerance capacity of vapor heat treatment, basic postharvest physiology, and optimum conditions of storage and transportation for red-fleshed pitaya fruit are barely found. In order to make availability of this commodity to domestic and international markets, it is urgently needed to build up the information about postharvest biology and technology of red-fleshed pitaya fruit. Therefore, the first year research of this proposal is planning to assess the changes of quality attributes and storability during the fruit development of the major cultivars of red-fleshed pitaya in Taiwan, which will be referred to determination of harvest maturity of the produce. Moreover, the major deterioration factors of red-fleshed pitaya fruit on shelf will also be observed. The results of this investigation will be beneficial for determination of best cultivar(s) as well as for establishment of optimum harvest maturity of red-fleshed pitaya for both domestic and international markets. (2)、Regulation and Improvement of Pear Production in Taiwan 1.Techniques for improving stress tolerance in top working pear production system:(1)Documenting various carbohydrate treatments on survival, fruit set,fruit growth and fruit quality in topworking pears. (2)Investigating carbohydrate treatemtns effects on funchtion and growth of bourse shoot leaves. (3)Reducing grower's risk and cost by improving topworking technique and budwood survival with carbohydrate treatments and by reducing the use of synthetic growth regulaters. 2.The evaluation of pear varieties for top working scion:(1). Investigate domestic pear cultivars and select proper scion cultivar for top-graft pear uses. 2-3 superior cultivars would be selected. (2) Investigate cold storage requirement of selected scion cultivar which are for top-graft pear uses. 3.Study on the relationship between pear fruit storage and calcium nutrient:The objective of this research is to clarify the relationship between fruit physiological disorder and nutrient condition of low chilling pear new variety "Taichung No. 2". Analysis of soil available nutrients, leaf and fruit nutrient condition, and fruit storage ability will be carried out. Fertilization dosage and seasons will also be investigated from the fruit growers to figure out the relationship between fruit physiological disorder and nutrient management. Foliar fertilization of 5 different calcium nutrients, and soil fertilization of organic matter and calcium will be applied at selected orchards where the fruits have serious storage disorder problem. The results can be utilized as the cultivation guideline for low chilling requirement pear in Taiwan. (3)、Studies on Improving Fruit Quality, Electing Indices for Stress and postharvest technology in Guava 一、中興大學(林慧玲) The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperature and high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE+EPNS bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE +EPNS bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques to increase the storage life and quality.Furthemore, we try to use th trunk girdling to increase the sucrose accumulation in the leaves and inhence the fruit quality . The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods and MgSO4 foliar application. In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding. 二、台灣大學(吳俊達) Guava ( Psidium guajava L.) is a chilling sensitve tropical fruit; therefore, the utilization of cold storage techique to maintain quality and suppress decay is highly limited. The fact that long term cold transportation and cold quarantine treatment usually render severe chilling injury impedes guava exporting for international marketing. The project will investigate the effect of different conditions of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), including two film properties (low density polyethylene or polypropylene bags) as well as actively filled with oxygen 3, 5, 7% and carbon dioxide 2.5, 5%, on fruit quality of ‘Jen-Ju Bar’ guava after storage of 0℃ for 14 days (low temperature quarantine treatment) plus 20℃ for additional 3 days. Furthermore, this proposal will also assess the gas composition change of ‘Jen-Ju Bar’ treated with vacuum packaging during the quarantine treatment. In order to evaluate the practical feasibility and alleviation effect of chilling injury, scale-up vacuum packaging, 12 fruit on package tray per batch, will be performed. The results of this project will be beneficial for establishment of guava long-term cold transportation and cold quarantine technology, which are the bottle neck of guava fruit exporting process. 三、中興大學(張哲嘉) Drought/flooding stress fluctuates toward the extreme in recent years in Taiwan, especially southern regions where the main guava production zone due to global climate changing. So far, little is known on drought stress and tree growth and fruit production as well in guava. Although guava has been reported to be drought tolerant; however, adequate irrigation is needed for economical cultivation from field experience. In general, vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting are sensitive to water status of plant and soil moisture in most fruit trees. Besides, photosynthesis including CO2 exchange rate and chlorophyll fluorescence has been indicated to have a rapid decline with decreasing plant water potential, thus could serve as the physiological index when plants are under drought. The purposes of this research are to document the effects of drought on tree growth and accessing its physiological index in guava. Potted trees of two main cultivars will be treated with two cycles of water withholding and recovery. Comparison of vegetative growth, CO2 exchange rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf water potential, relative leaf water and soil content and chlorophyll content were conducted between control and treatment. From the data we obtain, the transit and permanent wilt point of plant water potential in guava could be acquired. In addition, a rapid and convenient physiological indices for guava when plants are under various drought stress are also available. 