提升具競爭力外銷型農糧作物產業價值鏈之研究

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計畫名稱: 提升具競爭力外銷型農糧作物產業價值鏈之研究
計畫主持人: 邱國棟
共同計畫主持人: 吳靜霞;李文立;陳祈男;廖玉珠;陳金枝;洪惠娟;邱祝櫻;翁一司;楊儒民;謝明憲;謝廷芳;張仁銓;林禎祥;吳政翰;錢昌聖;連程翔;龔美玲;黃柄龍;林照能;林金池;蘇俊峰;羅淑芳;張嘉滿;方信秀;梁佑慎;陳淑佩;賴思倫;陳威臣;張仁育;郭婷玫;林經偉;張哲瑋;文紀鑾;蔡宜峰;林義豪;江汶錦;潘韋成;張珈錡;賴正南
計畫編號: 105農科-9.4.5-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會
全程計畫年: 2016
關鍵字: 預冷;棗;結球萵苣;微體繁殖;專家系統;介質;小花蕙蘭;草莓;落果;種子取樣;健康種苗;種子品質;蕙蘭;採收;刻傷;成熟度;健康種苗;外銷;組織培養;產量;種子品質;無病毒;Q2種子活力測定法;疏果;花期調節;ISO 認證;結球萵苣;甘藷;健康種苗;光合作用;健康種苗;種子發芽;萵苣嵌紋病毒;害蟲;文心蘭;土壤水份;生理障礙;文心蘭;甘藷;柑橘嫁接傳染病原;腎藥蘭;創新;柑橘健康種原;茶;苦瓜;局部解剖四唑法;棗;基腐病;種子活力;果皮;荔枝;種苗;無病毒苗;種苗培育;萬代蘭;生產鏈;真菌性病害;結球萵苣;procooling;Jujube;Head Lettuce;micropropagation;expert system;substrate;Chinese Cymbidium;Strawberry;Fruitlet abscission;seed sampling;Virus-free plant;seed quality;Cymbidium;Harvest;Cincturing;maturity;healthy seedling;Exportation;Tissue culture;Yield;se
摘要: 外銷結球萵苣節肥及節水技術之研究方面,完成土壤水分潛勢對結球萵苣生育之評估,完成氮肥、磷肥與鉀肥對結球萵苣產量及品質表現評估,建立結球萵苣合理基肥施用量。蕙蘭小型盆花生產技術研發方面,進行蕙蘭11cm(3.5寸)盆大苗規格與品質標準建立及大苗至開花株的栽培管理技術 臺灣特色茶葉產品創新加值利用之研究方面,少量精緻多樣化茶產品研發,研發新茶類、花茶、調味茶及冷凍茶多樣化產品研發推廣,吸引年輕人便利飲茶。高端茶精品化研發:透過新品種選育、茶樹健康管理、製茶技術、評鑑分級及結合文創故事性,提升高端茶價值。建構小花蕙蘭無病毒檢測平台及健康種苗供應體系,小花蕙蘭組培苗量產流程之建構。 小花蕙蘭組培苗生產流程病毒檢測摽準模式之建立。開發提升病毒含量之物理法,增進組培苗病毒株之檢出效率,小花蕙蘭無病毒親本保存庫之建立。 文心蘭盆花產業價值鏈開發及栽培技術提升之研究,文心蘭盆花品種生育特性檢測系統建立。盆花文心蘭病害鑑定及防治藥劑篩選。文心蘭介質害蟲防治技術之開發。 荔枝果實生理特性及週年生產技術研究,綜合保果技術開發與應用、盆植荔枝催花試驗 ,柑橘及甘藷健康種苗整合管理模式,柑橘採穗園供穗5萬芽,健康苗圃生產健康種苗5萬株。輔導1家民間健康苗圃業者申請「柑桔無指定疫病蟲害種苗驗證作業須知」驗證。擴大簡易型頂梢嫁接法4個以上重要經濟柑橘品種上的操作成活率調查。 並在簡易型頂梢嫁接法基礎上,改進其操作流程,增加其操作效率以達降低成本目的。建立甘藷健康種苗於設施內量化技術乙套。 棗果實褐斑改善之研究,探討不同肥料栽培管理對棗果實之生理影響。分析果實無機元素含量,探討褐斑發生之原因。 結球萵苣周年栽培試驗之研究,利用肥培技術栽培耐熱結球萵苣品種,降低頂燒症的發生。建立中海拔地區結球萵苣的肥培管理技術,發展地區性蔬菜產品。 提升具競爭力外銷型種苗產業價值鏈之研究,提升我國組織培養產業國際競爭之研究,以種苗場組培量產室為模型建立符合國際ISO品質認證實驗室。組培專業技能人才培訓規劃。種子發芽與活力檢測技術研發,建立不同之蔬菜豆科作物種子快速活力檢測技術研究 ,健康種苗整合管理模式,建立草莓無特定病原組織培養健康種苗生產管理模式,增進草莓健康種苗品質穩定度促進產業發展。篩選不同品種、健康的草莓植株,進行自交與雜交試驗,用誘變劑進行草莓瓶內誘變,育成新品種草莓出口種子及市場種子品質檢測之研究,出口種子品質檢驗70件(含)以上及市售茄科、菊科種子為主之種子品質查驗研究。建構文心蘭無病毒檢測平台及健康種苗供應體系,建立盆花文心蘭組織培養繁殖之病毒監控及健康種苗生產體系。 棗高雄11號疏果技術之建立,了解高雄11號珍蜜棗疏果強度及疏果時期對產量及果實品質之影響,並估算蜜棗不同疏果強度及疏果期之經濟效益, 以推薦適合之留果量及疏果期,提高外銷果品合格率。 萬代蘭與腎藥蘭切花預措技術之改善,改善外銷萬代蘭及腎藥蘭切花採收後品質及瓶插壽命20%以上。 北部地區甘藷健康種苗管理模式之研究,建立甘藷組織培養苗繁殖母瓶。探討不同肥培管理模式對採穗母株插穗生產之影響。甘藷基腐病抗(耐)病性篩選。 建構果園水分管理之專家系統,配合果樹防風型網室,建構設施內水分監控管理系統,並結合肥灌系統,以建立設施內果樹水份管理栽植體系的驗證模式。 苦瓜外銷貯運技術提升計畫,完成主要栽培品種苦瓜果實採後基本生理調查,建立相關生理特性資料庫。苦瓜現行外銷貯運與品質保鮮技術之提升,延長貯運時間。 建立文心蘭盆花花期調節栽培技術,根據104年的生理檢測資料,評估不同盆花品種可能的花期調節栽培技術。外銷結球萵苣生理障礙克服及採收不落地效率評估,建立降低葉球變形生理障礙發生率之生產技術。建立配合採收不落地作業機械操作之田間管理技術。外銷結球萵苣節肥及節水技術之研究完成土壤水分潛勢對結球萵苣生育之評估,作為日後灌溉水分之依據,預期節省30%水分用量。完成氮肥、磷肥與鉀肥對結球萵苣產量及品質表現評估,建立結球萵苣合理基肥施用量,減少慣型肥料使用量之一半。 蕙蘭小型盆花生產技術研發,蕙蘭組培苗適當出出規格與出瓶後栽培管理技術建立,蕙蘭6cm(2寸)盆小苗適當換盆規格及栽培技術,蕙蘭11cm(3.5寸)盆大苗促進開花之栽培技術 臺灣特色茶葉產品創新加值利用之研究,研究結果可提供作為多樣化、精品化茶產品相關研究之參考。協助輔導茶農推廣產製高端茶產品,加強行銷,並拓展銷售市場,提升茶葉附加價值。完成研究報告或技術報告1~2份。 建構小花蕙蘭無病毒檢測平台及健康種苗供應體系,開發小花蕙蘭組織培養量產技術,供應產業所需之種苗。建立小花蕙蘭親本與組培苗量產階段之病毒檢測標準模式與應用,提升病毒檢測準確率與量產苗品質。小花蕙蘭無病毒親本保存庫之建立,確保無病毒母本源之永續性與健康苗量產之品質。立小花蕙蘭無病毒健康種苗供應體系,提升種苗及成株商品之品質,增進產業整體之競爭力。 文心蘭盆花產業價值鏈開發及栽培技術提升之研究,調查文心蘭田間病蟲害發生的情形,並提供相關資訊與防治策略給栽培業者。建立文心蘭盆花生理檢測模式,並提供相關資訊予業者參考。 荔枝果實生理特性及週年生產技術研究,本計畫試驗預計就'台農6號豔荔',開發人工催花技術及盆植化栽培管理技術,為應用其於於淡季生產立下基礎,期能達到經濟生產之產量,以提升產業競爭力,創造新消費市場,本計畫冀能藉由保果技術開發與綜合應用,改善長久以來荔枝著果不穩問題,並實質應用於'台農3號玫瑰紅'荔枝,瞭解生產可能面臨的困境以及解決辦法,達成荔枝產業加值以推及外銷。 柑橘及甘藷健康種苗整合管理模式,柑橘原種園、採穗園驗證合格率100%。 提升柑橘健康種苗不帶指定疫病蟲害比率達99%以上。利用本簡化型頂梢嫁接技術,因著投入成本減少及技術門檻降低,能為健康苗圃經營者所青睞和接受,可針對地方需求的特色品種或自己所選育的優良品種,利用本技術可快速的取得健康種原和進行快速繁殖,獲得地方所需的數量,擴大健康苗圃產能的可行方向之一。甘藷健康種苗於設施內建立快速繁殖技術,於短時間內大量繁殖優質種苗,以供應內外銷的需求。 棗果實褐斑改善之研究,探討果皮褐斑產生之成因,供日後正確的對症下藥。提供最佳之套袋材質,供農民日後栽培之參考。提供低傷害之藥劑種類,配合適當噴灑方式,降低藥害之產生,提升果實品質。 結球萵苣周年栽培試驗之研究,篩選耐熱結球萵苣品種,延長本產結球萵苣的供貨期,達到周年生產的栽培目標。建立延長結球萵苣產期的栽培模式。 