提升臺灣蔬果產銷供應鏈競爭力之研發

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計畫名稱: 提升臺灣蔬果產銷供應鏈競爭力之研發
計畫主持人: 王仁晃
共同計畫主持人: 朱雅玲;唐佳惠;官青杉;陳盟松;林妤姍;劉碧鵑;許育鳴;羅筱鳳;吳俊達;李柔誼;陳葦玲;張富翔;王三太;楊雯如;江一蘆;張栢滄;吳建銘;黃祥益;朱堉君;潘光月;陳俊仁;宋妤;王智立;王怡玎;楊素絲;陳思如;謝明憲;林經偉;李美玲;黃柏昇;沈偉強
計畫編號: 107農科-7.3.5-子-K1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場作物改良課
全程計畫年: 2018
關鍵字: 肥培管理;腐絕;包裝技術;遮陰;採收機;生產;菇類介質堆肥;貯藏;三泰芬;幼蔥;冷凍加工;裂紋;果實發育;蘿蔓萵苣;外銷;根腫病;蕹菜;採收後處理;輔助機械;海運;芥藍;青花菜;鳳梨;紅龍果;紅龍果;包裝材料;生物防治;乙醇;設施蔬菜栽培;減災;育種;供應鏈;機械;省工;密植;設施蔬菜;貯藏壽命;鱗片厚度;加工;氣變包裝;運銷;莧菜;採後腐損;收穫;青蔥;品種;日燒;疏花;油菜;生產技術;矮性菜豆;栽培模式;甘藍;裂果;外銷;市場分析;肥培管理;腐絕;包裝技術;遮陰;採收機;生產;菇類介質堆肥;貯藏;三泰芬;幼蔥;冷凍加工;裂紋;果實發育;蘿蔓萵苣;外銷;根腫病;蕹菜;採收後處理;輔助機械;海運;芥藍;青花菜;鳳梨;紅龍果;紅龍果;包裝材料;生物防治;乙醇;設施蔬菜栽培;減災;育種;供應鏈;機械;省工;密植;設施蔬菜;貯藏壽命;鱗片厚度;加工;氣變包裝;運銷;莧菜;採後腐損;收穫;青蔥;品種;日燒;疏花;油菜;生產技術;矮性菜豆;栽培模式;甘藍;裂果;外銷;市場分析
摘要: 夏季蔬菜生產技術及效能提升 本計畫調查臺日甘藍商業品種栽培於臺大山地實驗農場曾罹患根腫病土壤之病害嚴重指數與產量,並藉由根毛染色與聚合酶連鎖反應,了解各品種之罹病情形與抗病性,復調查市售有益微生物對甘藍根腫病的防治效益,篩選出抗根腫病的品種與可有效防治根腫病的有益微生物,期能減少甘藍於夏季山區生產期間受根腫菌的危害。另於設施內篩選不結球白菜短期葉菜品種,利用不同栽培模式,期提高品質及穩定生產,並提供環境資訊供肥培管理,以能精準栽培,節省成本,增加產量,建立葉菜省工栽培技術。 穩定鳳梨及紅龍果供果品質之研究 1.穩定紅龍果供果品質之研究 <I>Alternaria </I>屬真菌引起的果腐是紅龍果採後劣變重要原因,亦為外銷遠距市場的限制因子。本試驗擬將對<I> Alternaria</I> 菌絲生長具抑制效果之紅龍果推薦用藥賽普護汰寧、克熱淨、得克利,測試果實發育期間噴施時間與次數,評估對降低‘蜜寶’、‘大紅’紅肉種紅龍果實5℃模擬貯運期<I> Alternaria</I> 果腐罹病效果。此研究結果可建立紅龍果 <I>Alternaria</I> 果腐採前果園防治技術,提高到貨可售率與櫥架壽命,強化國產紅龍果國際競爭力。 2.減少鳳梨裂果之研究 台農17號鳳梨栽培過程中常發生裂果問題,造成果農嚴重損失。本研究為了減少鳳梨裂果,擬利用複合式防曬處理,降低果實上裂紋及裂目的發生情形。另外,觀察裂果在果實發育過程中的發生時期,藉以研擬適當的防治時機,提高果農收入。 提升臺灣蔬菜產業競爭力之研發 為解決國內夏季蔬菜短缺,冬季生產過剩問題,平衡蔬菜產銷供需,本研究擬利用耐貯運甘藍品種、耐熱蘿蔓萵苣、加工用矮性菜豆及加工用青花菜取代部分現有甘藍品種栽培面積,避免冬季蔬菜生產過剩,同時增加夏季蔬菜供應及外銷蔬菜產值。另一方面提升夏季短期葉菜類與青蔥栽培技術及效能提升,解決夏季蔬菜短缺、價格高漲的情況。擬進行開發耐運貯甘藍品種等6項工作計畫,在4月與6月分別於平地與高冷地採收超過20個品種進行貯藏試驗,目的在篩選適合貯藏之甘藍品種,改善7至10月甘藍短缺現象。進行加工冷凍用之矮性菜豆品種進行評估;另建立其主要栽培及採後加工關鍵技術,以開拓外銷冷凍蔬菜市場。因應蘿蔓萵苣國內消費及外銷需求逐年增加,迫切需建立增進在地生產之產量與產期,篩選合適品種,並導入作畦與施肥同步作業之省工栽培模式,穩定外銷良品率及收益。試驗規劃計有引種試作暨篩選低頂燒率及低畸形葉之耐熱品種,並篩選耐儲運及高產品種,並建立延長外銷儲運期肥培模式。預定篩選出耐熱品種及耐儲運品種各一個。加工用青花菜方面,擬蒐集20個青花菜商業品種,篩選適合冷凍加工用之青花菜品種,並建立其大面積栽培管理模式。夏季蔬菜研究著重於建立設施蕹菜及莧菜機械採收栽培模式,並研發收穫機械,以提升產業之競爭力。在夏季青蔥生產技術方面,為增加夏季青蔥供應,擬建立幼蔥生產技術,將種植後2個月幼蔥採收上市,快速補充市場需求。另進行設施青蔥栽培技術開發,藉由簡易設施之栽培試驗及改進栽培管理技術,建立青蔥設施栽培模式、設施青蔥病蟲害綜合防治及青蔥健康種苗繁殖技術研發等,期能發展完整設施青蔥栽培模式,提昇夏季青蔥產量,以保障農友收益並穩定青蔥產銷供應。 提升鳳梨產銷供應鏈競爭力之研究 臺灣鳳梨外銷市場集中於中國大陸,亟需拓展多元外銷市場,惟臺灣鳳梨外銷時間集中於3至6月,雨季後果實因裂果嚴重及肉聲果比率高,外銷品質合格率低且貯後品質不良。為提升臺灣鳳梨於外銷市場上之競爭力,本研究擬導入資訊系統進行生產規劃、研究及整合栽培技術穩定外銷果品供貨、研發機械輔助採收、篩選適合長程貯運之果實品質指標,並改善採後處理流程及包裝方式維持到貨品質。 提升紅龍果產銷供應鏈競爭力之研發 為穩定生產及供應內外銷市場,增加臺灣紅龍果在國際市場佔有率,開發外銷新興市場,紓解紅龍果盛產壓力,本計畫將針對疏花模式建立及菇類抑病堆肥介質之應用對提升外銷規格品比例及降低產期內之病害進行探討,以穩定生產內、外銷所需之優質果品;在外銷供應鏈上之因應策略,擬調查新興外銷市場對臺灣紅龍果果品接受度進行可行性評估;此外針對紅龍果果皮薄、鱗片易褐化等問題開發鱗片增厚處理技術,並開發適合之包裝資材及包裝模式,延長紅龍果供貨期限,降低儲運期間之損耗並延長儲架壽命,以提升台灣紅龍果產銷供應鏈之競爭力。