四、屏東科技大學(陳幼光) The main purpose of the current project is to understand the effect of different harvest maturity on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity and storability of climacteric and non- climacteric guava genotypes with red flesh. In view of the importance of low-temperature storage for export and transportation, the genetic variation of tolerance for lowtemperature storage among genotypes will also be evaluated in this project. 五、宜蘭大學(郭純德) The goal of this project is to improve the postharvest technology in climacteric-type guava fruit at yilan county. We will accomplish the following major items: (1) to get moderate storage temperature and package method of 'Red Flesh Bar' and 'JongShan Yuen Bar';(2) to get groth curve and harvestable maturity of ' Red Flesh Bar ' .and ' Jong Shan Yuen Bar' . (4)、Development of techniques for seedless grape breeding The major objectives of this project in the 102 fiscal year include: 1. Field evaluation of the new tetraploid seedless cultivar Juphone. 2. Evaluation of plant characteristics of the new triploid line. 3. Colchine treatments of diploid seedless cultivars. 4. Breeding of new triploid grapevine lines. 5. Establishment of an efficient selection system for stress tolerant grapevines. (5)、Studies on high productivity and improvement of postharvest techniques of persimon Sweet persimmon is the most important commercial fruit crop of Taiwan according to high return. The development potential for sweet persimmon in Taiwan is limited due to their incompatibility with rootstock, lacking in leaf nutrient standard, no information about crop load, serious physiological disorder, and high perishability. Our objective is to make appropriate selection from different lines for rootstock, to establish optimum leaf nutrient status and levels of crop loading, to decrease hysiological disorder in fruit by cultivation practices, and to improve postharvest handling technology. Furthermore, the management program for stable yield, high quality and storability is obtained. Taiwan's dried persimmon processing which is mainly distributed in Miaoli, Hsinchu and Chiayi region, but Chiayi has the best source of dried persimmon processing compare to Miaoli and Hsinchu , Although there is slight different in processing technology in different county, there is no obvious difference in the quality of the dried persimmon. The collection of the dried persimmon is currently and in progress, and the grafts. appraisal screening method, the seasonal survival rate, and the feasibility of the cultivars for development of dried persimmon, to enhance the quality of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon is our ultimate objective.improvement of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon quality as the ultimate objective. Additionally, we try to improve the processing thchniques for dry fruit. (6)、Breeding and improvement of production techniques of fruit tree for climate change and variablity Recently, the impact and influence of global warming on crop production has been received a great deal of attention. In general, change of growth environmental factors and increase of plant tolerance to stress are two efficient methods for reducing the effect from global warming. It is expensive to change the environment for fruit tree production. The large size and long growing duration of fruit trees have making them difficult to change plant area or to produce under the shelter. Many reports showed that fruit quality, chilling requirement, flowering, disease and pest are affected by global warming. In the all, global warming maybe make the production decrease and the cost increase, and the fruit industry will disappear in the future. In this study, we evaluate and screen methods for stress tolerance in fruit tree in Taiwan. (7)、Regulation of flowering and fruiting in litchi 1. Effects of inflorescence thinning on yield and fruit quality in ‘73-S-20’ litchi Inflorescence thinning has been reported as a novel technique to remarkably improve fruit production in ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in Taiwan. However, the results were inconsistent, the mechanism is unclear and the labor cost is high. To investigate this effect on fruit production in ‘73-S-20’ litchi, an elite branch of No Mai Tsz found by Yen et al (1984), selected inflorescences of 11 to 12 year old field trees grown in Changwa were hand thinned by removing most branches of each inflorescence right before the beginning of the first flowering wave in two consecutive years. Fruit retention, leaf to fruit ratio and emergence of new flush per cluster were calculated during fruit developing period. Fruit yield per cluster and their characteristics were examined at harvest. From the data we will obtain a source/sink relationship during fruit growth in litchi, and thus a potential orchard management strategy to reduce fruit drop and enhance yield can be developed as well. 2. Effect of winter flush thinning on flowering and fruiting in ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi This project is to understand the effect of winter flush thinning on litchi flowering and fruiting. Thinning winter flush in different timing to observe the development of litchi inflorescence and fruit setting, in order to establish the best winter flush thinning timing in ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi. (8)、Studies on the Fruit Development and Improved Postharvest Handling and Storage Technologies for Citrus Fruits The aim of this research project is to studies on fruit growth development, quality and handling of newly introduced citrus cultivars in Taiwan. The goal is to produce high quality fruit and to maintain the quality for extended periods for market adjustment and expansion. There are 7 major studies scheduled for this year. 1. The fruit development, quality and torage ability of newly introduced cultivar in Taiwan were evaluated. 