強化耐候、抗病優質特性之果樹優勢品種育成

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計畫名稱: 強化耐候、抗病優質特性之果樹優勢品種育成
計畫主持人: 陸明德
共同計畫主持人: 陳思如;蘇育彥;林詠洲;邱展臺;黃基倬;陳京城;徐錦木;高碧霜;盧柏松;葉文彬;李雪如;方信秀;吳庭嘉;張淑芬;唐佳惠;邱祝櫻;官青杉;蔡惠文;羅國偉;李文豪;曾旭光;陳薪喨;郭展宏;宋家瑋;劉碧鵑;陳幼光;朱堉君;朱彧瑩;徐智政;邱國棟;陳祈男;王仁晃;陳怡如;陳筱鈞;賴瑞聲;謝鴻業;張哲嘉;張雅玲;王維晨
計畫編號: 110農科-4.1.3-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 早熟;柿;果實品質;番石榴;番石榴屬;葡萄;多倍體;無子;番荔枝;紅棗;貯藏;山竹;育種;桃;實生選種;誘變;品種改良;梨;鳳梨釋迦;荔枝;榴槤蜜;棗;果形;香蕉;選種;嫁接;抗病;酪梨;柑橘;引種;鳳梨;楊桃;枇杷;黃葉病;龍貢;焦核;分子標誌輔助篩選;國際型產業;芽條突變;品系;咖啡;龍眼;品種;紅毛丹;冷子番荔枝;紅龍果;低需冷性;雜交;立枯病菌;蓮霧;李;新興熱帶果樹;芒果;木瓜;體細胞變異;precocious;Persimmon;fruit quality;Guava;Psidium;Grape;Polyploid;Seedless;sugar apple;Chinese Jujube;storage;Mangosteen;Breeding;Peach;seedling selection;mutagenesis;Cultivar improvement;Pears;cherimoya;litchi;Chempedak;jujube;Fruit shape;banana;selection
摘要: 細部計畫1:耐候落葉果樹育種</strong>本研究育種目標為育成適應氣候變遷之梨新品種,低需冷量耐極端氣候優質梨偏重綠皮及紅皮品種,較耐儲運、早生、省工;而枇杷目標則為育成適應氣候變遷之枇杷新品種,較能適應開花期高溫之抗病耐儲運枇杷新品種,具備大果、易剝皮、少子、產期長等特性。今年度進行如玉梨、秋黃梨進行雜交後代繁殖工作,以預冷層積(4℃)從種子發芽期進行低需冷性篩選,目前選出早期發芽雜交後代共繁殖60棵雜交苗,發芽時間為34-59天,針對梨雜交育種方向以低需冷性為主,選拔5%提前發芽後代,選拔目標為市佔率低之綠或紅皮系梨,兼顧未來冬季升溫的低需冷性梨品種維持梨產業發展。 枇杷方面,完成┌晶璽┘、┌玉出露┘2種枇杷授權推廣,目前這兩個品種在暖化現象仍保持一定產量,可取代目前所栽培之茂木品種,枇杷茂木因花期高溫,授粉出現異常,著果率低,108年度的台灣主要茂木產區甚至減產到剩2成,因此針對高溫下著果良好後代的性狀導入須儘快進行,雜交後代目前在田間選出在今年度氣候異常仍維持穩產且品質良好品系5株,將進行高接進一步評估生長勢與產量評估,而台東地區普遍栽培之日本育成的長崎早生枇杷,目前評估可能為耐花期高溫之穩產品種,108年試以長崎早生花粉與三種育成品種進行雜交,持續擴大雜交數量,期能選出花期耐高溫穩產後代,維持台灣枇杷產業穩健發展。為改善台灣鮮食葡萄不具露抗病性、品種過於單純、產期集中、不耐貯運等缺點,以國外引進具抗病與優良性狀品種的花粉進行四倍體與二倍體親本正交、反交雜交授粉工作,並以優選品系與親本回交。加強新品種試種資料調查與收集。加強優選單株區域試種、特性調查與評估。選育出抗病、大果、不脫粒、不同果形、色澤與風味、不同成熟期的葡萄新品種。台灣平地水蜜桃的育種目標為育成低需冷量、低酸、果實生育日數短、大果、外觀 鮮艷動人、品質好、果肉白色、溶質、離核的毛桃與油桃新品種。柿品種改良工作 ,在育成低需冷量、大果、果皮紅、品質優良、早熟的澀柿品種。本計畫將進行桃 及柿低需冷量品種和優良品系間雜交,雜交後代選拔工作,及數個桃及柿優選品系區域試種、特性調查與評估工作。 <strong>細部計畫2:亞熱帶與外銷潛力果樹品種改良計畫</strong>(1)鳳梨(1)計畫目標:育成植株小,葉緣無刺,果實適中,糖酸比高,品質佳,適於鮮食品種,以供推廣。