提升糧食自給率及產業急需升級之作物育種研究

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計畫名稱: 提升糧食自給率及產業急需升級之作物育種研究
計畫主持人: 徐智政
共同計畫主持人: 吳東鴻;王毓華;莊耿彰;陳思如;簡禎佑;宋家瑋;康樂;吳容儀;邱展臺;曹進義;官青杉;葉育哲;賴永昌;黃校翊;詹庭筑;賴明信;吳姿嫺;龔財立;蔡東明;林楨祐;王瑞章;李柔誼;戴宏宇;邱垂豐;李杏芳;黃雅玲;鄭佳綺;胡唯昭;李睿家;廖勁穎;李淑真;葉瑞恩;游之穎;張淑芬;羅士凱;林思妤;周國隆;王仁晃;李長沛;劉千如;胡智傑;林孟均;劉依昌;陳純葳;黃佳興;蘇俊峰;楊智哲;翁世豪;陳國憲;林子凱;劉敏莉;楊采文;謝嘉如;李阿嬌;陳繹年;夏奇鈮;劉祐廷;李誠紘;林煜恒;陳榮坤;吳以健;黃晉興;周佳霖;丁文彥;王三太;鄭櫻慧;鄧執庸;錢昌聖;鄭智允;薛銘童;王啟正
計畫編號: 110農科-4.1.7-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所熱帶果樹系
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 育種平台;跨單位合作;耐候性;育種;參與式育種;篩選平台;多親本多世代互交;豐產;品系試驗;Breeding platform;Cross-organization cooperation;Weather-ability;Breeding;Participatory breeding;Screening platform;Multiple parents advance generation inter-cross;High yield;Yield Trial of Lines
摘要: 一、增進環境調適能力與友善環境生產之水稻品種培育研究 全球暖化導致平均溫度逐年攀升,農業生產亦因氣候劇烈變動影響導致風險加劇,病蟲害相亦隨之發生改變。臺灣一期稻作面臨高溫多濕的栽培氣候,為稻熱病好發的環境,常引起稻熱病與白葉枯病的發生與流行,造成稻農莫大的損失。該2種病害雖可以藥劑防治,但其成本高,藥效短,且有違環保概念,育成抗病品種乃為對抗病品種最經濟有效的根本方法,不但可確保水稻良好的生長及產量穩定,更可推廣於有機及友善的耕作環境,符合現行國內重要的農業政策。傳統的水稻育種工作,雖也有針對高級試驗以上新育成品系進行稻熱病圃與白葉枯病病圃檢定,但因國內水稻栽培區各地的生理小種差異及農民栽培習慣等因素,往往在推出具有抗病特性之品種數年後便崩壞失效了,且常因抗性來源過於接近,以致對不同病原菌生理小種的抗幅狹窄,同時在單一抗病品種栽培面積擴大的情況下,田間病原菌的選汰壓力亦隨之增加,並於短時間內即出現新變異的生理小種。因此,本計畫期為能確保新育成之優良品種在推廣後仍能保有多年期的穩定抗病能力,擬導入不同來源的抗稻熱病基因,擴大遺傳歧異度,以減緩田間病原生理小種演化之速度,避免抗病品種快速崩壞失效。另育成多個稉稻抗病品種以供農民栽培更替,期能逐步減低化學藥劑施用,推廣友善栽培耕作。因應氣候變遷,異常高溫對水稻造成產量減損及米質劣變的影響,本計畫透過建立之稉稻多親本多世代互交族群的建立與評估,藉由育種者參與式選種選育具高溫逆境適應性之品種(系),並透過分子標誌輔助選拔導入耐高溫基因至推廣品種,同時探討由台南16號不同粒型之近同源系高溫下之米質表現,提供高溫下米質改良之依據,改進現有推廣品種高溫下之產量、品質及營養成分,以穩定農民收益、永續稻作產業。 二、提升糧食自給率之雜糧作物育種研究 甘藷:本試驗為期選育豐產、耐旱、質優之鮮食用及食品加工用新品種,採用人工及多向雜交方法育種,並按實生系選拔之育種程序進行,以育成豐產、質優、抗病蟲害、外觀鮮美、符合市場與消費者需求之甘藷新品種。 落花生:本計畫根據高產、耐儲(高油酸)性狀作為育種目標進行雜交育種。根據前述育種目標進行6個人工雜交組合,並進行雜交後代培育,以選拔30-40優良品系進行品系試驗。育成高產、耐儲之高油酸落花生新品系(約9-18個品系),進行地方試驗以推出高油酸落花生新品種。 大豆(或毛豆):本年度計畫目標為(1)建立大豆耐水性、耐熱性、耐寒性等3項指標及選出耐水性、耐熱性、耐寒性等14個優良品系。(2)完成冬季毛豆耐寒性20個品系(種)第一年區域試驗。 三、提升輔助產業升級之耐逆境蔬菜選育技術 本計畫目標整合農委會下的各個農業試驗單位的蔬菜育種研究資源。促進番茄、甜瓜及花椰菜菜優良耐候抗病品種之選育與推廣。並增進不同學門研究人員的知識交流。主要方法是透過支持各試驗場域建立適當的區域試驗場地,一方面加速番茄、甜瓜及花椰菜優良候選品系進行一般園藝性狀的多區域評估。另一方面可作為優良候選品系的展示平台,加速新品系的推廣。本計畫也目標介接多種番茄及甜瓜主要病害的接種評估管道,可將目前育種人員大多以分子標誌進行的抗性選拔的得到進一步的確認。另外我們透過舉辦工作與學術討論會議,使單位的研究人員了解彼此育種研究發展狀況,強化我國農業知識的穩固發展。也可及時針對臺灣各地多變的環境條件和不同需求選育不同品系,促進農業生態多樣化。 四、建構重點花卉育種平台與加速新品種推廣模式 透過核心種原收集及育種共享平台之建置,針對氣候變化趨勢,加速培育具耐候性、生育快速、低需冷性催梗及耐貯運等優良性狀新品種,厚植重要花卉產業發展基礎。 五、以育種技術改善蜜蜂、油茶及愛玉子產業急需升級之課題 本計畫為解決台灣特色產業蜜蜂、油茶及愛玉子之受氣候與病害威脅等產量不穩定之問題,待以優勢品種促進產業升級。國內蜂農以蜂蜜產量高蜜蜂蜂群為保種標的,常有不耐病害與自交弱化現象,使蜜蜂飽受病蟲害威脅及氣候變遷造成產量減低,本研究擬以收集臺灣各地優良蜜蜂種群經種群特性調查後雜交選育抗病優勢品種,供蜂農使用;而油茶為重要的油用木本作物,為提升糧食自給率,解決國內油茶品系混雜及低產的問題,本研究蒐集已篩選之油茶豐產品系大果油茶20個,小果油茶20個,作為豐產耐熱品系圃,以進行品系試驗,以篩選耐熱之豐產油茶品系;愛玉子為臺灣特有種,雌雄異株,現除了苗栗場育成之苗栗1號及苗栗2號雌性品種供農民栽培使用,產業界缺乏花期長的雄株授粉樹。為解決愛玉子產業困境,本計畫預計育成花期長,能達到避災效果的新品種,並利用花期調控模式及品種配置技術,減低天然災害損失,提高中低海拔耕地運用效率,促進產業升級。 計畫總目標為(1)以蜜蜂人工授精技術建立分子育種及抗病蜂種選育模式,選育抗病高產義大利蜜蜂品系幫助蜂產業穩定生產。(2)建立油茶分子標誌技術及選育耐熱豐產油茶大果種與小果種之新品種,提供農民穩定生產選擇,填補國產油茶籽市場需求。(3) 育成特殊花期之高產愛玉子,並選育高授粉效益的品種,建立並推廣花期調控及授粉技術,提高國產愛玉子產量,確保產業永續發展。 六、運用早期篩選指標選育高耐候性果樹品種 為建立鳳梨耐水分逆境之選拔方法,由不同水分供應處理,探討對栽培土壤環境及鳳梨植株生長發育之影響,並建立重要品種基因體資料庫,配合後續水分逆境選拔指標建立,以提供種質資源分析、分子輔助品種選育之參考。為提昇木瓜育種效率,於苗期利用生理指標進行木瓜自交系耐候性篩選,並透過木瓜育種機關合作,交換木瓜自交系花粉,建立共同選拔標準,以育成具推廣潛力的雜交一代木瓜新品種。建立桃極低需冷量品系早期篩選技術,期育成較目前更低需冷量品種,以減緩暖冬對臺灣桃產業造成的經濟損失。 七、高產值耐候性飲料作物之選育 (一)高產值耐候性適製商用茶之選育 國內商用茶產值已近千億,然而商用茶品種偏少,已成為國內商用茶產業缺口。本計畫目標為選耐旱性兼具廣適製性,滋味濃郁且適合冷泡/冰飲之商用茶推薦品種,後續將輔導國內生產商用茶的茶農與茶企業種植最適商用茶品種,國內生產的商用茶原料可望取代部分進口茶原料,以強化國產茶競爭力。 (二)高產值耐候性咖啡之選育 國內咖啡生豆產量約874公噸,產值約6億多元,本計畫擬篩選咖啡優良品系,選育耐旱、耐病品種,後續將輔導不同產區的農民種植適合產區風土條件的耐候性咖啡品種,以提升咖啡產能與品質,協助咖啡產業持續發展。 (三)適合東部地區栽培之耐候性仙草品種選育 仙草為台灣原生植物,全島中低海拔山區及田野均有分布。台灣各地桃竹苗、台中、嘉義、花蓮及宜蘭均有栽培。仙草利用方式多元,且具有多種機能性,如抗氧化、抗癌等。台灣每年利用量及進口量大,為活化休耕地之重要進口替代作物之一。