智能機具、人機輔具

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計畫名稱: 智能機具、人機輔具
計畫主持人: 邱銀珍
共同計畫主持人: 吳有恒;林韋至;陳柏中;潘光月;曾敏南;周浩源;陳明吟;黃惟揚;鄭經偉;田雲生;劉天麟;邱相文;黃政龍;曾鉅翔
計畫編號: 110農科-8.3.1-子-Y1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會桃園區農業改良場作物環境課
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 智能;龍眼;雜草感測;施藥模組;催花;收穫機;缺工;脫殼處理機;芋頭;有機農業;電動農機;無人播種機;智慧人機輔具;種苗種植機;紙穴盤;除草劑;除草機;自走式;收穫;鳳梨;雜糧;自動化;大豆;載具;臺灣藜;薏仁;設施蔬果;智慧農業;小米;太陽能;稻草;脫肉;移植機構;敷蓋機械;省力輔具;葉菜;承裝運送設備;Intelligent;Longan;weed detection;spraying module;Reminder;Harvesting machine;labor shortage;Shelling machine;Taro;Organic Farming;Electric Agricultural Machinery;unmanned planter;Intelligent human -machine assistive device;Seedling transplanting machine
摘要: 本計畫希望藉由此11個子計畫執行農業機械與智慧自動化機具開發,促使我國農業產銷能夠更加自動化及省工智慧化,並紓緩我國農業工作缺工問題。 <strong>細部計畫0:人機協同智慧省工機具之研發與應用</strong>    本研發團隊於109年執行「農用協力輔助機具之研發與應用計畫」期間,分別至高雄、屏東、彰化、嘉義、台東及台北等地,進行約40場的省力機具場域實測,為開發出符合農民需求的省工、省力農機具,在經過與農民多次的訪談後,共盤點出香蕉、小果番茄與葡萄等三項農作物的人機協同智慧省工機具需求。     本計畫全程目標為完成人機協同與智慧省工機具之研發與應用,第1年度(110年)將開發:(1)可供香蕉及葡萄農事作業使用的「智慧省力機具」;(2)可供香蕉或戶外果園使用的「大型多用途履帶車」,具噴灑施藥、升降採收的功能;(3)具葉肥噴灑模組的「中型多用途履帶車」,可供小果番茄設施內使用。開發過程並規劃省工機具的場域實測,亦進行相關市場分析與專利布局規劃,以利後續研發成果的技轉商品化。     第二年度(111年)規劃進行研發機具的性能優化與改良:(1)改良「大型多用途履帶車」的精準噴灑模組與升降式採收搬運模組;(2)優化「中型多用途履帶車」葉肥精準噴灑模組及採收模組。並依上一年度的專利佈局分析,與有意技轉之廠商進行洽談與完成技轉簽約。第三年(112年)則將進行難度較高的「小型多用途履帶車」開發,以多台履帶車同時隨行並能自動完成採收及搬運等工作為年度目標。 <strong>細部計畫0:龍眼乾品質監管與自動化設備整合技術之開發</strong>本年度將針對半自動化龍眼乾剝肉機進行優化,如:進料區進料方式、集肉區集肉方式、改善清潔問題等,如有剩餘金費將規劃自動化剝殼機等相關設備,以一貫化生產為目標,改善進料區作業方式,可能開發一進料模組等方式提升食品安全衛生品質以及效率,集肉方式可能採用剛性裝置如鉤子取代原本的毛刷提升集肉方式,清潔問題可能改以濕潤之科技海綿抹過托肉過後之矽膠版進行清潔達到自動清潔的目的。●台灣龍眼產季較為炎熱,採摘後的龍眼不利長時間放置,採收後烘乾並去籽保存,不僅能節省冷藏空間,也可以提升龍眼乾燥後的經濟價值和市場競爭。●目前人工剝肉能產出純果肉約每小時1.2台斤/人,處理過程費時且廢工,而龍眼乾剝肉機械能產出純果肉約每小時7.2台斤/台;1台龍眼乾剝肉機產出的果肉約等於6個人的產出,若人工剝肉每人一天工資約1200元,每台機台扣除操作人員2人外,一天(八小時)可以節省約5000元,一個月(22天)可以節省約11萬元,而台灣龍眼產季集中約四個月左右,一產季(四個月)可以節省44萬;以台灣中型廠,一季產出果肉約3萬斤為例:3萬斤/57.6斤天=1台需要521天才可產出3萬斤,將其縮短在4個月內,521天/88天(4個月)需要約6台,一季(88天)即可節省264萬元。●衛生條件的提升與生產效率的提升,進而強化龍眼加工產業國內外銷售市場競爭力。 <strong>細部計畫0:田間即時雜草感測及其施藥模組之開發</strong>作物栽培之雜草防除為田間常見之作業,常常需要耗費很多人力與資材,所以除草劑為常用的防治方法之一。為確保施藥的有效性,正確地施用於雜草的位置相當重要,在人工智慧逐步發展於應用的今日,若能以智慧感測判別的方式先確認雜草位置,再以精準的方式噴藥,則可節省藥液之使用與降低施藥之環境污染。故本研究旨在蒐集、分析與評估目前為止田間雜草感測之方法,至少選定一種有潛力應用於田間之感測方法,進行測試與評估,並完成田間即時雜草感測及施藥模組之開發。希望開發相關之應用技術,促使農業機械產業智慧化發展,促進產業升級,未來有機會將相關技術應用於田間有雜草需要進行雜草防除之場域。 <strong>細部計畫0:智慧化設施蔬果收穫系統承裝運送設備之研發</strong>農產品在田間收穫後因為環境之影響及蔬果採收後之生理作用若未進行預冷和後續的低溫環境輸送,常常會加速蔬果變質,甚至是腐壞不勘食用,直接造成生產者經濟損失。為了解決上述問題,本研究擬將冷鏈技術運用於設施內或田間之蔬果採收後承裝輸送系統的利用,以提高蔬果品質與延長及確保產品的保存期限與櫥架壽命。計畫研究重點:(一)進行承載活動式蔬果預冷裝置與保冷承裝容器之開發;(二)進行自動駕駛電動輸送搬運行走載具之研製開發;(三)進行無人化自動導引與追蹤跟隨遠端無線控制系統之開發;(四)進行智慧化設施蔬果收穫系統承裝運送設備之系統優化及(五)產業示範場域推廣應用。 <strong>細部計畫0:應用於紙穴盤栽培之菜苗移植機構開發</strong>本研究開發應用於紙穴盤栽培之菜苗移植機構,可直接將紙穴盤切割成單粒穴格,並透過取苗裝置進行8行式移植作業。移植機構由穴盤輸送裝置、縱向切割裝置、橫向切割裝置、取苗裝置及控制系統構成,全機採用直流電源,適合溫室內蔬菜移植作業使用。 <strong>細部計畫0:水耕栽培洋桔梗自動移苗機之研製</strong>    本年度規劃設計與試驗研製洋桔梗穴盤苗自動移苗機雛型,並進行作業測試與修改評估。試驗研發完成洋桔梗自動移苗機,並搭配水耕栽培洋桔梗栽培管理技術而推廣予農友參考應用,可達省時省力之生產效能、建立新穎栽培模式,預期較人工作業可節省工時15%以上,除協助解決花農高齡化及勞動力短缺問題,同時可改善生產環境,提升洋桔梗產業發展與競爭力;相關移苗機亦可兼用於水耕栽培葉菜類移苗作業應用,進而提升該產業機械化與自動化發展規模。 <strong>細部計畫0:蝴蝶蘭換盆作業輔助機具之研發應用</strong>    臺灣蝴蝶蘭出口產值大,高居全球之冠,惟蝴蝶蘭在栽培過程中需定期換盆,目前換盆擠壓塞填作業仍採人工,辛苦且容易受傷,時常造成勞工職業傷害,同時產業常缺工、派工不易,尚待解決研發相關蝴蝶蘭換盆機械化輔助機具,協助產業機械化轉型及突破瓶頸。