強化重要外銷熱帶果樹競爭力之研究

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計畫名稱: 強化重要外銷熱帶果樹競爭力之研究
計畫主持人: 王仁晃
共同計畫主持人: 林慧玲;邱展臺;邱祝櫻;趙治平;官青杉;李文豪;黃世宏;陳思如;江一蘆;梁佑慎;陳京城;羅惠萍;張春梅;黃士晃;吳俊達;蔣世超;邱國棟;李雪如;張錦興;張栢滄;張哲嘉;李文立;李淑英;謝慶昌
計畫編號: 105農科-9.4.4-子-K1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會高雄區農業改良場作物改良課
全程計畫年: 2016
關鍵字: 木瓜;鳳梨釋迦;鳳梨;育種;嫁接;套袋;芒果;雜交育種;鳳梨學名;儲運;抑梢處理;果實品質;逆境;紅龍果;棗;煙燻水;自然開花;簡易溫室葡萄;回剪;著果;真空脫澀;種原庫;鎂;柿;無子葡萄;白色球狀芽團;熱水處理;線蟲;物候期;焦核;品質;開花率;葉面施肥;葡萄;遮陰;印度棗;番石榴;香蕉;多倍體;改變大氣組成;水果;鈣;腐損;光強度;切葉處理;環刻;果肉色值;組織培養;吸芽大小;採後品質;寒害;1-MCP;熟度;光源;寒害;抑制抽梢;肉桂醛;固定型網室設施;檢疫處理;貯運;誘變劑;蓮霧;果實性狀;Papaya;Atemoya;Pineapple;Breeding;Grafting;Bagging;Mango;Cross Breeding;Ananas comosus;Storage and Transportation;new shoot suppression;fruit quality;stress;pitaya;Jujube;Smoking Water;natural flowering;PE house grapevine;spring pruning;fruit set
摘要: 鳳梨育種一、選出果實大小適中、糖度15°Brix以上,酸度低,適合鮮食的品系60株系二、選擇適合優良親本進行雜交組合配對。 三、民國103-104年所獲實生苗培育與初步選拔及102年所得實生苗定植至選種園。 四、初選 101年雜交所得之優良品系。 五、複選民國 99 年以前雜交之優良品系,加強優良品系種苗繁殖。六、根據品系貯運性試驗結果,提出品種權申請。  芒果、番木瓜品種選育一、進行芒果品系比較,選優良品系進行新品種評估。二、選育出芒果果形大小中等、果皮顏色佳、纖維量少、具特殊風味、果實不易劣變、耐貯運、具矮性或不時花特性之優良品系。 3.育成消費市場需求之600至800公克中小型、甜度高、具香氣且耐貯運的番木瓜新品種。 4.育成優良番木瓜品種,不僅可以幫助農民容易生產番木瓜果實也可保障消費者食用安全,促進有機栽培生產。臺南區優質熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進一、持續進行芒果品種收集,以單胚品種進行控制授粉,同時針對選育出的雜交後代進行篩選與品系觀察,並進行後代品質產量等評估。二、持續針對不同嫁接方式及接穗條件對嫁接成功率及繁殖倍率之探討。三、針對紅龍果不同套袋類型、材質及顏色之比較與探討。發展優勢水果產業提升內外銷競爭力(補助)一、改變大氣組成處理技術應用於鳳梨釋迦採後貯運之研究(一)探討氧氣與二氧化碳濃度對鳳梨釋迦品質影響。 (二)初步評估氣變包裝應用於鳳梨釋迦採後處理的可行性。 二、以固定型網室生產紅龍果(Hylocereus spp.)產調果之研究:完成白肉種紅龍果於固定型網室設施下,生產春季(5月)、晚秋(11-12)及冬季(1-2月)產調果之可行性評估。 三、盛花前環刻對‘糯米糍(73-S-20)’及‘玉荷包’荔枝焦核率與著果之影響:開發低成本、簡便可行,兼能提‘糯米糍(73-S-20)’荔枝高焦核率與著果率之園藝技術。 四、提升番石榴週年品質貯運保鮮技術 五、建立夏季外銷供果園生產模式(一)葉面施肥及肥培管理標準化。(二)台灣番石榴外銷採前處理及採後眝運加值運用。(三)建立番石榴線蟲非農藥防治策略。 六、柿豐產優質及採收後處理技術之研究:改善柿果真空脫澀後果皮褐變情形並分析原因 。七、葡萄及芒果無農藥生產技術研發:研發無化學農藥生產巨峰葡萄及海頓芒果之栽培方法。 八、多倍體無子葡萄選育 (一)三倍體葡萄新品系BK3N-01之新品種權申請。 (二)新的優良三倍體葡萄新品系選拔。(三)新的優良四倍體無子葡萄新品系選拔。 九、抑梢處理對簡易溫室葡萄枝梢生育及花芽分化影響之探討 (一)瞭解抑梢處理是否可促進結果母枝的花芽生長及其品質之提升。 (二)選擇適合的抑梢處理方式,以作為學術研究之基礎及提供產業栽培管理之參考。十、台灣重要水果貯前熱水處理技術改進之研究:建立印度棗、茂谷柑、紅龍果、番石榴等水果熱水處理技術。 十一、紅龍果田間遮陰技術之研究 (一)在夏季紅龍果產期,利用不同遮陰程度的遮陰網以及遮陰網架設高度,探討其對田間紅龍果栽培之影響。(二)在夏季紅龍果產期,利用不同遮陰程度的遮陰網以及遮陰網架設面積,探討其對田間紅龍果栽培之影響。 (三)在夏季紅龍果產期,持續架設遮陰網,探討其對後續紅龍果來花量之影響。 十二、減少鳳梨冬季抽穗之研究 (一)植株大小與葉片截切組合減少冬季鳳梨自然開花。 (二)避開冬季自然開花後的果實品質。十三、印度棗低溫檢疫與貯運技術改進計畫 (一)探討不同印度棗品種低溫檢疫耐受性評估。(二)1-MCP提升低溫耐受性可行性評估。(三)短暫熱處理提升印度棗低溫耐受性之評估。十四、香蕉黃葉病抗/耐病品種選育及後熟技術之改進(一)香蕉優良新品種選育: a. 將誘變處理之不同蕉種,經第一次與第二次試管抗/耐香蕉黃葉病系統篩選後所存活的培植體,進行網室及田間抗/耐黃葉病篩選。 b. 透過網室篩選之田間選獲株系和香蕉種原庫選育之品系(國外主要商業品種),經組培繁苗後,進行田間蕉株抗/耐香蕉黃葉病及園藝特性調查。(二)蕉果後熟品質改進:建立從‘台蕉7號’果肉色值以判定香蕉果實熟度之非破壞性檢測技術,應用於香蕉熟度之選別作業,協助業者解決外銷香蕉熟度不一之長期問題,提升台灣香蕉之外銷品質。 優質番木瓜品種選育一、果皮光滑品系選育果皮斑點少之品系之雜交第6代純化,進行雜交組合觀查。二、耐儲運番木瓜品種選育 選拔耐儲運優良雜交組合。高雄區果樹品種改良一、棗育種: 雜交及天然實生種子之播種培育、優良品系之初選、優良品系之增殖及複選、優良品系之品系比較試驗、評估具有發展潛力之優良品系供地方試作。二、芒果育種: 芒果雜交後代實生苗培育、優良單株選拔及增殖,篩選優良品系進行品系比較試驗。三、蓮霧育種: 蓮霧雜交後代實生苗優良單株選拔,篩選優良品系繁殖,進行品系比較試驗。四、木瓜育種:持續進行輪迴選種,逐步導入優良特性,並持續進行自交,以獲得優良自交系,優良自交系進行雜交,選拔優良雜交新品系。五、番石榴育種:進行雜交後代實生培育及初步單株選拔,並進行5個之複選品系與對照品種之性狀調查。Pineapple breeding一、Objectives:The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf, medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities. 二、Methods:(1).Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in net room and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation. (2). Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations. (3). Superior advanced clones are fur there valuated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station. (4).Storage ability assessment : Establishment of the pineapple grmplasm, Tainung varieties and hybrid line,assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding.三、Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters.assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding. Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters.Breeding of Mango and PapayaThe purpose of this study is to improve the mango varieties. In order to improve disadvantage of existing cultivars and increase the varieties of mango, this study expect to select advance seedlings from hybrid and natural crossing generations. This selection goal is scarlet or orangered fruit skin color, low fiber fresh, few fruits disorder, early harvest and long shelf time. We preserved 27 virus-nonresistant papaya lines in net house last year, and harvested self-crossing seeds which are used as materials for breeding parents this year. Developed 20 lines that pass virus-resistant detection and fruit quality investigation last year, and 5 papaya lines (or hybrids), including No. 6, 8, 9, 10 and 13, showed high PRV resistance, that even reach to 100%. Therefore, all lines which planted in field proceed transgenic detection by PCR technology. The result show that most lines are positive reaction; however, No.6-1 line contains high virus-resistant and it is not transgenic papaya. We use these 5 lines to proceed self-separation and virus-resistant selection.Study on the improvement of some high-quality tropical fruits variety and cultural technique in Tainan district.一、To collect the mango varieties, which have disease resistant and good fruit quality, can be used into the breeding plan. Meanwhile, we evaluated the breeding seedlings that selected from the open-pollination of mango seeds. 二、This study want to improve papaya grafting quality and to set up the papaya grafting propagation system more efficiency.三、In order to enchence the qualities of pitaya and establish excellent pitaya bagging technique ,This study will be to improve the structures and materials of bags for pitaya. To enhance the competition of valuable fruits in import and exportThe objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competitiveness of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 13 projects of current year. There are:一、Studies on Application of Atmosphere Modification Technology for Postharvest Handling and Transportation of Atemoya FruitAtemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill.) is a chilling-sensitve tropical fruit with high rates of respiration and ethylene emission; therefore, the application of cold storage technique to maintain quality and suppress decay is strongly restricted.  Exporting for international markets is severely impeded in atemoya because of its short postharvest life.  This proposal will investigate the effect of atmosphere modification technique on postharvest handling of atemoya fruit.  In order to figure out the optimum air compositions during transportation, atemoya fruit will be treated with different concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide at 7 and 10℃ for 2-4 weeks, respectively, to observe the changes of ripening ability and quality attributes of the samples.  Moreover, atemoya packed with LDPE plastic bag and filled with oxygen 3, 5, or 7% combine with carbon dioxide 5, or 10% will also be evaluated for fruit quality change at 10℃ for 1-3 weeks.  The results of this project will be beneficial for prolonging postharvest life of atemoya, which is actually the bottle neck of its export.二、Assessing the fruit production of pitaya (Hylocereus spp) during non-natural-inductive period under the fixed field-net-house.  In order to reduce the bagging cost by hand and incidence of pest as well as disease of white pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and red pitaya (H. polyrizus), the feasibility of 5-year-old plants grown in the fixed field-net-house, which was three meters in height and covered with 24 or 16 meshes of white net and supplemented by two light sources, was evaluated in Waipu, Taichung.  