果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─因應氣候變遷果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─因應氣候變遷果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進
計畫主持人: 謝慶昌
共同計畫主持人: 陳澤民;唐琦;林慧玲;翁郁凱;陳加忠
計畫編號: 100農科-4.2.2-糧-Z1(6)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 中興大學園藝學系(所)
全程計畫年: 2011
關鍵字: 全球暖化;忍受性;逆境;螢光反應;離子滲漏;果樹;氣候變遷;芒果果園;網室栽培;番荔枝;鳳梨;套袋;裂果;日燒;低溫害;防護 ;global warming;tolerance;stress;chlorophyll fluorescence;ion leakaging;fruit tree;Climate change;Mango ochards;Nethouse culture;Sugar apple;Pineapple;Bagging;Fruit cleavag;Sun burn;Cold damage;Mitigation
摘要: 一、中興大學(謝慶昌): 一般而言,人們欲改變氣候變遷對作物生長的影響,可以改變環境或改變植物對環境的反應,但前者所需成本極高。另外,園藝作物中蔬菜和花卉大都屬短期作物,針對氣候變遷,以改變栽植時期及栽培地區或利用簡易設施即可因應。但果樹為長期作物,自栽植至結果約需5-10年,經濟年限可達30年,所以氣候變遷對果樹產業的影響較嚴重,需提早研發因應對策。氣候變遷及暖化已有報告指出對果樹的影響有栽培地的轉移、果實品質不良(如著色不良、果實肥大、貯藏性下降、不正常後熟等)、休眠不足、開花異常、病蟲害情況改變等,其它如根群發育、果皮障礙等亦易發生。所以短期而言,會因栽培成本的增加及品質的下降,而影響農家收入及水果供應量,長期而言若無妥適的對策,將使整體果樹產業萎縮,進而使食物供應發生不足。而最有可能解決的對策即透過品種以忍受各種逆境。 二、中興大學(陳澤民): 此計畫之目的為應付氣候變遷以穩定芒果生產。工作項目包括:1.建立芒果網室微氣候監測點,長期監測日照量、光質、溫度、相對濕度、葉溫、地面水分、土質肥份等質料。2.建立長期果樹生長性狀與病害程度調查之對比資料3.比較果實設施生產之產量與品質,包括色澤、甜度、重量等級等。4.建立噴灌系統控制機制並評估在芒果果園蟲病害防治與氣候適應作為之有效性。計畫之成果可以適時提出預警,降低不良氣候對芒果果樹所產生之影響,建制新的栽培環境設施與系統,維持芒果之產業與國際競爭實力。 三、屏東科技大學(唐琦): 本研究第一部份預期將可開發番荔枝套袋的裂果防護技術,減輕裂果對番荔枝品質的影響,提高農民之收益。研究工作主要探討不同套袋對番荔枝裂果防護效果之調查及比較,及果園試區內微氣象環境測定,以減低番荔枝果農因裂果所造成的損失,進而提升番荔枝果實品質及果農收益。本研究第二部份預期將可瞭解夏季鳳梨果實日燒與冬季低溫傷害之原因,評估防護夏季日燒與冬季低溫傷害措施之效益,提供農民進行災害預防及經營管理之參考,提高農民收益。 一、中興大學(謝慶昌): Recently, the impact and influence of global warming on crop production has been received a great deal of attention. In general, change of growth environmental factors and increase of plant tolerance to stress are two efficient methods for reducing the effect from global warming. It is expensive to change the environment for fruit tree production. The large size and long growing duration of fruit trees have making them difficult to change plant area or to produce under the shelter. Many reports showed that fruit quality, chilling requirement, flowering, disease and pest are affected by global warming. In the all, global warming maybe make the production decrease and the cost increase, and the fruit industry will disappear in the future. In this study, we evaluate and screen methods for stress tolerance in fruit tree in Taiwan. 二、中興大學(陳澤民): The purposes of this project are to copy the climate change and stabilize the Mango production. The working items include: 1) to establish the microclimate observation site of the Mango net-house, the long-term monitoring factors are solar radiation, light quality, air temperature, r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y , l e a f t e m p e r a t u r e , s o i l m o i s t u r e a n d s o i l fertilization, 2) to establish the long-term fruit growth characteristics and disease conditions for two kinds of culture systems, 3) to comparethe quality and quantity of the Mango fruits produced from different systems, 4) to establish the misting irrigation system and its control mechanism to copy the climate change and pest management. The results of this project could offer the pre-cause system to reduce the effects of bad climate stress, establish the novel protected culture and maintain the high completive ability. 三、屏東科技大學(唐琦): The first part of this study is focused on bagging mitigation technique to decrease the damages by fruit cleavage for sugar apples. The works for this part is mainly included, observing micro-meteorological environment in orchard plot, and evaluating the effectiveness of different forms and materials of bagging to prevent fruit cleavage. Since the study results of this part are expected to decrease the loss from sugar apple fruit cleaved, and increase both the quality of sugar apples and the income of farmers. The second part of this study is focused on mitigating the damages of sun burn in summer season and cold damages in winter season to pineapples. There are tow works of this part including 1. exploring thecauses of sun burn and cold damages, and 2. designing proper mitigation techniques. The results of the study are expected to reduce the sun burn and cold damages to fruits, which could increase both the quality of pineapples and the income of farmers.
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