本研究擬研發蝴蝶蘭苗及水苔裝填換盆作業機構,以減輕傳統雙手換盆之作業辛勞及職業傷害,建立蝴蝶蘭苗機械化移植換盆作業生產體系,進而提升蝴蝶蘭產業在國際市場之競爭力。 <strong>細部計畫0:自走式鳳梨智能噴注催花劑機械之研發</strong>本計畫旨在開發研製一符合鳳梨產業機械化之自走式鳳梨智能噴(灌)注催花劑機械,藉以節省農民進行鳳梨噴(灌)注催花劑作業之時間與勞力成本,提升作業效率,並解決日益嚴重的農業勞動人力短缺老年化之問題。以檢測及探討相關彙集之資料,畦寬約100公分、行距約50公分、株距30公分,每畦二列式採三角形排列方式種植,每公頃30,000~40,000株,開發自走式鳳梨智能噴(灌)注催花劑機械。其主要機構分成自走載具、動力(單缸汽油引擎)、噴灌機構及視覺系統等機構。以視覺系統辨別鳳梨株之中心,並決定噴(灌)注位置及時間。 <strong>細部計畫0:田間使用智慧化複合式巡場噴藥移動裝置之研究</strong>           本計畫使用之智慧化複合式巡場移動裝置屬泛用小型農機範疇,具有小體積大扭力、高環境適應性、高續航力、可依需求替換或加裝模組等特性。其目的為節省田間人力需求、降低噴藥者體內之農藥殘留風險及提升藥效。就噴藥技術而言,藥液若能直接覆蓋害物則可提升防治效果。以小果番茄為例,進入採果期後,其枝葉茂密,部分害物(如銀葉粉蝨)喜棲息於葉背,因為是連續採收,故可使用之防治資材為無殘留容許量之安全資材,此類資材之作用機制多屬於物理性防治,藥液若能細密、均勻覆蓋於葉背,則可提升防治效果。此外,用水量亦會影響到藥劑成本,故本研究將藉由使用智慧化複合式巡場移動裝置,進行田間藥害、藥效、及用水量等一系列評估,藉由試驗成果再調整各種噴藥係數(如噴藥壓力、流量),以健全小果番茄之噴藥模式建立。  <strong>細部計畫0:雜糧智能太陽能無人自動化播種機之研製</strong>發展無人太陽能播種機,透過GPS系統定位技術,可自動獨立運行於雜糧作物田間,自行播種並辨識行間之位置,行走時自動播種,並可辨識是否到田埂自動轉向,機器不需人工操作,可減少農業人力成本支出,本場已開發太陽能乘坐式播種機雛型機,進行臺灣藜、大豆和小米機械化播種作業。試驗結果顯示,每天可作業面積4公頃面積,且透過太陽能板回充電力,與100馬力曳引機比較,可減少二氧化碳排放量每公頃27公斤,具有在播種期間無任何有害氣體排放,亦可應用於設施栽培內的播種環境。 <strong>細部計畫0:自走式單人植茶機與敷蓋機開發及手持式採茶機輔具之推廣</strong>      傳統人工種茶要蹲下、掘土、放入茶苗與回填土,一天只能種植500-800株茶苗,工作相當繁重。茶業改良場近年開發出曳引機附掛式植茶機,一天可種植0.5-1公頃,故基本面積需達到達1公頃才有經濟效益,故曳引機附掛式植茶機對於一般小農效益不大。需開發自走式單人植茶機,預計一天可種植800-1000株苗,減少操作人員彎腰作業之頻率,改善植茶作業之辛勞。     茶苗種後需要定期除草,雜草會與茶苗競爭養分與陽光,造成茶苗生長之樹勢衰弱。現在茶農使用花生殼或稻草敷蓋於茶苗邊來抑制雜草生長,以減少除草之工作。大部分農民會用花生殼來做敷蓋,主要是人工操作方便且便宜,而稻草雖然比花生殼便宜,但是需要大量工人施作。近年稻草已禁止焚燒,故水稻廢棄物的再利用變成一大課題。因此本計畫開發稻草敷蓋機械,快速的將粉碎後的稻草敷蓋在茶園間 ,減少敷蓋作業之人力需求。This project hopes to implement the development of agricultural machinery and intelligent automation equipment through these 11 sub-projects, so as to promote the automation and labor-saving intelligence of my country's agricultural production and sales, and alleviate the problem of lack of work in agricultural work in my country. <b>0:Development and Application of Intelligent Labor-saving and Human-robot Collaboration Devices</b>  By implementing the "Development of robotic exosuit for agricultural application project"  in 2020, our team had achieved more than 40 labor-saving machines field experimentation above orchards in Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Changhua, Chiayi, Taitung, and Taipei. By collecting numerous farmers' suggestions to develop intelligent labor-saving devices to reduce farmers' burden, this research will focus on the needs for intelligent labor-saving and human-robot collaboration devices on bananas, cherry tomatoes, and grapes plantation.   In the starting year (2021), we will develop: 1. "Intelligent labor-saving devices" for banana and grapes agricultural activities usage.  2. "Large-sized multifunction tracked vehicle" for banana or orchard usage, with pesticides spraying module and lifting-type harvesting and handling module. 3. "Medium-sized multifunction tracked vehicle" with fertilization spraying module for cherry tomatoes in protected cultivation. We plan for multiple field experimentation on the labor-saving device during the development process. On the other hand, we conduct relevant market analysis and patent planning to facilitate the commercialization of subsequent research and development results.   