仙草除可製成多種產品利用,開花亦具景觀價值,且可吸引大量蜜蜂,仙草兼具經濟、景觀與生態價值。經濟栽培仙草通常於開花前採收,剛好是東台灣地區東北季風開始盛行之季,連續下雨影響仙草採收。本計畫擬選育適合東部地區栽培之仙草品系,兼具景觀、生態與機能性之晚生種仙草,以利於東部地區休閒農業推廣應用。 (四)耐旱仙草品種選育 針對收集之仙草種原及已選出之仙草優良品系,進行雜交、觀察及2年品系試驗, 選育耐旱優良仙草新品種,提供農民栽培參考。 (五)優質耐候性咖啡新品種選育 本計畫擬透過育種程序,選育優質、產量穩定的耐候性咖啡品種(系),提供農民栽培,以提高產量,減緩氣候變遷造成的影響,並篩選適合不同海拔高度適合種植的咖啡品種(系),協助主要產區咖啡產量與品質的穩定,以利咖啡產業的持續發展。1、Study of rice development to copping with environmental stress and friendly environment Global warming has caused the average temperature rising year by year. Due to the impact of dramatic climate changes, agricultural production has also been intensified and the phase of pests and diseases has also changed . The rice first cropping season in Taiwan was faced with a high-temperature and humid cultivation climate, which is an environment suitable for rice blast and bacterial blight occurrence and prevalence. The rice blast disease often lead to farmers great production losses. Although the two diseases can be controlled by chemical pesticides, its cost was high and the efficacy was short, and it also violated the environmental protection concept. Developments of resistant varieties are the most economical and effective fundamental method to overcome rice blast. Not only can it ensure good rice growth and stable yield, but also it can be promoted in an organic and friendly farming environment, which corresponded the current important domestic agricultural policies. In the traditional rice breeding work, although there were also rice blast and bacterial blight nursery tests for new breeding lines from the advanced yield comparison test. However, due to factors such as differences in physiological races in various rice cultivation areas or farmers' cultivation habits, the blast-resistant varieties often break down after several years. The reason was the resistance source too close to result in narrow resistance to physiological races. If the cultivation area of ​​a single disease-resistant variety expanded, the selection pressure of field from pathogens was stronger lead to physiological races mutated to new races within a short time. Therefore, in this project, to ensure that newly bred excellent varieties can still maintain stable disease resistance for many years after promotion and expanding, it will be planned to introduce rice blast-resistant genes from different sources to expand genetic divergence to slow down the evolution speed of physiological races in the farming field. And we hope to avoid resistant gene rapid collapse. In addition, a number of disease-resistant varieties of japonica rice have been bred for farmers to cultivate and replace, gradually reducing the use of chemical pesticide and promoting friendly cultivation areas. In response to the impact of high temperature stress on rice yield loss and rice quality deterioration, this project focus on the breeding of heat tolerance varieties(lines) through evaluation of mutiple parents advance generation inter-cross population and molecular marker assistant breeding. At the same time, the rice quality performance of the near isogenic lines of Tainan 16 with different grain types will be evaluated at high temperature to provide a basis for the improvement of rice quality at high temperature stress. 