2. Studies on the fruit quality, harvest maturity, and quality of newly introduced citrus cultivar grafted on two different stocks. Studies on fruit growth and development, quality and handling of newly introduced citrus cultivars in Taiwan. 3. Studies on reducing splitting of ‘Murcott’ tangor fruit by urea and plant hormone treatment. 4. Effects of inhibition of shoot growth chemical treatments and by autumn shoots pruning on fruit splitting will be examined. 5. Properly replicated sizable samples of ‘Liucheng’ oranges will be stored in common storage, cave storage, and cold storage; and the results and potential uses of the three types of storage facilities in long-term storage will be compared. 6. Lemons harvested at different months and received various pre-storage treatments will be stored at optimum conditions; and their storage life potentialities evaluated. 7. A study will be conducted to develop a method for early detection of Ponkan trees which produce high sugar-content fruits in the current year. Such method can be used by growers to pick only the highest quality Ponkans for certain export markets. (9)、Development of techniques for breeding of stress toperant and for fruit accidity Reducing of Pineapple This research project is aimed to Development of techniques for breeding of stress toperant and for fruit accidity Reducing of Pineapple. There are 6 experiment scheduled for this year.There are 1. Effect of PE treatment before harvest on the fruit quality of winter pineapple. 2. Effect of heat treatment on the reducing acidity of winter pineapple. 3. The storage life of pineapple fruit were by spraying different treatments including chitoson and salitydic acid evaluated before heat treatment. 4. Analysis of the correlations between blackheart disorder and fruit flesh compositions. 5. Test of the optimum concentration of hydroxyprolin in the culture medium for pineapple plantlets. 6. Establishment of a callus induction and regeneration system for pineapples. (10)、Carambola harvest preservation technology Improvement Program Carambola fruit(Averrhoa carambola L.) is one of important export fruits in Taiwan. It is sixth largest export fruit, mainly exported to Hong Kong, Canada, the United States, China, Singapore. Its export potential cannot be ignored. The main purpose of this project is to improve current carambola fruit postharvest handling techniques to extend storage life, maintain fruit quality and expand export market. The project investigates the change of physiology, quality and storage life in different cultivars and seasons. It invents optimal storage conditions and suitable for export packaging processing and examines the effect of 1-MCP and chitosan for carambola fruit quality. At the same time, It estimates the quality and storage life of carambola fruit after quarantine treatment. Finally, it establishes the postharvest handling (11)、Technical Improvement of Fruit Quality and Crack in Wax Apple Wax apple is one of important and potential export fruit in Taiwan. However, The fruit quality and fruit crack are affected by variety, season, climate and management. Climate change and more unstable weathers had decreased the quality and increased fruit crack. This has hampered the industry and decreased the production area and growers’ income in Taiwan in past decades.The project is to study the variation and effects of variety, season, and management on wax apple fruit quality and crack among 4 main production area. Mulching and water ontrol will be applied to maintain the soil stability and fruit quality. Three irrigation treatments are applied in the orchard. Lower nitrogen (50% less) and higher phosphorous and potassium (50% more) are applied to promote fruit quality and decrease fruit crack. (12)、Exploitation and Utilization of Tropical Fruit Resources However, the impact of climatic disaster due to global warming on fruit crops became more serious than before. The improvement of tropical crops is one capable method to decrease the damage and avoid climatic disaster. Meanwhile, introduction and exploitation of new fruit crops have significantly contributed and promoted to fruit industry in Taiwan. The research is also to increase new fruit crops for farmers and to decrease cost, environmental pollution and pesticide residues in fruit production through evaluation and promotion of new potential fruit crops. The research will emphasize on conserved collections of tropical fruit trees at campus orchard of the university. Selection, cultural management and propagation of Brazil cherry, star apple, wampee, white sapote, pulasan and abiu will be conducted. (13)、Improvement on selection of banana cultivars, preservation and packing technology for export. 