In the second year (2022), we plan to optimize and improve the performance of the labor-saving device: 1. Improvement for precision spraying module and of lifting-type harvesting and handling module "Large-sized multifunction tracked vehicle";  2. For "Medium-sized multifunction tracked vehicle," optimized the precision spraying of the fertilization spraying module and improved the harvesting module. Moreover, based on the previous year's patent analysis, we will negotiate with the manufacturers who intend and achieve a technology transfer contract. In the third year (2023), the more difficult "small-sized multifunction tracked vehicles" will be developed. Establishing the multiple tracked vehicles travel simultaneously and automatically complete harvesting and handling tasks as the annual goal. <b>0:Development of Integrated Technology for Quality Regulation and Automated Equipment for Dried Longan</b>The semi-automatic longan dry meat peeler will be optimized this year, such as the input area, the collecting method of the collection area, and the improvement of cleaning problems. If there is any remaining budget, the automatic peeling machine will be planned in order to implement consistent production. To optimize the input area, the input module might be developed. The collecting method might take rigid devices such as hooks to replace the original brushes to improve the collecting efficiency, and clean The problem may be changed to clean the silicone plate after rubbing it with a moist technology sponge to achieve the purpose of automatic cleaning.●The longan harvest season in Taiwan is so warm that the longan is not easy to long-term storage. After harvesting, in order to store, the longan will be dried and peeled. In that case, it does not only save the storage space but also improves the economic value and market competitiveness of dried-longan.●Currently, manually peeling can produce about 0.72kg a person of pulp per hour. The process is high time-consuming and high labor costs. The dried-longan peeling machine can produce about 4.32 kg/unit of pulp per hour; the production of every machine is approximately equal to the production of 6 workers. The daily wages of manually peeling are about 1,200 NT dollars per worker, each machine will save about 5,000 NT dollars a day(eight hours), and about 110,000 NT dollars a month(22days). The harvest season of longan approximately 4 months, and every season can save 440,000. Take the medium-sized plant as an example which can produce 18,000 kg per season. The machine is able to process 34.56 kg a day. It will take 521 days to process 18,000 kg. Shorten the processing period to 4 months(88days). It needs 6 units to deal with it. It can save 2.64 million NT dollars for a season(88days).