提升具競爭力外銷型種苗產業價值鏈之研究 提升我國組織培養產業國際競爭之研究,提升組培人員專業技能輔導二家以上組培公司導入ISO 9001:2015國際品質管理認證制度。種子發芽與活力檢測技術研發,建立豆科蔬菜種子不同的活力檢測技術之標準流程及其檢測資料供相關種子業者參考,以達到蔬菜種子品質的有效管理及監控,提升臺灣外銷種子產業之競爭力。健康種苗整合管理模式,穩定提供無特定病原健康優質種苗,同時建構無病毒種苗之驗證體系,建立草莓種苗生產制度。篩選優良性狀及品質之草莓新品種,出口種子及市場種子品質檢測之研究 ,可提供種子出口業者出具國際種子檢驗證報告,作為種子品質之依據,提高種子貿易競爭力。辦理市售種子樣品檢驗,有效監控市售種子品質,並提供農政單位參考,提昇我國種苗業管理。 建構文心蘭無病毒檢測平台及健康種苗供應體系,建立盆花文心蘭病毒快速檢測平台,並建立盆花文心蘭組織培養繁殖病毒監測及健康種苗生產體系。 棗高雄11號疏果技術之建立,撰寫1篇技術報告,推薦蜜棗最佳疏果強度及最適疏果期,提高外銷果品合格率。於棗作物健康管理講習會或優質外銷供果園講習會中宣導最適之疏果時期及留果量。 萬代蘭與腎藥蘭切花預措技術之改善,提升1級花比例、商品價值、農民收益及投入生產意 願,帶動外銷量值。(生產管理人員=3 產銷班*12農戶 *3人數=108人,集 貨包裝人員=3場*),帶動外銷量、增加外銷收 益、增加農村就業人力(增加生產管理人力 4公頃*3人=12,集貨包裝場作業 人力3人) 。 北部地區甘藷健康種苗管理模式之研究,完成冬季育苗及採穗母株插穗生產管理技術,供為健康種苗繁殖圃建立及推廣之參考。 建構果園水分管理之專家系統,置果園水分管理系統1套,供栽培管理之參考與利用。估算作物不同時期需水量,尋求最適之灌水時期與土壤濕度,使果實品質與產量達最佳狀態,並節省用水量達10%以上。 苦瓜外銷貯運技術提升計畫,完成主要栽培品種苦瓜果實採後基本生理調查,建立相關生理特性資料庫,提供學術研究與商業利用之參考資料。提供外銷業者針對不同外銷市場進行相對應之貯運模式,有效提升外銷市場的到貨品質及良好的品質供應,順利拓展外銷市場,穩定國內市場價格,間接提升農民收益。 建立文心蘭盆花花期調節栽培技術,提高外銷文心蘭盆花單株售價。建立一套適合環控溫室生產之盆花品種花期調節栽技術,達成週年生產目標。 外銷結球萵苣生理障礙克服及採收不落地效率評估,建立適合小面積田區之標準化採收不落地作業程序。篩選出耐低溫且低葉球變形發生率品種至少一個。Development of the Bsal Dressing Saving and Irrigation Saving Technology for Exported Head Lettuce Head lettuce is an important vegetable exported to Japan. The exportation amount is 6,229 tons in 2012 and annual increase rate reaches 111.7%.Water and energy-saving becomes an inportant issues worldwide. GLOBALGAP also regulates that water saving-water method is necessary. Thus, inorderto improve exportation and international connetion, this study is to investigate the yield and quality of different head lettuce varieties in spring cropping. Besides, it is also use various mulching materials for water-saving as well as record plant gorwth to estabilish water-saving technology for head lettuce. Study on Production Technique of Small Pot Flower of Cymbidium Cymbidium is propagated as usually by division, which is easily infected by virus. Subsequent product quality is often inconsistent that need laborious grading. Plantlets derived from tissue culture could solve the mentioned problems but it would take 3-5 years to grow plantlets to market, which reduce its feasibility. The project would investigate 11 cm pot plant production techniques. The study of innovation usage for value increasing of Taiwan characteristic tea products.     In Taiwan, the geography and weather environment are very appropriate for tea trees growth. The quality of partially fermented teas in various tea fields are superior fine and are famous in the world. In the past time, there were no much involvements in the trend analysis of tea industry and market prediction. The market positioning and development potential are unknown for various products. Then the needs of target market were not effectively evaluated. This study will plan to conduct the analysis of tea industry and market prediction, evaluate the needs of target market. Then combine the tea research, production, processing, grading and packaging to draw out the marketing strategy. Promote the local consumption of Taiwan tea, and aid to create the small and beautiful characteristic industry, or occupy the high level market of delicate industry and add value from cultural creativity market, such as the fashion and healthy teas make linkages with the tea dishes, tea arts, tea equipments and related tools creation. Through the cross-boundary integration and value-added innovation, to propagate the safety, superior quality and healthy function of Taiwan unique teas, to develop Taiwan teas become the most excellent and delicate products in the world market, and to promote the additional