2、Breeding research on upland crops to improve food self-sufficiency rate Sweet potato:The objection of breeding program is to select new sweet potato varieties with higher yield, drought resistance and good quality. Artificial cross and polycross will be used to produce hybrid seeds. The promising clones are evaluated in a serial trials. It goes through seedling selection trial, primary yield trial, advanced yield trial, regional yield trial and detection of disease , insect resistance, and expects to select new varieties for thedemand of market and consumer requirement. Peanut:According to high yield and long shelf-life( high oleic acid) as breeding objectives to apply for the hybrid breeding program. Based to the above breeding goal, this year this project makes 6 crosses each of peanut, grow segregation population generations, and select 30~40 elite lines for further testing. We will select 9-18 new elite lines for regional trials for promising high oleic acid peanut lines. Soybean:The purpose of soybean breeding plan are to (1) establish three indicators of soybean stress resistant, and select 14 excellent lines such as water resistance, heat resistance, and cold resistance. (2) Complete the first year regional test of edamae cold resistance by 20 lines(varieties) in the winter crop. 2、Enhancement of stress breeding technologies on vegetable industry This project aims to integrate the vegetable breeding research resources of various agricultural experiment organizations under the Council of Agriculture. Promote the selection and promotion of tomato, melon and cauliflower varieties with excellent weather resistance and disease resistance. And to enhance the knowledge exchange among researchers from different disciplines.The main method is to speed up the multi-regional evaluation of general horticultural traits of good candidate lines for tomato, melon and cauliflower by supporting the establishment of appropriate regional experiment sites for each organizations. On the other hand, it can be used as a display platform for excellent candidate lines to accelerate the promotion of new lines. This project also aims to intervene in the inoculation assessment pipeline for major tomato and melon diseases, which can further confirm the resistance which selected by molecular markers.In addition, we organize work and academic discussion and meetings to enable researchers to understand each other's breeding research and development status. This can strengthen the steady development of agricultural knowledge in our country. It is also possible to breed different lines in time according to the changing environmental conditions and different needs in various parts of Taiwan to promote the diversification of agricultural ecology. 4、Build up the flower breeding platform to accelerate of new varieties and promotion model. Through the core seed collection and breeding sharing platform, to response the climate change trends, accelerate the cultivation of new varieties with excellent characteristics such as environmental resistance, rapid growth, and suitable for long term transportation, to extent new varieties and stabilize the flower industry. 5、Using breeding technology to improve the industries' problems of the honey bee, tea oil camellia and jelly fig This project is to solve the problem of unstable production of some special Taiwanese agricultural products, such as apicultural products, oiltea camellia, and jelly figs which are threatened by climate and disease. It is necessary to promote industrial upgrading with superior varieties.Beekeepers in Taiwan use to select the colonies whom are high honey produced for queen breeding. It was inbreeding for suffering from bee disease and reduced the bee-products by climate changes. We tend to collect the superior bee