●The improvement of sanitary conditions and productivity will strengthen the competitiveness of the longan processing industry in both domestic and foreign markets. <b>0:Development of a real-time weed detection and selective spraying module for field application</b>Weed control in crop cultivation is a common operation in the field, and often requires a lot of manpower and materials, so herbicides are one of the commonly used methods of prevention and control. In order to ensure the effectiveness of the application, the correct application of the position of the weeds is very important. In the day when artificial intelligence is gradually developed, the position of the weeds can be confirmed first by means of smart detection and then sprayed in a precise manner. The medicine can save the use of the liquid medicine and reduce the environmental pollution of the application. Therefore, this study aims to collect, analyze and evaluate the methods of field weed detection so far, at least select a sensing method with potential for application in the field, conduct testing and evaluation, and complete the field real-time weed detection and application module. It is hoped that the development of relevant application technologies will promote the smart development of the agricultural machinery industry and promote industrial upgrading. In the future, the related technologies will have the opportunities to be applied to the fields where the weeds need to be used for weed control. <b>0:Development of smart loading and shipping device for fresh fruits and vegetables grown in protected facilities</b>This project is aimed at developing a system device for the precooling of fruits and vegetables grown at the protected facilities upon harvesting. The system is capable of collecting the temperature, relative humidity and the vibration strength inside the collecting container. The target agricultural products are the tomatoes and the cucumbers. At the beginning of the project, a cooperative facility grower and a logistics operator will be invited to participate. This research will also develop an electric transport device for the protected facility use to save at least 20% of the labor work and to increase at least 10% efficiency. The precooling carrier can reduce the harvested fruits and vegetable body heat and hence extend the shelf-life. It is also estimated to reduce 10% of the product loss due to rotten also. The recorder combined with electronic tags and sensors inside the container can not only record the parameters data but also increase the logistic accuracy. The collected transportation data can be applied in analyzing the best transportation mode and developing suitable packaging materials to reduc7e vibration loss and increase product quality. <b>0:Development of a Vegetable Seedling Transplanting Mechanism for Paper Tray Cultivation.</b>This study will develop a vegetable seedlings transplanter for paper tray cultivation, which can directly cut the paper tray into single-grained cells, and conduct an 8-row transplanting operation through the seedling-picking device. The transplanter is composed of a tray transferring device, a vertical cutting device, a horizontal cutting device, a seedling-taking device and a control system. The machine uses a DC power supply, which is suitable for vegetable seedlings transplanting operations in greenhouse. <b>0:Development of automatic seedling transplanting machine for hydroponic cultivation of Eustoma</b>    This year a prototype of an automatic transplanter for plug seedlings of Eustoma was designed and developed, then conduct