Improving production techniques and efficiency of summer vegetables  This project will investigate the disease severity index of clubroot in Japanese and Taiwanese commercial cultivars of cabbage cultivated in the diseased soil of Highland Experimental Farm, National Taiwan University. Root hair staining and polymerase chain reaction will also be used to check the efficiency of biofungicide on controlling clubroot of cabbage. Cultivars resistant to clubroot and biofungicides controlling the clubroot will be selected to reduce the damage cause by <I>Plasmodiophora Brassicae </I>to cabbage cultivated in high mountain in summer<I>. </I>Another aim of this project will be to establish the enhanced cultivation and fertiliztion management for a labour-saving and precision production of high quality Chinese kale and edible rape with stable yield in the greenhouse. Studies on Stabilzing Supply Quality of Pineapple and Pitaya Fruits 1.Studies on Stabilzing Supply Quality of  Pitaya Fruits Fruit decay caused by <I> </I>fungus is an important factor of postharvest deterioration as well as a limiting factor for distant market in pitaya fruits.  This research proposal plans to test the effects of application timing and spread frequency of three recommended fungicides, namely cyprodinil + fludioxonil, iminoctadine triacetate, and tebuconazole, which showed significant inhibition on mycelium growth of <I>Alternaria </I>in vitro assay, during the fruit development on the disease incidence of <I>Alternaria </I>decay of ‘Da-Hong’ and ‘Mi-Bao’ red-fleshed pitaya after 5℃ simulation storage.  The results of this study will establish preharvest control technique of <I>Alternaria</I> decay as well as enhance marketable percentage and shelf life after transportation, which will strengthen the international competitiveness of Taiwan-grown pitaya fruits. 2.Reduce fruit splitting in Pineapple The damages of ‘TaiNong No. 17’ pineapple production come from fruit cracking. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of cracked and split fruit by using compound sunscreen treatments. In addition, we record the timing of cracked and split fruit during the fruit development to apply the appropriate treatment to reduce the damages and increase the incomes of farmers. The Research on Upgrading Competitiveness of Vegetable Production in Taiwan The strong storage ability cabbages, heat tolerant Romaine lettuces, processing dwarf common beans and processing broccolis will replace some acreage of cabbages that are used to solve the shortage of vegetables in summer, overproduction in winter, balance the domestic production and marketing in this program. The other hand, the cultural techniques and efficiency should be improved for the summer short stage leafy vegetables and green onions. There are 6 projects are carried out. The project of “Selection high storage ability of cabbage cultivars” will harvesting 20 cabbage cultivars at low altitude and high altitude fields in April and June, respectively, which are used for screening of storage ability. That expected to improve cabbage shortage from July to October. The evaluation of processing dwarf bean cultivars will be carried out, and the key techniques of culture and processing will be established for developing foreign markets.  