The plant grown in the field served as the control. Microclime, flowering ratio and waves, yield, fruit quality, incidence of pest and disease, and cost/profit were compared during off-season (spring, autumn and winter season) induced by night breaking. The results obtained might be useful to  construct the strategy for improving the structure of house which is suited  to the orchard management, and also provide the basic cultivation physiology information under protection for further research of pitaya. 三、Assessing the effects of girdling prior to anthesis on seed shriveling and fruit set in 'No Mai Tsz (73-S-20)' and 'Yu Her Pau' litchi.  ‘No Mai Tsz(73-S-20)’ and ‘Yu Her Pau’ have been regarded as the main litchi cultivars owing to their high flesh to seed ratio and excellent taste quality. However, they suffer with erratic shriveling, the seed without living embryo and fruit set. The purpose of this study is to document whether girdling prior to anthesis could enhance seed shriveling and fruit set in a synchrony through the decrease in physiological drop of aborted seeded fruit for ‘No Mai Tsz(73-S-20)’ and ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi field-grown trees. Fruit set number, shriveling and fruit characteristics at harvest were examined and compared. In addition, girdling effect on prevention of vegetative flushing during flowering and fruit development period was calculated. From the results we obtained, a strategy to construct the fruit production with both high shriveling and cluster yield may be expected.四、Studies on Improving Fruit Quality and Postharvest Preservation Technology of Guava.  Guava is rich of Vitalmin C, its annual production yield and exporting quantities are gradually increasing in Taiwan. This research aimed to promote and stablize the fruit quality of guava. Through different bagging materials, pruning techniques, and foliar fertilization may avoid the summer fruit growing too fast, and promote the quality and storage life of summer guava fruit. Magnesium is the main element to construct the chlorophyll, and is important for amino acid and vitalmin formation. Also, it is the activator for many kinds of enzymes, influencing the synthesis of carbohydrate. Calcium has close relation to fruit texture. The fruit with lower firmness often being less in calcium content. Nematode is one of the severe pest impact of guava, and often cause death of plant. To strengthen the plants, promote fruit quality and reduce economic loss, a suitable stretegy for nematode control is needed. Our project is to establish the production model in summer for exporting orchard, standerdize the the foliar and soil fertilization management, and establish the procedure of pre- and post-harvest treatment for exporting guava. For the nematode, we aimed to estblish a non-pesticide contol strategy for guava production.五、Studies on high productivity and improvement of postharvest techniques of persimon.  Vacuum de-astringency technique has big prospect to use in many kinds of persimmons cultivars such as Bull Heart persimmon, Honey Diamond persimmon and Japanese Persimmon. De-astringency by using vacuum technique has high effectiveness, able to maintain fruit powder and offers high quality products. The purpose of this research is to find out the factors that cause persimmons browning and also investigate the instability of de-astringency technique by extending de-astringency time, different maturity, different temperature or by adding absorbents in order to improve browning problems. In addition, persimmons nutrition is also analyzed for further understand the relation between field management and fruit browning in order to improve fruit quality.  六、Development of pesticide-free production technology in grapes and mango.  