colonies in different districts of Taiwan in this study and cross-breeding with disease-resistant strains after colonies characteristics investigation. We hope to breed both high-yield and disease resistant strains for beekeepers use. Oiltea camellia is an important woody crop for oil. In order to increase the self-sufficiency rate of food and solve the problem of mixed and low-yield oiltea camellia strains in the country, this study collected 20 Camellia oleifera and 20 Camellia tenufolia strains that have been selected. High-yield heat-resistant strain nursery for strain test. It is expected that 3 strains of high-yield and weather-tolerant big-fruit oiltea camellia and 3 small-fruit oiltea strains can be selected and promoted to farmers for planting. Jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) was a native, dioecious species in Taiwan. We had bred two female varieties-Miaoli No.1 and Miaoli No.2 for fruit production in Miaoli district agricultural research and extesion station. However, the male varieties with a long flowering period will help to stabilize the effectiveness of pollination which is currently lacking in industry application. To solve the dilemma of Jelly-fig industry, the new variety for prolong the flowering period and avoid disaster will be bred. In addition, the technique of flowering-time regulation and clones allocation will be established for improving operational efficiency of cultivated land in this project. The characteristic of 20 male-clone will be investigated and the characteristic of wasp (Wiebesia pumilar (Hill) Wieb) will be evaluated in this year.The overall goal of this plan is (1) to establish a molecular breeding model of honey bees with artificial insemination technology, and to select disease-resistant and high-yield honey bee strains to stabilized the apicultural production. (2) Establishing the molecular marker technology of oiltea camellia and breeding new varieties of oiltea camellia with heat resistance and high yield, providing the farmers with stable production of oiltea camellia opions and filling the market demand for domestic markets. (3) Breeding high-yield jelly-figs with special pollination period, and selecting the varieties with high pollination efficiency, establishing and promoting the regular pollination technics. To increase the production of jelly-figs in domestic market, and ensure the sustainable development of jelly-figs industry. 6、Breeding for Climate Stress Tolerance Fruit Varieties Using Early Selection Indexes In order to establish the selection method for pineapple drought/flood- tolerance, we are planning to use different water supply practices to explore the effects on soil environment and the growth and development of pineapple plants. In response to water stress, selection indicators are proposed to establish potential varieties (lines) for genome exploration, so as to provide references for germplasm resource analysis and molecular genetic breeding. To improve the efficiency of papaya breeding, utility physiological indicators to screen the climate tolerance lines of papaya in the seedling stage. To breed new hybrid varieties with potential for promotion, cooperate with papaya breeding institutes in Taiwan by exchange the pollen of papaya inbred lines, and establish general selection criteria. Establish early screening technology for peach lines with the lowest chill requirement, and bred varieties with lower chill requirement than the current ones, in order to reduce the economic losses caused by the warm winter to the peach industry in Taiwan. 