The Romaine lettuces are required to establish the cultivation techniques of the improvements on yield, production period urgently because the dominant consumptions and the exports are increasing. The cultivar screening and labor-saving productive model are introduced to maintain the quality and incomes. The trials will screen lettuce cultivars with traits of heat tolerant, long storage life, and high yield, meanwhile, the fertilizer management model for long storage life is expected to found. On processing broccolis, 20 commercial cultivars will be collected and screening for frozen vegetables and the model of large scare production will be developed. The projects of summer vegetable production are focus on establishing productive model of machinery harvesting for kangkong and edible amaranth. The harvesting machine will be also developed in the project. The studies of summer green onions will develop the cultivation technique of young plant which can supply the markets’ demands rapidly. The facility models of cultivation, integrated pest management (IPM), and the technique of health seedling propagation will be developed that are expected to increase yields of green onions in summer, raise the farmers’ income and keep markets stable. The Research of Improving the Competitiveness of Pineapple Production and Marketing Supply Chain The export market of Taiwan pineapple was concentrated in main land China, and expanding other export market was highly demanded. However, the season of Taiwan export pineapple was limited in March to June, because the fruit cracking and flesh translucency problems after rainy season, which caused a low quality fruit rate and bad fruit quality after transport. To enhance the competitiveness of Taiwan pineapple on exporting market, we intend to introduce information system for production planning, research and integrate cultivation techniques to stabilize the production of exporting pineapple, develop mechanicals for harvest assistant, screen an indicator for fruit suitable for long-term transportation, and improve the postharvest processing and package to maintain the quality of arrival. Study on Improving Competitiveness of Supply and Marketing Chain in Pitaya In order to stabilize pitaya production for providing export and domestic market, and developing the new market, the establishment of flower thinning model, application of mushroom-medium-based compost for improving fruit quality and reducing disease will be carried out in this study. The acceptance evaluation of new market on pitaya from Taiwan will be also investigated. Furthermore, the technique of increasing scale thick and package materials and model will be developed for reducing fruit decay during transportation and prolonging shelf life, then improving the competitiveness of supply and marketing chain in pitaya.
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