value of teas. Establishment of virus detection and healthy plantlet production system in Chinese Cymbidium The Chinese Cymbidium industry expands speedily at Taiwan in recent years. Because the traditional bud-cutting plants with a low propagation rate and seed-derived seedlings often lose special property, so the unified physiological plantlets have an insufficient situation. Establishment of in vitro bud-cutting technology in Chinese Cymbidium is really essential for industry development. The high virus-infected rate of Chinese Cymbidium by CymMV and ORSV in Taiwan had been found. The virus can be mass-propagated in new plantlets derived from a virus-infected plant, especially from a non-symptoms virus-diseased mother plant that is easier to extend the viruses. This study aims at (1) a micropropagation system by bud-cutting method in Chinese Cymbidium, and (2) a virus-detection method of in vitro plantlets. The main goal in this study is to establish the supplement system and commercialization of high quality virus-free plantlets in Chinese cymbidium. It could promote competitiveness in Chinese cymbidium industry of Taiwan. The study of Oncidium industry value chain and the improvement of cultivate technique.         Oncidium culture in taiwan was used for cut flower and is exportorientated, in which about 90% was exported to Japan. Other than cut flower, Oncidium has a great potential of being newly potted flower. There have various kinds of Oncidium and each of them has distinct growth characteristics. The producer has to put lots of effort in it and has to depend on their pervious experience of cultivation, as a result it ends up with raising production cost.This study is intended to establish a physiological detection system of Oncidium species, with physiological characteristics and appearance investigation to find the optimal environmental factor of growing specific varieties, and we expected to shorten the time of cultivation and reduce the production costs.       As Oncidium plants mostly cultivating in net or plastic sheet greenhouse in Taiwan, flower quality was always affected by environment and pests. In order to fit the needs of quarantine and inspection for Oncidium pot plants exported to the U.S., Oncidium plants will be cultivated under permitted greenhouse and let the pest management become relatively simple. However, the pests and diseases will be changed with the micro-climate conditions change in greenhouse. The project intends to investigate and identify the important pests and diseases in greenhouse, and to develop some techniques for pest and disease control. Hopefully provide an integrated pest and disease management to meet the requirements of export quarantine. Study on Fruit Physiology and Year-round Production of Litchi Concentrated and erratic production are two major problems struck the litchi industry. Recently, several novel cultivars have been developed, and the litchi season is alsoexpected to be prolonged. However, compared with other fruits such as pineapple, banana, and longan, there is no country in where litchi can be produced all year-round. Potted planting with the cultivars, such as ‘Colorful’, whose flowering can be induced easily under the controlled environment, are expected to be the prior research object. In the project we will tested different methods, including chilling treatment and/or application of NO generators, for promoting off-season flowering. Another key factor, fruitlet abscission, is correlated to steady litchi production. Developing of the integrated techniques targeting