7、Breeding of Weather-ability in high-value beverage crops (1)Breeding of Weather-ability in high-value Commercial tea The domestic commercial tea output value has reached nearly 100 billion, but the commercial tea varieties are relatively small, which has become a gap in the domestic commercial tea industry. The goal of this project is to select recommended varieties of commercial tea that are drought-tolerant and have wide adaptability, rich flavor and suitable for cold brewing/ice drinking. In the follow-up, we will guide domestic tea farmers and tea companies to plant the most suitable commercial tea varieties. Domestically produced commercial tea raw materials are expected to replace some imported tea raw materials to strengthen the competitiveness of domestic tea. (2)Breedind of weather-ability in high-yield coffee The domestic production of green coffee beans is about 874 metric tons, and the output value is about 600 million yuan. This project intends to screen excellent coffee strains, select drought-tolerant and disease-tolerant varieties, and subsequently counsel farmers in different producing areas to plant weather resistance suitable for the terroir conditions of the production area. Coffee varieties to improve coffee production capacity and quality, and assist the continuous development of the coffee industry. (3)New Breeding Line Selection of Mesona chinensis Benth. with Weather-ability in Taiwan Eastern District Mesona (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a native plant in Taiwan which distributed throughout mountains and fields. Mesona is planted in Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Taichung, Chiayi, Hualien and Yilan. Mesona is used in multiple ways and has multiple functions, such as anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. Taiwan has a large annual utilization and import volume, and it is one of the important imported substitute crops for revitalizing fallow land. Mesona can be used in a variety of products. Flowering also has landscape value, and can attract a large number of bees. Mesona has economic, landscape and ecological value. Economically cultivated Mesona are usually harvested before flowering, which happens to be the season when the northeast monsoon in Eastern of Taiwan beginning. Continuous rain affects the harvest of Mesona. This project plan to breed celestial Mesona strains suitable for cultivation in the eastern of Taiwan, and late-growing celestial Mesona with both landscape, ecology and function, in order to facilitate the promotion and application of leisure agriculture in the eastern of Taiwan. (4)Breeding of drought tolerance varieties in Mesona The purpose of this study is to select the drought tolerance variety of Mesona with a high yield and a good quality. Germplasm collection, hybrid, propagation and agronomic characters investigation will be conducted. (5)Breeding new varieties of High-quality and Weather-ability varieties of coffee In this project our objectives are selecting coffee lines,which are high quality and weather-ability, and aboudant and stable on yield. Provide farmers with cultivation to increase yield and mitigate the impact of climate change. Selection of coffee varieties (lines) suitable for planting at different altitudes. Assisting the stability of coffee production and quality in major producing areas to facilitate the sustainable development of the coffee industry.
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