operational testing and modification evaluation. The developed automatic seedling transfer machine can be used with hydroponic cultivation techniques of Eustomaand promoted to farmers for reference. It can achieve time-saving and labor-saving production efficiency and establish a novel cultivation mode. It is expected to save more than 15% for labor. In addition to solving the problem of aging flower farmers and labor reduction, it can also improve the production environment and enhance the development and competitiveness of the eustoma industry; the related seedling transfer machine is also used for the application of hydroponic cultivation of leafy vegetables, and the development of mechanization and automation in the industry. <b>0:Development of change plant pot machine for Phalaenopsi amabilis</b>Taiwan Phalaenopsis has a large export value and ranks first in the world. However, Phalaenopsis requires regular pot replacement during the cultivation process. At present, the pot changing operation is still manual, and it is easy to be injured,  and often causes labor and occupational injuries, it difficult to dispatch workers. The research and development of related phalaenopsis mechanized auxiliary tools to assist in industrial mechanization transformation , and enhance the competitiveness of the phalaenopsis industry in the international market. <b>0:Research and development of self-propelled pineapple intelligent spray (irrigation) injection accelerator</b>This project aims to develop a self-propelled pineapple intelligent spray (irrigation) injection stimulant machine that conforms to the mechanization of the pineapple industry. Efficiency, and address the growing ageing shortage of agricultural labor. Based on the inspection and discussion of related collected data, the width of the bark is about 100 cm, the row spacing is about 50 cm, and the plant spacing is 30 cm. Each row is planted in a triangular arrangement, and 30,000 to 40,000 plants per hectare. Irrigation) Injecting flower promoter. Its main mechanism is divided into self-propelled vehicles, power (single-cylinder gasoline engine), sprinkler irrigation mechanism and vision system. Use the visual system to identify the center of the pineapple plant, and determine the location and time of the injection (irrigation). <b>0:The study of the combination of spraying and patrol self-propelled vehicles by using in the field</b>    The sparying and patrol self-propelled vehicles used in this project belongs to the category of general-purpose small agricultural machinery, which has the characteristics of small size, large torque, high environmental adaptability, high endurance, and modules that can be replaced or added according to needs. The purpose is to save field manpower requirements, reduce the risk of pesticide residues in sprayers and improve the efficacy of the pesticide. As far as spraying technology is concerned, if the liquid medicine can directly cover the pest, the control effect can be improved. For example, after the small-fruit tomato enters the fruit harvesting period, its branches and leaves are dense, and some pests (such as silver leaf whitefly) prefer