Pesticide residues are often found in many agritural products. In conventional farming, growers usually use pesticides to control plant disease in order to get stable production rate and quality. Eventhough the establishment of traceability has been promoted, and strictly the inspection, it is better if non—chemical pesticides technique can be used in grape and mango which can give more safety. Smoking water contained pheolic compound fungal-inhibitor and Cinnamaldehyde has able to inhibit bacterial and fungal and BT able to kill insect. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to observe the effect of three kinds of natural pesticides in grapes and ‘Haden’ mango and can establish non-pesticide cultivation mode in the future.七、Breeding for polyploid seedless grapevines.  The major objectives of this project in the 105 fiscal year include:(一)Applying for plant variety right for the new triploid grapevine line BK3N-01.(二)Examination of new triploid grapevine lines.(三)Selection of new tetraploid grapevine lines.八、Effects of new shoot suppression on PE house grapevine shoot growth and flower bud differentiation.  To enhance the growth and quality of flower buds of fruiting canes, the present project plans to first do summer pruning on self-rooted 6-year-old `Kyoho' grape trees in May 2016. New shoot suppression will be carried out using 1. phosphate (1000-fold), 2. P: K (10:.9; 400-fold), 3. chlormequat chloride (abbreviated CCC; 1000-fold) and 4. P: K (10: 9 ; 400-fold) + chlormequat chloride (1000-fold) and 5. water sprays. The project hopes to find out a best shoot suppression treatment to improve the growth and quality of flower buds of the fruiting canes in order to be used as an improved process for grape cultivation and to help farmers to increase economic benefits.九、Improvement of Prestorage Hot Water Treatment Tecnology in Taiwan Major FruitsThe objective of this project is to examine the effects of prestorage hot water dipping treatment on the decreasing of decay, reducing of chilling injury, maintainence of quality and physiological changes in Taiwan major fruits, including indian jujube,‘Murcott’ tangor , Dragon fruit, papaya, ponkan mandarin, pineapple, atemoya, lichi, and longan.十、The study of shading on pitaya fruitsThis study was to investigate the effects of three shading nets (25% shading with a white net, 50% shading with a black net, and 75% shading with a black net) on the growth and fruiting of red-fleshed ‘Shih Huo Chuan’ pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britt. & Rose). All shading nets reduced sunburn occurrence and improved cladodes color by decreasing lightness (L*) and chroma (C*), but increasing hue angle (ho). Shading resulted in more chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content in cladodes than seen in control. Fruit length significantly increased but there were no effects on fruit width under 50% and 75% black shading nets. Shading treatments reduced total soluble solids content, but did not influence on total titratable acidity and TSS/TA ratio. The highest flesh weight and the lowest fruit splitting percentage were found with a 50% black shading net. In addition, the peel and pulp of fruit turned red and total betacyanins were accumulated one and two days earlier than seen with the control when plants were grown under 50% and 75% black shading nets, respectively.十一、Reduce Natural Flowering in PineappleThe objectives of this research was to reduce natural flowering in pineapple (Ananas comosus). Weight and stem diameter class of sucker has three levels: heavy sucker was over 1.5kg and 4.5cm, medium sucker with interval 1-1.2kg and 4.1-4.3cm, light sucker with interval 0.5-0.7k and below 4cm. Each sucker type were divide into three leaf cut levels (non-cut, 1/3, 2/3). The percentage of natural flowering and fruit quality were investigated in all treatments. We expected to find out a suitable combination to reduce natural flowering in pineapple.