果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進

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單位商業會員附件下載:
計畫名稱: 果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進
計畫主持人: 賴榮茂
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 92農科-1.1.2-高-K1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場
全程計畫年: 2003
關鍵字:
摘要: 1. 晚熟印度棗育種:印度棗在產季後期售價較高.因此,育成晚熟印度棗品種推廣種植,有利提高農友收益.為選育優良品種,本試驗乃進行印度棗品種間人工及天然雜交工作.所獲得之雜交種子則培育成實生苗,進行3年之觀察試驗.選得之晚熟、果實大、櫥架壽命長之優良品系,則選供品系比較試驗之用.入選之優良品系則進一步於各主產區進行區域試驗.根據區域試驗之結果,選得之優良品系將供命名及推廣用. 2. 印度棗花粉活力及發芽之研究:印度棗是本省南部重要熱帶果樹.在台灣,每年的6-11月為開花著果期,由於正值夏、秋季颱風豪雨最多的季節,常遭遇開花不結果及產量偏低之現象.此外,根據觀察,印度棗自花授粉率偏低,若上午開花型及下午開花型之兩品種搭配種植可以提高授粉率,因此本研究之目的期能瞭解印度棗4個栽培品種間花粉之活力,以及溫度對發芽率之影響,以作為農民栽培改進之用. 3. 蓮霧果實品質改進:本試驗今年以探討目前慣行的產期調節做法對樹體及果實品質的影響,期能改良修剪方式及遮光程度,提高樹體活力,及培育健康樹勢為目標,生產高品質的果實. 4. 在來種芒果品種選育:蒐集產地及各機關優良芒果新品系,調查開花習性、果實特性及耐病蟲害情形;針對具有優良特性的品系進行區域試作,並觀察實生苗高接後生育情形.期選育出早熟、品質優良、果實中等、無果實劣變及耐炭疽病之優良品系. 5. 高品質番石榴品種選育:本試驗為改善目前番石榴的風味,進行風味濃郁的品系與目前的少籽拔的雜交,及進行品種(系)的蒐集.藉由有潛力品系(種)之雜交,預期選出較現有品種更具風味的優良品系,供產業種植. 6. 提高玉荷包荔枝著果率之研究:本試驗於玉荷包荔枝最後一次梢成熟後至抽穗期間,進行不同程度的環刻處理,然後調查抽穗時間、抽穗率、著果率及果實品質,並分析葉片內礦物元素,以期尋求適當的環刻程度及時間,提高玉荷包荔枝開花率及產量. 7. 熱帶稀有果樹栽培試驗:為增加台灣南部地區果樹的多樣性,蒐集加蜜蛋黃果、榴連蜜、紅龍果等新興果樹品種進行性狀調查、變異選拔,及繁殖苗木,進行經濟栽培模式的試種,調查評估其發展潛力,提供農民及消費者多樣性的選擇. 8. 澎湖地區紅龍果品種適應性試驗:本試驗之主要目的擬篩選出最適澎湖地區種植之紅龍果品種,由去年16個品(種)系中篩選出最優之4個品系,進行品系比較試驗,試驗採用逢機完全區集設計,重複4次,調查項目:生長勢,病蟲害,園藝性狀,產量及品質等,期能篩選出適宜澎湖地區種植之紅龍果品種及建立澎湖地區紅龍果之栽培制度,供農民種植,以增加澎湖地區水果之種類及產量,並推介農民參行,增進農民收益。1. Selection of Late Matural Indian Jujube: The fruit price for Indian jujube during the late season was usually high due to the short supply of Indian jujube in the market. Hence, breeding Indian jujube with late maturity characteristics for plantation will be beneficial for increasing the farmers' income. For breeding and selection of superior varieties, the artificial and natural crosses will be applied among Indian jujube varieties in this experiment. Hybrid seeds obtained from different cross combinations will be propagated as seedlings for three-year observations. Lines with late-maturity, large fruit size, and long fruit shell life will be selected as materials for line testing. Superior lines selected from line testing will be further tested by regional yield trial at major production sites. From the results of regional yield trials, the selected lines will be registered as new cultivar and then for extension. 2. Studies on Pollen viability and Germination of Indian jujube: Indian jujube is one of important tropical fruits in southern Taiwan. The flowering and fruit setting of Indian jujube were from June to November that was easily damaged by torrential rain and typhoons during summer and fall seasons and resulted in lower fruiting setting rate and yield. Besides, based on observation, the ratio of self-pollination is low in Indian jujube. However, the rate of pollination will be increased when two varieties with different types of blooming behavior were inter-planted at same orchard. Therefore, the purpose of this study is aimed to investigate the pollen viability among 4 varieties, and the effects of temperature on pollen germination of Indian jujube. The results of this study will be extended to farmers for cultural improvement. 3. Studies on Quality Improvement of Wax Apple Fruits: This experiment researches the effects of forcing culture methods that was accustomed on the tree vigor and fruit quality. It is expected that improvement of pruing amd shading will raise the tree vigor and plant healthy tree, and produce high quality fruits. 4. The Breeding of “Local Variety” Mango: The new lines of mango will be collected from different locations and organizations. Characters of new mango lines such as flowering, fruit setting, pest resistance are investigated and the superior lines will be selected for regional trial. The other work, the growth vigor of seedling from cultural varieties were observed. The expected traits of mango are early maturing, good quality, medium size, soft-nose absent and disease resistance. 5. Selection of High Quality Guava Varieties: The purpose of this plan is to improve the flavor of guava varieties planting in nowadays. Our work is to hybridize between the varieties with good flavor and customer popular in present. They poss high potential in some characteristics for hybridization. It is expected to select a excellent variety with superior quality and provide to farmer cultivation. 6. Studies on Improvement of Fruit-Set in “Yu-Her-Pao” Litchi: The “Yu-Her-Pao” litchi were girdled from the last flush-matured to panicle formation. Then, to survey the time and percentage of panicle formation, fruit-set and fruit quality and mineral elements of leaves will be analysis. The objects of this study are to search the optimum date and level of girdling that can increase the rate of flowering and stabilize yield of “Yu-Her-Pao” litchi. 7. Cultural Trials of Tropical Rare Fruit Trees: For increasing the multiplicity of fruit trees in southern Taiwan. This reaearch collects many tropical new kind of fruit trees, such as abiu、cempedak、pitaya etc.. investigation involves their properties, variation selection, seedling propagation. Proceeding for economical cultivation trial to evaluate developmental potential to provide farmer and consumer variousness selection. 8. Varieties Trail of Pitaya in Penghu: The purpose of this study is to select the best suitable cultivar of pitaya in Penghu area. The varieties trail of Pitaya would be carried out in this year, the materials of the trail are the KPC-PI-6, KPC-PI-9, KPC-PI-10 and KPC-PI-14 lines which were selected from 16 lines last year. The design of experiment is Randomized Completely Block Design and repeated four times. The items of this study is investigated the growth of plant, the yield and the quality. When the experiment is finished, It is expected that a new pitaya cultivar will be developmented for local farmers to.
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