數種苦瓜品種果實生長發育之理化特性與採收後生理之研究

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論文名稱: 數種苦瓜品種果實生長發育之理化特性與採收後生理之研究
研究生姓名: 林美君
指導教授姓名: 柯立祥
出版年: 2014
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 農園生產系所
關鍵字: 苦瓜;果實生長發育;貯藏溫度;熱處理;寒害;bitter gourd(Momordica charantia L.);fruit growth and development;storage temperature;heat treatment;chilling injury
摘要: 本研究針對“月華”、“碧華”、“翠妃”、山苦瓜“小月”和“高雄一號”五種栽培種苦瓜果實生長發育期間之理化特性及採收後的生理變化,並探討“大米”和“碧華”苦瓜果實在不同溫度貯藏條件(0、5、10、15、20、25℃)和貯藏前經熱處理(35、40、45、50°C)過程之影響,以瞭解適當延長苦瓜果實貯藏壽命的溫度和方式。 結果顯示,五品種苦瓜之果實生長發育期間,其中以“高雄一號”苦瓜生長速率最快;在果實比重方面,在授粉5天之後五品種苦瓜果實比重即呈下降之趨勢。五品種苦瓜在授粉後第12天果皮顏色變化趨於平緩;其果實硬度,除了山苦瓜“小月”和“高雄一號”苦瓜果實硬度逐漸昇高外,其他果實硬度都會逐漸降低;在授粉後第15天果實之總可溶性固形物含量(TSS)有顯著性變化;維生素C含量方面不同品種間有顯著差異,其中山苦瓜“小月”含量最高,而“月華”苦瓜則最低。 “大米”和“碧華”苦瓜在不同溫度的貯藏期間,對果皮色澤(亮度、色彩濃度、色相角度)之影響無明顯差異;“大米”苦瓜在5°C祼果貯藏期間寒害指數最低,而“碧華”苦瓜在5°C使用打孔PE袋貯藏期間寒害指數最低;在5°C貯藏期間,兩品種苦瓜果實之寒害指數,以“碧華”苦瓜寒害發生時間為最早(第5天);“大米”苦瓜在5°C貯藏使用打孔PE袋包裝貯藏失重率僅0.76%;“碧華”苦瓜在0、5、10℃貯藏,使用打孔PE袋包裝失重率在0.94%內。兩品種苦瓜之貯藏壽命都有受到貯藏溫度之影響,而利用打孔PE袋包裝在5℃貯藏可減少失重且有保鮮之作用。 “大米”和“碧華”苦瓜分別經40℃熱處理1、5和10分鐘後的新鮮度最好和寒害及非寒害指數最低,但經50℃熱處理10分鐘後的新鮮度最差和寒害及非寒害指數最高。在40℃熱處理延長低溫下的貯藏時間並減輕寒害發生;而過高溫度的熱處理(50℃)卻會明顯加重在低溫下受到的寒害及非寒害發生。The series of studies were conducted to elucidate the changes of physico-chemical characteristics during fruit growth and development in five cultivars of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) fruits (cv. ‘Moom Shine’, ‘Luxuriance’, ‘Jadeite’, ‘New Moon’ and ‘Kaohsiung No.1’). Moreover, the influences of different storage temperature and heat treatment for ‘Big Rice’ and ‘Luxuriance’ were investigated. It is possible to find out the optimum storage temperature and method on fruit storage life. The results showed that ‘Kaohsiung No.1’ was fastest during the growth and development of the cultivars. In 5 days after pollination, specific gravity of five cultivars decreased. The color of peel in five cultivars had no significant change in 12 days after pollination. The firmness of ‘New Moon’ and ‘Kaohsiung No.1’ increased, others decreased. Total soluble solid content in 15 days after pollination had a significant change. Vitamin C in five cultivars had a significant change, especially ‘New Moon’ was highest. The color of peel in ‘Big Rice’ and ‘Luxuriance’ had no significant change at different storage temperatures. The chilling injury index of ‘Big Rice’ was the lowest without package during 5℃ storage. The chilling injury index of ‘Luxuriance’ was the lowest with package during 5℃ storage. The chilling injury index occurred earliest in ‘Luxuriance’ than ‘Big Rice’ during 5°C storage. The weight loss of ‘Big Rice’ was 0.76% with package during 5℃ of 20 days’ storage. The weight loss of ‘Luxuriance’ was within 0.94% with package during 0, 5 and 10℃ of 15 days’ storage. The storage life of ‘Big Rice’ and ‘Luxuriance’ had been affected by storage temperature. ‘Big Rice’ and ‘Luxuriance’ were stored at 5℃ with package, the weight loss can be reduced and preserved. The visual freshness of ‘Big Rice’ and ‘Luxuriance’ after 40°C hot water treatment was best, but they after 50°C hot water treatment was worst. The chilling injury index and pitting of ‘Big Rice’ and ‘Luxuriance’ after 40°C hot water treatment was lowest, but they after 50°C hot water treatment was highest. 40℃ hot water treatment had the better effect on reducing chilling injury symptoms, but 50℃ hot water treatment increased chilling injury and non-chilling injury symptoms.
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