十二、The improving of postharvest technology for quarantine treatment of Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.)Indian jujube is one of important economic fruits in Taiwan. The area of cultivation of indian jujube was 2,000 hectares in Taiwan. Indian jujube was  included one of good quality fruit orchards for export in 2006 by Agriculture and Food Agency, Council of Agriculture. Because there are the disease and insect of  quarantine in Taiwan, the export of Taiwan fruit had to enforce quarantine treatment amd caused the fruit lose the quality.The innovating postharvest technology for indian jujube export, expecially for quarantine, is necessary to develop new market of indian jujube. The research will evaluate the cultivars of indiian jujube and postharvest technology for maintaining the quality after quarantine treatment and supplying the successful model of postharvest process for export.   十三、Improvement of techniques on Fusarium wilt-resistant cultivar selection and post-harvest ripening of banana(一)Selection of banana cultivars (1)Recurrent selection Fusarium wilting resistance clones from GCTCV-1089, TC1-2010, TC5-2111 of improved clones, respectively with FOC TR4 resistance and salt tolerance.(二)Selection of Fusarium wilt and salt stress resistant clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced from P4T and improve tissue culture technology.(三)Selection of Fusarium wilt resistant clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced from P4T and Sodium azide (NaN3) mutagen.(四)Selection Fusarium wilt resistant clones from diversified germplasm, such as ‘Grande Naine (AAA)’, ‘Williams (AAA)’, ‘Kluai Khai (AA)’, ‘Senorita (AA)’, ‘Xiem (ABB)’, ‘Saba (ABB)’, ‘Namwa (ABB)’ and ‘Layu banana (AAB)’ with extension potential. (五)Estimation the clones or cultivars selected from stage a to d in net house and field, respectively for Fusarium wilt resistance expression.(六)The establishment of a non-destructive technique for the maturity identification of green banana is very important for the solution of a long term problem on the over-maturity of the Taiwan banana for export. The application of this technique could screen out the over-matured green bananas before packing, reduce the on board yellowing, and improve the arrival quality of Taiwan bananas. Good quality varieties selection on papayaThe objectives of this study are planting good resistance to storage and transportation lines, then crossed pollination for subsequent comparison test and selected good combinations. Plant Peel smooth, physiological spotted little strain providing isolation and selection for next year. Fruit Breeding in Kaohsiung DistrictSelection of better quality or suitable traits for exportation purposes in wax apple, mango, Indian jujube, guava and papaya through breeding for planting, or cultural practice  improvement in increasing the quality and yield will be beneficial for increasing the farmers income. For breeding and selection of superior varieties, the artificial and natural crosses will be applied in this experiment. Hybrid seeds obtained from different cross combinations will be propagated as seedlings for the two year observations. Lines with large fruit size, high total soluble solid content, and long fruit shell life etc. will be selected as materials for line test. Superior lines selected from line test will be further tested by regional yield trial at major production sites. From the results of regional yield trials, the selected lines with good performance will be registered as new cultivar and then for extension.
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