整合研發栽培與處理技術以生產優質柑橘

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計畫名稱: 整合研發栽培與處理技術以生產優質柑橘
計畫主持人: 郭純德
共同計畫主持人: 陳右人;劉富文;林芳存;石正中;李堂察;
計畫編號: 97農科-4.2.2-糧-Z1(11)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 宜蘭大學園藝學系
全程計畫年: 2008
關鍵字: 四季橘; 金柑; 修剪; 花芽形成; 寒害; 防曬; 新品種; 茂谷;Calamondin; Kumquat; Pruning; Flower Bud Formation; Chilling; Sun Scald Prevention; New Variety; Murcott
摘要: 一.本計畫之研究重點在繼續改良台灣主要品種柑桔之採後處理與貯藏技術,以增進品質並延長供應優質鮮果。本年度之試驗項目包括 (1)測定同園椪柑之株間品質差異及耐貯藏性差異,(2)試驗不同濃度2,4-D處理對防治貯藏障礙之效果,(3)試驗用「益收」(ethrel)催色椪柑之效果,及(4)用4種不同貯藏庫貯藏椪柑、柳橙及桶柑之效果比較。 二.利用不同修剪時期及修剪強度,觀察影響四季橘及金柑花芽分化的因子。以5年生四季橘嫁接苗盆栽及3年生金柑嫁接苗盆栽為供試材料,按月進行修剪處理,含對照組不修剪共13處理,每處理6重複。修剪強度分為輕剪(剪至一次梢第一枚葉片)與強剪(剪至第二次梢第一枚葉片)兩種,修剪時期則每三十日為一修剪週期,一年共12時期。每月調查修剪後植株的抽稍與開花情形,並按月隨機取樣芽體進行 石蠟切片染色,顯微觀察花芽分化的狀況。因柑橘類通常有大小年的結果特性,預計連續進行兩年(95、96年)重複試驗,以獲得較平均的處理表現。同時記錄氣溫變化,推估會影響花芽分化的溫度範圍。簡單記錄果實性狀,項目包括:果實大小、平均果重及果實糖度、酸度與糖酸比。 三.本計畫擬1.研發出有效的防曬方法。2.研發出減少柑橘田間寒害之方法,以改善椪柑、茂谷和明尼桔柚等柑橘品質。 四.本年度針對1. 寧波金柑等鮮食品種之栽培試驗及2. 國外優良鮮食與加工金柑品種之引進加以研究,本計畫實施後預期因擴大金柑鮮食市場規模及增加加工品之多樣性,可大幅增加宜蘭地區金柑栽培種類與栽培面積,對提升宜蘭地區金柑產業促進產發展,增加農民收益,將有重要之貢獻.於引進國外優良品種之同時,亦可增加質株抗病性之基因來源,對本土栽培品種抗病性之改良也將有極大之益處. 五.本研究擬明白不同根砧對蘭陽地區茂谷品質與採收成熟度及貯藏力之影響。包括(1)果實品質,採收成熟度(採收時期),及(3)果實耐貯藏力之影響。1.This research project is to develop further improved handling and storage technologies needed for the production of high quality citrus fruits and extension of their supply seasons. Major experiments scheduled for this year include: (1) test for differences in fruit quality and storability among selected ‘Ponkan' mandarin trees on the same orchard, (2) test for different concentration of 2,4-D treatment to control storage disorders of Ponkan, (3) degreening of early-harvest Ponkan with ethrel, (4) storage experiment for Ponkan, ‘Liucheng' orange, and ‘Tankan' tangor in 4 different kinds of storage facilities. 2.This project studies the influence of temperature and pruning and pruning date onflower bud formation of calamondin and kumquat. Pruning will done monthly and have two pruning strength. Shoot growth, flowering and fruiting will survey and bud willsampling for microscopic study monthly, temperature data will collect to predict its effect on growth and development. Fruit characteristics, include fruit size, weight TSS contentacid content and sugar/acid ratio will survey too. 3.This study will to improve fruit quality in citrus. The first one is to investigate the effects of fruit bagging and coating on the sunscald of Ponkan and Murcott mandarin. And second is evaluate the beneficial treatments on the Ponkan mandarin and Minneola tangor during maturation at chilling temperature. 4.This project will focus on new varieties of kumquat fruit for fresh market. New varietiesof kumquat plant will be cultivated in Ilan area and introduced after proper evaluation.By the research, the market of kumquat fruis will be expanded, cultivation area and varieties will increase dramatically. Not only make a profit to the farmers, but also improve the gene resources of disease-resistant. 5.This project studies the influence of different stock on harvested fruit of Murcott tangor grown at ILan area. Major experiments scheduled for this year include:(1) fruit quality, (2)harvesting maturity , and (3) storability.
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