to inhabit the back of the leaves. Because it is harvested continuously, the control materials that can be used are safe materials with no residual tolerance. The mechanism of action of these materials is mostly physical control. If the liquid medicine can cover the back of the leaves in a fine and even manner, the control effect can be improved. In addition, water consumption will also affect the cost of pesticides. In this study, a series of evaluations of field phytotoxicity, efficacy, and water consumption will be carried out by using parying and patrol self-propelled vehicles, and various spraying coefficients (such as spraying pressure, flow) will be adjusted based on the test results. It is expected that this will improve the establishment of the spray mode of small fruit tomatoes. <b>0:Study on grains intelligent solar unmanned automatic planter</b>To develop unmanned solar seeder, positioning technology by GPS system, that could be operated automatically and independently in the field for miscellaneous crops. It can sow and identify the position between rows by itself, and sow automatically, but reduce agricultural labor costs. We had developed a prototype of a solar ride-on planter for seeding Djulis, Soy Bean and Millet. The tests showed it could work 4 hectares per day, and recharging power by solar panels, reducing carbon dioxide emissions 27 kg per hectare than 100 horsepower tractor. It has no harmful gas emissions during sowing, and can be applied for greenhouse.    <b>0:Development Self-propelled Tea Planting machine and Riding-type tea mulching machine and Promotion of hand-held tea pickers</b>  Traditional artificial plant tea needs to squat, dig soil, put in tea seedlings and backfilling soil, only plant 500-800 tea seedlings per day, quite a heavy work. In recent years, Tea industry improvement field had developed tractor-attached tea planter, it can planted 0.5-1 hectares a day,; moreover, the basic area needs to reach to 1 hectare to have economic benefits. Tractor-attached tea planter for the general small farmers have low benefit ,so need to develop self-walking single-player tea machine, which is expected to plant 800-1000 seedlings per day in order to reduce the frequency of operators bending operations, improve the hard work of tea planting operations.    After the tea transplanting in the field need to be weeded regularly. Because the weeds will compete nutrients and sunlight with the tea, causing the tree growth to be weak. Now tea farmers use peanut shells or straw stalks to cover the tea trees to suppress weed growth to reduce weeding. Most farmers use peanut shells for coating, mainly because of the convenience and cheapness of manual operation. Although rice straw is cheaper than peanut shell, it requires a lot of labor works. In recent years, rice straw has been banned from incineration, so the reuse of rice waste has become an important issue. Therefore, the rice straw coating machine was developed to quickly cover the smashed rice straw between the tea gardens, thereby reducing the manpower requirement for the mulching operation.
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