on initial fruit set and the following fruitlet retention to improve litchi fruit set will be performed in the project. These practices will become the fundamental of sustainable litchi production in Taiwan. The integrated management model for virus-free plants of citrus and sweet potato Traditional in vitro citrus shoot-tip grafting procedures have been partially modified in this study to enable the operation to be done under an ex vitro environment. To differentiate it from the original procedures, this modified method is called simplified shoot-tip micrografting technique. This technique not only removes Huanglunbin and viral diseases, but also reduces the complexity in material preparation and operation. In addition to lowering the cost invested, this simplified technique reduces the technical difficulties and increases the industry’s willingness to adopt this technique. Through the System of Citrus Healthy Budwood Program, we hope that this technique can be popularized among graft suppliers and maximize the efficacy of its application. According to\\\\\" The Act of Citrus Budwood Certificate\\\\\", citrus foundation stock and scion stock are certificated with 100 trees. In addition, a citrus healthy nursery is also certificated. The technique of propagation will be established on virus-free plant of sweet potato in greenhouse. Cultural practice improvement for reduction of fruit skin pitted browning problem in jujube The pitted browning disorder on peel of jujube fruit cause appearance quality decrease, which may due to unsuitable fertilizers, pest control chemicals and water management. Fruit growth and development model will be observed this year to understand the underlying causes of pitted browning disorder on jujube「TN-9」 fruit. Different fruit bagging materials will be used to understanding the effect of bagging on fruit quality and pitted browning problem. Finally, some pesticide and fungicide broadly used on jujube production will be investigated to evaluate the risk of chemical injury spot on fruit to ensure jujube fruit quality and commercial value. The research of the establishment of lettuce anniversary production technology Heading lettuce is one of cool season crops. It is suitable for cultivation in autumn and winter season in Taiwan. The proper harvesting time is from December to March in central Taiwan. When transplanting earlier or later in planting season is easy to occur tip burn disease, non-heading, bolting and serious of diseases. In order to overcome the above mentioned problems, the purpose of present study is to deal with the development of new heat tolerance head lettuce varieties by selection. Screening for summer cultivation lettuce varieties to produce a high economic value in high cool area. The developed new verieties will be with the characters of high quality and high yield. It will also fit the farmer needs and comsumer requirements in the future. Study to make Industrial value chain more competitive for expert in the seedlings industry The study is to make Industrial value chain more competitive for expert in the agricultural seedlings industry, The objectives are as fellow: 1.The assistance and set a ISO 9001 Cerification system in Taiwan tissue culture company. 2.Assistance and establishing a System of Profession Licenses for Technicians in tissue culture. 