果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用─番石榴營養管理無籽化育種及採後保鮮處理技術改進

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計畫名稱: 果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用─番石榴營養管理無籽化育種及採後保鮮處理技術改進
計畫主持人: 林慧玲
共同計畫主持人: 陳幼光;吳俊達
計畫編號: 96農科-4.2.2-糧-Z1(8)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 中興大學園藝學系(所)
全程計畫年: 2007
關鍵字: 番石榴;礦物營養;果實品質;採收後處理;育種;無籽化;分子標誌;寒害;甲基茉莉酸酯;甲基水楊酸酯;茉莉酸甲基酯;Guava;Mineral Nutrients;Fruits Quality;Postharvest Handling;Breeding;Seedless;Molecular Markers;Chilling Injury;Methyl Jasmonate;Methyl Salicylate;Methyl Jasmonic Acid
摘要: 本試驗擬從營養管理著手及採後貯運保鮮手段,以提升及穩定番石榴品質為目標。擬探討: 1.(1).葉片無機營養狀態和果實品質之關係(2).砧木及扞插苗對番石榴葉片營養及果實品質之影響:(3).施肥種類及時期。(4).番石榴葉片光合作用效率和品質之關係,以供育種及栽培之參考,以建立高品質之生產模式。(5).建立果實內外銷貯運保鮮流程 2.番石榴屬於寒害敏感型產品,利用低溫進行長期貯運或低溫殺蟲檢疫處理較為困難。本試驗之目的在研究甲基茉莉酸酯及甲基水楊酸酯對降低番石榴果實寒害發生之效果,比較不同甲基茉莉酸酯處理方法(燻蒸、浸漬、迫吸)及熱水處理對降低番石榴果實寒害發生之效果,以利番石榴外銷出口採後處理技術之研發。 3.本計畫將延續前面幾年番石榴無籽化育種的工作,進行無籽和有籽或無籽和無籽品種或品系間雜交實生後代的培育、性狀的評估及繁殖等。此外,本計畫也將利用逢機增幅多型性核酸片段(RAPD)、簡單序列重複間序列(ISSR)和增幅核酸片段長度多型性(AFLP)等以PCR技術為基礎的分子標記建立番石榴基因型指紋的資料庫,並經由番石榴基因型及性狀分析鑑定與無籽化或其他重要性狀相連鎖的分子標記。此研究的成果將有助於番石榴品種鑑定的參考並提高無籽化育種的育種效率。有鑑於無籽番石榴低著果率問題的普遍存在,植物生長調節劑提高無籽番石榴著果率的可行性將同時加以探討。This study investigated four areas to establish the cultivation and management mode for guava. The first is the relationship between quality and leaf nutrient. The second is the effect of rootstock and cuttings on fruit quality and leaf nutrient. The third is the kinds of fertilizers for guava tree, the fourth is the relationship between photosynthetic characteristic and fruit quality in guava cultivars and fifth improvememnt of postharvest technology.However, guava belongs to chilling-sensitive group of horticultural products and, therefore, is intolerance to long-term transportation or quarantine treatment in a low temperature condition. However, guava belongs to chilling-sensitive group of horticultural products and, therefore, is intolerance to long-term transportation or quarantine treatment under a 0 to 5℃ low temperature condition. The purpose of this study for this year is to investigate the effects of different methyl jasmonate treatments, including fumigation, immersion, or infiltration, as well as heat treatment on the reducing chilling injury of guava fruits. The results will benefit exportation postharvest technology of guava fruit from Taiwan. This project will continue the work from previous years in breeding for seedlessness. Activities will include cultivation, trait evaluation, and propagation of hybrid seedlings derived from seedless x seeded or seedless x seedless cultivars or lines. In addition, PCR-based molecular markers such as RAPD, ISSR and AFLP will be employed in this project to buildup the fingerprint database of guava genotypes. Molecular markers linked to seedlessness and other important traits will be identified through guava genotype and trait analysis. The findings from this study will be valuable in guava cultivar identification and in enhancing the efficiency of breeding for seedlessness. In view of the common problem of low fruit set in seedless guavas, the possibility of improving fruit set in seedless guavas by plant growth regulator application will also be investigated in this project.
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