提升臺灣蔬果產銷供應鏈競爭力之研發

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計畫名稱: 提升臺灣蔬果產銷供應鏈競爭力之研發
計畫主持人: 王仁晃
共同計畫主持人: 王三太;陳思如;張芳魁;李文豪;施伯明;賴信忠;李雪如;盧柏松;宋妤;朱堉君;劉廣泉;謝明憲;石佩玉;唐佳惠;陳葦玲;江淑雯;朱雅玲;官青杉;黃祥益;江秀娥
計畫編號: 109農科-7.3.5-子-K1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會高雄區農業改良場作物改良課
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 水果產業參訪;蔬菜;加工;栽培模式;品種;冷凍貨櫃;緩效肥料;矮性菜豆;馬來西亞;外銷;植株生長;貯藏;粉紅網;貯藏;種子處理;桶柑;甘藍;果實品質;程式積木;芒果;鳳梨釋迦;品系選拔;室冷;蕹菜;壓差預冷;果實品質;採收後處理;鳳梨;貯藏;影像辨識;品種;冷鏈;機械;採收指標;甘藍;外銷出口;產銷鏈;溫湯;外銷;栽培密度;青花菜;省工;貯藏;技術準備度;官能品評;fruit industry field trip;vegetable;processing;cultural model;Cultivars;reefer container;Slow-released fertillizers;Bush common bean;Malaysia;Export;plant growth;Storage;pink net;storage;seed treatment;Tankan tangor;cabbage;Fruit quality;Program blocks
摘要: 夏季蔬菜生產技術及效能提升 篩選適於設施栽培之蕹菜,改善栽培模式,提供環境資訊供肥培管理,使植株於田間生長整齊,適合機械採收作業,以能精準栽培,提升工作效率,節省成本,以同時取得經濟效益和環境效益。 篩選耐貯運甘藍品種 在4-5月於平地採收2-5個耐貯藏品種並進行觀摩會,本計畫目的在篩選適合甘藍品種貯藏並辦理觀摩會,改善7至10月甘藍短缺現象。 鳳梨果實預冷作業方式之開發與實用性評估     本計畫探討以適當採收成熟度(果實基部由綠變黃或變為淺綠色時)之'台農 17號' 金鑽鳳梨 (<em>Ananas comosus</em> L. Merr.) 果實,以室冷、壓差預冷及水冷等方式進行預冷,之後進行3種模擬貯運,即(1)於15℃下冷藏5天,移置25℃下模擬櫥架7天(模擬輸銷中國大陸)(2)於15℃下冷藏8天,移置25℃下模擬櫥架7天(模擬輸銷日本)(3)於15℃下冷藏28天,移置25℃下模擬櫥架7天(模擬輸銷歐美市場)。    模擬輸銷貯運仿業後,分析鳳梨果實品質變化,調查表皮顏色、果肉硬度、失重率、果汁可溶性固形物、抗壞血酸含量、pH值及可滴定酸度。並分析產品包裝過程中採用實應化之預冷處理的成本和收益。 柑橘品質分級影像辨識系統開發         為推動柑橘品質分級標準客觀一致性,提升交易效益及公平性,本計畫以MASK R-CNN演算法建立柑橘品質分級影像辨識模型,於桶柑影像拍攝後,經特徵標示進行模型訓練,由訓練後模型偵測未經標示影像特徵,再由程式積木計算特徵數量及面積等資訊,進行桶柑外觀分級。 設施蔬菜新型冷鏈保鮮貯藏技術研發與應用 本試驗主要目的為開發適合蔬果使用之新型冷鏈貯藏技術,採用回收再利用之冷凍貨 櫃櫃體加裝冷却系統,能機動性使用,提供農產品預冷處理及貯藏保鮮,調節蔬果 產銷,穩定農民收益。 冷凍加工用矮性菜豆品種選育及生產技術建立 為增加目前國內蔬果外銷品項及產值,本計畫擬育成冷凍加工用矮性菜豆自有品種,另建立其主要栽培及採後加工關鍵技術,以開拓外銷冷凍蔬菜市場。本年度主要進行項目為:高級品系試驗及性狀檢定、種子擴繁、種植密度及採收適期評估試驗。 外銷甘藍品種篩選及省工管理技術導入 甘藍雖為臺灣外銷蔬菜品項之一,但產業面臨現行栽培品種並非是國外市場主要消費需求類型,且外銷生產遭遇氣候變遷問題、缺工危機加遽,除造成收穫產品良率降低,也導致生產成本提高,成為外銷產業發展主要困境。因此,本計畫目標為篩選可推薦用於外銷日本市場所需之栽培品種,並建立提升產品耐貯性之省工肥培管理技術。預計2020年底前完成藉由引種進行比較試驗,篩選出1個品種推薦產業應用;2021年底前完成導入省工一次施肥暨減量施用作業,達到降低採收前及採收後之生理障礙發生率。 強化愛文芒果外銷溫湯處理之應用 炭疽病為影響愛文芒果外銷品質之重要病害,而溫湯處理為一可行之處理方法,但在臺灣商業化操作仍不普及且採後處理流程仍有待改進的空間。試驗將實地訪查臺南地區現有溫湯處理業者之應用現況,並探討使用頻率低落之原因或面臨之問題,並嘗試強化溫湯處理之效果,於溫湯處理時加入一般認定之安全物質,經美國FDA認可之GRAS (Generally regard as safe)鹽類,期能提升溫湯處理之抑菌效果,增加溫湯處理之應用及輔導業者建立溫湯處理流程。 加工用青花菜品種篩選及生產模式建構 本研究目的在篩選適合冷凍加工用之青花菜品種,並建立其大面積栽培管理模式,期望減少冬季甘藍栽培面積,增加夏季蔬菜供應量,穩定蔬菜產銷。試驗擬評估所蒐集之12個青花菜商業品種,評估其田間性狀及產量,並將107-108年度篩選之品種擴大試作面積,評估其加工特性,利用作為冷凍加工蔬菜。 臺灣重要水果產銷供應鏈競爭力盤點與分析 技術開發通常著重於片段,本年度預計規劃並參訪兩次作物從生產到出貨之完整產銷鏈,強化重要水果產官學界鏈結,主動挖掘水果產銷問題,並透過專家最新研究進度報告、問卷、實地訪視及跨域專家座談等方式 ,盤點重要水果產銷供應鏈競爭力,為產業提出即時解決方案與未來的研究方向。再藉由導入技術準備度(Technology Readiness Level. TRL)的調查,以了解重要水果技術現況、瓶頸與未來的努力方向。 鳳梨釋迦外銷馬來西亞貯運保鮮技術開發 本計畫擬建立鳳梨釋迦果實外銷至馬來西亞之保鮮技術,利用二氧化碳氣體吸收劑及乙烯抑制劑等不同劑量處理方式,搭配模擬海運貯藏溫度及時間,探討其對鳳梨釋迦保鮮效果及果實品質之影響。期能運用保鮮技術,助外銷業者開拓新興市場;並配合政府新南向政策來開拓馬來西亞市場,以分散鳳梨釋迦外銷量過度集中之風險。Improving techniques and efficiency of vegetables production in summer This aim of this study was to establish mechanical sowing, fertiliztion management, and mechanical harvest of water convolvulus cultivated in greenhouse for a labour-saving and precision production. Selection High Storage Ability of Cabbage Cultivars Evaluation 2-5 cultivars of high storage ability cabbage for demonstration will be held in June in low land. Improvement shortage of cabbage from July to Oct. in Taiwan by selection higher storage ability cultivars is the aim of program. Development and practical evaluation of the pre-cooling equipment for pineapple fruit.     