3.Enhancement of seed quality testing methods (ex : T.T.C., accelerated ageing treatment ,conductivity treatment and Q2 scanner with seed oxygen concentration) on vegetable seeds to develop the export promotion for seed. 4.Different varieties of strawberry tissue culture seedlings propagate by stolon in greenhouse. After obtaining different number of generations of seedlings were transferred to field cultivation. We survey physiological traits data (including plant height, leaf number, petiole length, number of fruits, fruit length and width, fruit weight,  fruit sweetness etc.) in each month. We look forward to screening out the strawberry varieties for export. This project hope that through seed quality testing, to improve competitiveness of the seed market and seed export business management. The Development of Virus-Free Platform for Oncidium Micropropagation <EM>Oncidium</EM> is one of the most important cut flowers in Taiwan. Healthy seedlings are considered as an important limitation factor for the quality of the cut flower. Micropropagation is the major way for the production of the orchid. Therefore, virus-free micropropagation platform for the orchid is the key factor for the sustainable development of the <EM>Oncidium</EM> industry. In the project, the technique of the fast virus detection system for <EM>Oncidium</EM> by LAMP will be developed. Under the fast virus detection system during the each micropropagation stage, the production system for the healthy seedlings of <EM>Oncidium</EM> can be developed. Studies on the Production Chain Improvement for Increasing the Competitiveness of Exporting Crops –Setting up the Fruit Thinning Techniques of Kaohsiung 11 jujube for Exporting Purpose Jujube has been considered as an underutilized fruit crop at the early time but now it e has been more emphasized by some interesting countries and it has been regarded as one of important crops for the future and for the world. Hence, more countries such as Thailand, China, Israel, India, and African nations have put more efforts in jujube research and production. Although the jujube was introduced to Taiwan for cultivation since 1925, it has been regarded as a crop of no economical values and has been neglected due to the small fruit size, sour and astringent taste, and poor quality and flavor during that period. Taiwan jujube then gained the good nick name of “Taiwan apple” because of the advances in varietal and cultural practice improvements in recent years. The planting acreage and production of Taiwan jujube has been increased from 468 ha and 3,862 tons in 1973 to 2,103 ha and 37,912 tons in 2011, respectively. Hence Taiwan jujube become one of important fruit crops especially at the southern Taiwan and it production not only can supply the domestic demands but also can be exported to foreign countries as a new quality fruit exported from Taiwan. In Taiwan, the main stem of jujube was pruned during March and April, shoot and branch growth were occurred during April and July, flowering staged was from June to November after the shoot growth, fruit setting was from July to October, and the fruit matured from December to March of the following year. Due to the longer flowering duration, more fruits were produced that was disadvantage to the quality enhancement. Also due to the quick cultivar substitution, the suitable rate and mode of fruit thinning (i.e. fruit retention) and its economical efficiency for the new varieties need to be established for increasing the fruit quality for exportation. Hence, the jujube cultivar of Kaohsiung 11 will be used as the material for testing with 2 levels of fruiting thinning intensities and 2 kinds of fruit thinning time for setting up the most suitable fruit thinning/retention model for increasing the qualify fruit rate for exporting purpose. Improvement of the pretreatment techniques of cut Vanda and Renanthera flowers 一、By applying the current pretreatment methods, combined with other formula, developing the adequate pretreatment processes for cut Vanda and Renanthera orchid flowers for exporting. 