1. Establishment of in vitro selection technique for the improvement of banana cultivar with resistance to drought and Fusarium wilt. The objective of the present study is to establish the in vitro selection system for the selection of somaclonal variants of banana cultivars for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance (draught and fusarium wilt tolerance). To mass produce cauliflower-like bud clumps of commercial banana cultivars for the in vitro selection of somaclonal variants tolerant to drought (applying PEG as the selecting agent) and fusarium wilt (applying fusarial toxin). To evaluate the most effective method in the induction of callus culture of important commercial cultivars. The goal is to explore the feasibility of inducing embryogenic callus in triploid Cavendish cultivars and to attain plantlet regeneration without going through the suspension culture stage. The production of a large amount of embryogenic cells through callus culture for in vitro selection will be a break through in the selection and improvement of banana cultivars through biotechnology. 2. Effect of water stress on the growth and development of major banana varieties in Taiwan. Banana is one of the most important fruit crops in Taiwan. The current economic growing acreage of banana is up to 11,500 Ha, the annual production is 200,000 metric tons, and about 10,000 households related to banana farming is estimated. ‘Pei-Chiao’, Cavendish AAA, is the dominant banana variety, followed by ‘Formosana’ and ‘Tai-Chiao No.5’ which are two somaclonal variants selected from ‘Pei-Chiao’ andcharacterized by their moderate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense, tropical race 4. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of water stresses, water logging and drought, on the growth and yield potential of three major cultivars of banana. Three water treatments, including excess, optimun, and deficiency of water supply based on field capacity and water tension of soil will be applied to plants derived from tissueculture seedling, sucker and ratooning of three different Cavendish banana varieties studied. By conducting this study, information about responses of different cultivated Cavendish varieties to water stress will be collected. The establishment of water stress database related to global climate change will be useful for advancing breeding efficiency of Taiwan bananas. 3. Development of the technology for freshness maintenance and package of Taiwan banana exported to mainland China. Banana is one of the four most important staple food crops in the world, and its annual yield production is up to 80 million tons, only behind that of rice, wheat and corn, respectively. Currently, banana is cultivated over 130 countires even though it is mainly produced from 10 major countries including India, Brazil, China, Philippines, Ecuador, Indonesia and etc, sharing 75% of total annual tonnage produced worldwide. Taiwan banana, featured by cultivation areas located at subtropical zone, is well-known for its good eating-quality such as high sugar content, excellent aroma and taste. Despite of the fact that 200,000 tons of Taiwan banana is available yearly, at present, only less than 10,000 tons of banana can be shifted to Japan and very limitedly to Mainland China. Since Taiwan has completed a memorandom, Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA), with China in 2010, hopefully China will become a promising new export market forTaiwan banana. Due to the facts that present packing standards for banana exported is established for Japan’s market only and a suitbale packing method for shipping Taiwan banana to China is not available now, initiation of a study about the development of an appropriate packing technology for China’s market is essential.In this study, two ethylene absorbents, one derived from Potasium permanganate and the other one called Monocyte Chemotatic Protein-1 (1-MCP), will be applied to see how effective they are to preserve the freshness of banana under different concentration treatments when banana samples are kept under shipping simulation temperature for China. Also, comparison of the effects of perforated and non-perforated polyethylene (PE) bags on storage time and fruit freshness will be conducted. Through this study, a proper ethylene absorbant to keep good freshness of Taiwan banana and the ideal packingapproach for China’s market will be developed. 4.Development of pre-ripening index technology for green banana for export Banana is the dominant fruit crop for export in Tawan. To assure the high quality of banana harvested and assembled for export, many newly emerged exporters, who are associated with change of Taiwan banana export policy from only one unit only to free trade since 2005, depend on renting sugarcane lands from sugar company and supply banana for foreign markets. On the other hand, source of banana provided by various small-scale banana growers to the packing station for export was oftenly related to the pre-ripening problem especially for those harvested in autumn season. Therefore, how to differentiate the pre-ripened defected banana from normal green-intact banana is the main theme for this project. In this study, factors which are associated with pre-ripening of banana, approaches to early detect the degreening of peel, physiological change of pulp starch and slouble sugar content of pulp in packed pre-ripened green banana, will be analyzed and developed, respectively. By developing the effective pre-ripening diagnosis tool for green banana in the packing station, can then the pre-ripened banana be rejected and more volume of fine-quality Taiwan banana can be shifted to foreign markets in autumn season.
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