採收成熟度對杭菊有效成分的影響

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論文名稱: 採收成熟度對杭菊有效成分的影響
研究生姓名: 高志誠
指導教授姓名: 陳右人;阮素芬
出版年: 2018
學校名稱: 國立臺灣大學
系所名稱: 園藝暨景觀學系
關鍵字: 杭菊;總多元酚;總游離;胺基酸;綠原酸;還原醣
摘要: 杭菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat)為菊科(Asteraceae)菊屬(Chrysanthemum)多年生草本,本文主要針對杭菊栽培四項議題進行研究,首先是了解杭菊採收方法與時間對杭菊採收效率、產量及內容物之影響,以作為解決採工調配及工廠排程之問題,同時亦可了解其對產品品質之影響。其次,進行杭菊葉茶專業生產及基本資料之建立,最後,檢討種植模式之影響。試驗結果摘要如下: 試驗一、春梢採收時間及製作方法對杭菊葉茶內容物之影響 春梢分三次採收,並將採收之杭菊枝葉,分為嫩梢、葉片以及枝條三部分。用於直接乾燥處理、炒菁後乾燥處理以及炒菁揉捻後乾燥處理等三種方法製作。製成之產品,總多元酚含量隨著採收季節延後而增加,但游離胺基酸則相反。因此,在作為沖泡茶飲用途時,採收季節之判定,可能必須再藉感官品評來判定最適採收期;而若以杭菊作為加工原料及藥用時,可能較晚採收較為有利。 試驗二、機採杭菊收穫部位內容物含量比較 採收帶花葉之杭菊枝條,將收穫物分成為花朵、1-2葉片、3-4葉片、5-6葉片以及枝條,測定游離胺基酸以及總多元酚含量。單就總酚及游離胺基酸而言,花的含量遠不及其下一至四片葉片。由於精選後杭菊加上枝葉,尤其是葉片,可能是杭菊加工最佳之原料,因此,機械採收杭菊花,應包含花下四葉為佳。 試驗三、採摘次數對杭菊產量及內容物含量之影響 採用杭菊的成花以及未成花作為試驗材料,依三種採摘次數處理,調查產量並測定游離胺基酸、總多元酚以及綠原酸含量。試驗結果顯示,杭菊花綠原酸與總多元酚含量會隨採收期延後而減少,游離胺基酸與還原醣含量則大致會隨採收期延後而增加,同時由於總多元酚及綠原酸為機能成分,如以藥用或藥食兩用之產品而言,可能採收期與飲用者應有區別。 試驗四、栽培制度對杭菊生長及產量之影響 調查新植、宿根種植、連作種植以及連作種植加咖啡渣共四種栽培制度對有機杭菊生長及產量之影響。除宿根植之外,其他三個栽培模式之植株高度,在大部份調查時間,差異並未達顯著水準,宿根植處理組芽數最多,成花以宿根種植處理組產量最高,顯著高於其他三處理,花蕾則以連作施咖啡渣處理最高,總產量在四處理間差異不顯著。單花平均重量,以成花而言,連作及連作施咖啡渣者單花重量相當,且顯著高於新植者,而宿根植處理之單花也顯著低於其他三處理。而以花蕾之重量而言,連作區的花蕾重,顯著高於其他三處理。最終平均單花重以連作植者顯著高於其他三處理。花的總產量則以宿根植與新植加施咖啡渣者最高。Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat is a perennial herb belong to Asteraceae family. The research is focused on three chrysanthemum cultivation topics. The first topic for the research is to understand different harvest methods and harvest timing will influence the harvest efficiency, productivity and effective components. The finding may conduct solution for future flower picking manpower arrangement and the factories drying schedule setting. As well as, understand how the product quality was influenced. Secondly, establish the basic information needed for professional chrysanthemum young sprout leaf tea production. Thirdly, discuss the influence of different planting systems for chrysanthemum production. The experiment result illustrated: Experiment 1: The influence of different harvest timing and production methods for chrysanthemum spring young sprout leaf tea effective components. The experiment was conducted to analysis the influence of different harvest timing and different production methods on chrysanthemum leaf tea. The test material was derived from three harvests. It was separate to sprout tip, leaf blade and stem. Direct drying, blanching-drying and blanching-rolling-drying three kinds of process methods were tested for all the test material. From the results received. The total polyphenols tend to increase on later batch of harvested chrysanthemum. However, we received opposite trend on free amino acids. Therefore, sensory evaluation may be needed for harvest timing evaluation on beverage production purpose. The latter harvest timing will be suggested for processing material and medicine purpose. Experiment 2: The comparison of effective components between different portion of mechanical harvested chrysanthemum flower with leaf and stem. Mechanical harvest the chrysanthemum flower attached with leaf and stem. Separate the material into flowers, 1-2 leaves, 3-4 leaves, 5-6 leaves and stem. Then process test procedure for free amino acids and total polyphenols of all the material. The test results shows the free amino acids and total polyphenols concentration of chrysanthemum flower is far less than 1-2 leaves and 3-4 leaves. Currently, manual harvest method is still the standard procedure for chrysanthemum flower production. The inadequate labor supply and weak field working intention will be the bottleneck for future chrysanthemum business development. One of the solutions may rely on designing a harvest machine instead of manual harvest. The separation process will be move to in-house condition to solve the current constrain. Selected chrysanthemum flower with leaves may come as the best processing material. Therefore, we suggest the mechanical chrysanthemum flower harvest portion should include 1-4 leaves. Experiment 3: The influence of effective components and yields for chrysanthemum production by different times of harvest. Utilize different harvest batches of matured and immature chrysanthemum flower as the test material for testing free amino acids, total polyphenols, chlorogenic acids and reducing sugars concentration. The test results illustrated chlorogenic acids and total polyphenols concentration will be reduced for later production batch. The free amino acids and reducing sugars concentration will be increased for later production batch. Polyphenols and chlorogenic acids are the bio-active components. The harvest timing should be different between beverage and medicine purposes. Experiment 4: The influence on chrysanthemum growth and production yields by different cultivation methods. By different cultivation methods of new planting, ratoon cropping, succession cropping and succession cropping infuse with coffee ground to analysis the influence on chrysanthemum growth and yields. Except ratoon cropping, the plant height of other three cultivation methods doesn’t reach significant difference. The effect of planting system on number of bud of chrysanthemum shows ratoon cropping has highest bud number. By yield issue, ratoon cropping method has highest yield for matured flower. Significantly higher than other three processes. Recession cropping infuse with coffee ground test plot got the highest immature flower yield. The succession planting system and succession planting system infuse with coffee ground has the highest average matured flower weight higher than new planting and ratoon cropping. Succession cropping has the highest immature flower weight and highest immature average flower weight. It is significantly higher than other three planting system.
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