二、Improvement of the early senscence of bottom florets of cut Vanda and Renanthera orchid flowers for exporting. 三、Extention of the vase life of cut Vanda and Renanthera orchid flowers for exporting. 四、Establishment of the SOP of the postharvest handling of cut Vanda and Renanthera orchid flowers for exporting.                       Studies on management of healthy seedling for sweet potato in Northern Taiwan. The establishment of winter seedling and stock plant management model of sweet potato Tainung 66 Tainung 57 and Taoyuan 3 cultivars for northern Taiwan. Establishment the soil water control expert system in tropical fruit trees Orchard In this study, we established soil water control expert system of tropical fruit tree to discuss the influence of plant impact and fruit quality by cooperating nutrient management in different bearing stage, and analyzing soil and climate condition. The soil water control expert system could establish the fruit tree growth development and production management technique base on crop knowledge model in order to offer references and usage of culture management. Improvement postharvest technology of bitter gourd (<I>Momordica charatia</I> L) for exportation 一、The total exports of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. ) from Taiwan increased year by year. China, Singapore and Canada were as the main importing countries. Because bitter gourd is climacteric fruit, storage life is short, sensitive to low temperature, and prone to chilling injury. Recently, the transport time that Taiwan to Canada extended from two weeks till three weeks. The current storage technology has been unable to maintain the quality of arrival. Therefore, in order to extend the storage life, the improvement of postharvest technology is necessity. This study will focus on harvest maturity, the optimum storage temperature, packaging and the use of ethylene response inhibitors. Development of flowering regulation technique in potted Oncidium This project is to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator to the flowering time of different varieties of Oncidium. The results can be used as the references for flowering time to create a regulating skill in the green house. These data might be also helpful to achieve the yearround production, and to make Oncidium more competitive in the export market. - Establishment of hygienic harvesting technique and decreasing the disorder rate in production of exportation iceberg lettuce The purpose of this project is to reduce the physiological disorder rate through variety trials and adequate fertilization, and to establish a hygienic procedure when harvesting  iceburg lettuce by using machinery. In this research, we will focus on reducing the deformed head rate by introducing cold-tolerant varieties when cultivating in winter, and  by changing the nitrogen/potassium ratio in fertilization. In addition, we will evaluate the operation efficiency of different harvesting models and  operation procedures by using transferring machines to avoid the product and containers touching the ground. By the end of 2016, we expect to select a disorder-tolerant variety and establish a standard operation procedure for more hygienic harvests.
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