'TNG 17' pineapple (<em>Ananas comosus</em> L. Merr.) harvested at at the correct stage of maturity (when base of the fruit has changed from green to yellow or light green) would cooled by room cooling, forced-air cooling or hydrocooling to 15℃, then held in one of three storage regimes: 1) 5 days at 15℃ plus 7 day at 25℃; 2) 8 days at 12.5℃ plus 7 days at 25℃, or; 3) 28 days at 15℃ plus 7 days at 25℃. Quality attributes, including surface color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solids and ascorbic acid content, pH, and titratable acidity, were evaluated after storage. Analyze the costs and benefits of applying usability pre-cooling treatment during product package. Development of Citrus Grading System Using Image Recognition         In order to promote the objective consistency of citrus quality classification standards, and improve transaction efficiency and fairness, the project is to use the MASK R-CNN method to establish a image recognition citrus quality grading model by image recognition. Model training will start after tankon tangor image features was labeled.  Features of none labeled images than will be recognition by this model, and the number of features and total area of each image are calculated by the program blocks to classify the appearance of tankan tangor. Development and Application of New Type of Vegetable Cold Storage The main purpose of this experiment is to develop a new type of cold chain storage for fruits and vegetables. Recycle reefer container to install refrigeration system.Can be used for mobility.Provide agricultural product pre-cooling and storage.Adjust the production and sales of fruits and vegetables.Stabilize the income of farmers. Breeding and Productive Technology Establishment of Bush Common Bean for Frozen Processing In order to increase the produce items and  value of exporting vegetables, the aim of present object is to develop  common bean new cultivar for frozen processing and estabilish its key cultivation, postharvest, as well as processing technologies. It expects to extend the exporting market of frozen vegetable. Therefore, four objects ncluded adcanced lines test, seed propagation, optimal planting density and harvest index are conducted in present study. Screening of Non-pathogenic Disorder-resistant Cabbage Cultivars for Export and the Introduction of Labor-saving Cultivation Cabbage is an important leafy vegetable in Taiwan, and it is also an important indicator product for the sales price of vegetables. Because of this, maintaining stability in the domestic market is critical. Japan has always been the main importer of Taiwan's cabbage. However, the amount of exportation has been unstable and decreasing. One reason is that Japan has been increasingly demanding cabbage that is served raw, whereas Taiwanese varieties are more suitable for cooking. Another reason is an increase in production costs due to the aging workforce and the lack of experienced personnel. The purpose of this two-year project is screen appropriate varieties for Japanese market demand and reduce the labor costs required for production. In 2020, the goal is to screen domestic and foreign varieties for low tip burn rates, thick leaves, moderate softness and hardness, sweetness, and long-term storage. In 2021, the aim is to establish cabbage fertilizer management technology with fertilizer application in ridges, which can help to extend the useful lifespan by at least 30 days after harvest. Enhance Hot-water Dipping Treatment of Irwin Mango for Exportation Anthracnose is an essential postharvest disease on mango exportation. Hot-water dipping treatment is a possible way to reduce the incidences. However, the hot-water dipping treatment is not universal in Taiwan and the commercial management of mango postharvest procedure is still need to be improved. We try to find out the reason that why Hot-water dipping treatment is not universal by visiting the industries in Tainan and the application of GRAS (Generally regard as safe) will take into investigation. Increase the use of hot-water dipping treatment and set up a proper SOP for the commercial use. Cultivar screening and production model establishment of processing broccoli This program focuses on screening broccoli varieties for frozen vegetables and establishing the cultural model on a large scare farm that expected to reduce production acreages of cabbages in winter and vegetable supplies are increased in summer. Twelve commercial varieties of broccoli are collected in this project, and the plant traits and yields will be evaluated for as frozen vegetables. The selected candidate varieties will be evaluated for larger aera, postharvesting traits and processing traits. Inventory and Analysis of the Competiveness of Production and Marketing Supply Chain of Importent Fruits in Taiwan Agricultural technology usually focuses on fragments. This year, it is expected to plan and visit two complete production and sales chain of important fruits from production to shipment, strengthen the links of important fruit production and academic circles, actively explore fruit production and marketing issues, and through experts' latest research progress reports, questionnaires, field visits and cross-domain expert discussions, inventory the important fruit production and marketing supply chain competitiveness, and provide immediate solutions and future research directions for the industry. Investigate the current state of the art, bottlenecks and future efforts by introducing a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) survey. Atemoya Exported to Malaysia for Storage Technology Development The project is in order to establish the storage technology for export atemoya to Malaysia. The research was using different carbon dioxide absorbent and ethylene inhibitor, and investigated fruit quality. We hope to help exporters to new market, and disperse the risk of atemoya export concentration.
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