(2)方法:(1)親本授粉:在3-4月間梨開花盛花期,選擇優良親本配組進行雜交授粉,然後將種子播種,依次經溫室、網室、田間育苗選拔。(2)初選優良品系繁殖與複選:初選優良品系繼續進行複選,並利用組織培養及老莖切片繁殖種苗。(3)品系比較試驗:經複選結果較具優秀品系進行比較試驗。(4)種原貯藏力評估: 建立雜交用種原及優選及台農品種等之貯藏能力,以做為日後選育耐貯運性品種之雜交組合判斷來源。(3)預期效益:期能育成植抹小,葉緣無剌,果實過中,糖酸比高,風味佳,適於鮮食品種。(2)柑橘:經由雜交育種及輻射育種選拔具少籽、大果型、不同產期及高品質等特性之新品種。並藉由輻射誘變選種等加速育種效率並縮短育種年限。(3)荔枝與龍眼:透過育種程序,選育不同產期、高品質、豐產穩產的優良荔枝、龍眼品系,提供果農栽培,以分散產期,解決因其品種單一,產期過分集中所致產銷失衡問題。並因應近年來荔枝及龍眼受氣候變遷影響甚巨,選擇低涼溫需求之品種(系)為育種親本,期能選育耐氣候變遷之後代,使荔枝與龍眼產業於未來暖冬情形下亦能穩定生產。計畫進行過程亦將調查作物基本生長發育情形,以瞭解一般栽培管理或新品種推廣所需知悉基本資訊,並作為育種研究參考。藉由本計畫執行,將獲得新品種/系之荔枝及龍眼,有助於整體提升我國相關產業價值。(4)酪梨:冀望育成適合台灣地區栽培之不同成熟期,高品質,高油分之接穗品種。(5)咖啡:擬透過育種程序,選育耐候性的咖啡候選品系,因應環境氣候變遷,期望育成適合台灣風土之咖啡品種,提升咖啡產業的發展。 <strong>細部計畫3:耐候穩產之熱帶果樹育種</strong>1.耐貯運楊桃與紅龍果品種選育:育成耐貯運、耐低溫冷藏、果色橙紅、風味佳,適宜內外銷之楊桃品種進行推廣;育成大果、高品質、具自花親和性,不需人工授粉且耐貯運之優質紅龍果新品種,提高農友收益。2.新興熱帶果樹種類引進:蒐集國內現有的紅毛丹與黃金果等新興果樹優良品系,並且繼續自東南亞等地引入黃金果、紅毛丹、黃毛丹、榴槤蜜、星蘋果、榴槤、山竹等熱帶果樹品種(系)進行試種及進行實生變異株選拔。3.優質番石榴品種選育:選育可溶性固形物高於10<SUP>。</SUP>Brix,自然開花著果率高、豐產,易於管理之無籽或少籽品系。4.優質棗品種選育:育成具豐產、高品質、耐貯運、耐高溫及不同成熟期之品種。5.早熟優質荔枝育種:品質朝向焦核或無核化,並維持其他優質園藝特性(早熟、豐產、色澤豔麗、肉質口感佳),提升競爭優勢;具競爭力番荔枝品種選育:選育不易軟熟、果實大、夏期果不易裂果或鮮紅色果皮之品系6.建立優質深紅果皮之蓮霧育種技術:調查各蓮霧種原特殊性狀,建立雜交親本之資料庫。設立各育種特性或性狀為目標(如:果皮深紅、不裂果等),進行各雜交組合,培育幼苗及進行成株管理,促進苗木生長及提早開花結果,進行蓮霧新品系及比較試驗,建制有效之蓮霧育種流程模式。7.優質芒果品種選育:育成果型大小適中,果皮顏色佳,果實品質優良,不易生理裂變,耐貯運之芒果品種。8.優質番木瓜品種選育:育成果型大小適中,適合外銷規格與果實品質優良番木瓜品系。9.進行熱帶果樹種原之收集與利用,期能進行果樹各園藝特性收集,以做為育種家育種選用親本之選擇保存足夠數量之種原,保有和國外種原交流之良好基石,有需要引種需求時,可透過交換種原之方式取得目標。 <strong>細部計畫4:低需冷性梨品種選育</strong>本研究旨在選育出低需冷性、適合中低海拔栽培、果實品質優良及耐貯運之梨品種,以推廣農民栽培。 <strong>細部計畫5:柑橘無子品種選育</strong>    柑橘為臺灣重要果樹,而果實無子為柑橘重要性狀,國際貿易上之優良柑橘品種多為無子,本計畫擬利用種間雜交、芽條突變選拔及誘變方式,選育符合市場或生產需求之優良無子品種。 <strong>細部計畫6:低海拔甜柿育種及分子輔助育種</strong>本計畫旨在選育適合北部低海拔地區栽培之耐候性佳、適應性廣、質優豐產的甜柿新品種。本年度將進行柿109年雜交所得種子之實生苗培育工作,並繼續進行110年雜交授粉工作,並利用甜柿脫澀相關基因及雄花發生基因等分子標誌,進行108年度甜柿實生後裔評估。 <strong>細部計畫7:苗栗特色果樹-紅棗與李品種選育</strong>苗栗縣作物栽培品項繁多,其中紅棗(<em>Ziziphus jujuba</em> Miller)及李(<em>Prunus</em> <em>salicina</em> Lindl.)為具地區特色的果樹,兩者種植面積皆為台灣之冠。近年受到氣候變異之影響,冬季低溫不足及乾旱等不利開花萌芽之生育條件,導致產量低落而影響農民收益,且現有栽培之品種種植時間已久,無新品種可提供栽培者更新,導致市場新穎性不足,無法滿足消費者需求。本研究將進行紅棗及李子品種(系)選育,進行品種(系)收集、性狀調查及選拔等,並盤點國內可用之育種材料,擬育成具有低需冷性及優良果實品質之紅棗及李子品種(系),加速更新目前現有品種,增加農友栽培品種多樣化。 <strong>細部計畫8:中部地區重要果樹-梨、葡萄、番石榴之耐候優勢品種育成</strong>臺灣中部地區葡萄、梨及番石榴為重要果樹,平地梨果主要以高接梨方式生產,但成本風險高。以雜交育種方式選育出生長季耐熱,已分化的花芽不易夭折或開不時花品系,取代部份高接梨生產面積,分散風險並延長產期以平穩產業。葡萄以特殊果形及果色商業品種為親本進行雜交,目標選育具有特殊果形或果色的子代,擴大國內栽種品種,提供消費者更多選擇。珍珠番石榴為現有主要栽培品種,但夏果品質不佳、果肉易軟貯藏期短,利用雜交後代進行選育適合夏果品種,增加栽種品種多樣化,提供消費市場新的選擇。 <strong>細部計畫9:高屏地區果樹品種改良</strong>因應果樹品種單一、主流品種抗耐病性較差、產量及品質易受天候影響等問題,本研究進行熱帶果樹品種選育,育種目標為:選育具耐候性高、果實耐貯運、適合穩定供貨外銷之棗品種;篩選開花結果穩定、耐貯運之芒果品種;選育低裂果率、果色鮮紅之蓮霧品種;進行木瓜抗耐病毒自交系選種,以供育成耐病F1品種;選育果肉厚、口感風味穩定之番石榴鮮食品種。期能增加品種多樣性、降低生產風險、活絡市場需求,並利用抗耐病特性降低生產成本、提高產品良率,進而穩定臺灣果樹產業發展。 <strong>細部計畫10:臺東地區重要經濟果樹育種之研究</strong>番荔枝屬果樹<em>(Annona</em> spp. )與枇杷(<em>Eriobotrya japonica</em>) 皆為臺東地區之重要經濟果樹,為提升兩者之耐候性,增加產業競爭力,本研究擬育成低裂果率之番荔枝屬果樹與耐熱早熟之枇杷品種。番荔枝屬果樹擬以「Phet Pakchong」品種與臺東2、3號進行雜交試驗、持續進行103-105年之雜交後裔選拔,並比較5個優良品系(96AI-037、96AI-034、97IIA-100、97GII-015及97GII-028)之性狀;枇杷則以「長崎早生」品種與「怪獸」、「早鐘6號」、「大五星」及「香檳」進行正反交,各組合預計獲得至少20粒種子。 <strong>細部計畫11:國際產業型之番木瓜新品種育成技術建立</strong>本計畫為增加目前木瓜主要種子外銷品種品種多元性,擬延續上期計畫成果,選育高產、大型果、耐儲運、耐病、果肉顏色深具機能性的木瓜品系。本年度進行大型果品系及耐病毒品系分別與本場育成的品系雜交後的分離之S<strong><SUB>3</SUB></strong>世代之純化,並在分離選拔過程中選拔優良單株進行營養繁殖,建立營養品系。同時以上一期計畫選育之自交系進行雜交組合授粉,組合新的雜交一代,選拔優良新品種。 <strong>細部計畫12:重要經濟果樹耐逆境之品種選育</strong>本計畫旨在經品種選育,以生產優質果品及增加果樹抗病品種。本年度由果樹生理、栽培和遺傳育種專家共提出3個計畫,分述如下: 1.具行銷全球潛能之黃葉病抗病品種之選育本計畫規劃從國內已推廣但因園藝特性缺失而無法有效推廣之兩個華蕉品種 (‘台蕉二號’、 ‘台蕉7號’)、兩國外主要商業品種(‘Williams’及‘Grand Naine’)、烏龍種品系及選自‘北蕉’且呈最高抗性之GCTCV-44品系等5個種系,利用體細胞變異選育技術進行選育,期能在未來選育出更適合行銷全球之黃葉病抗病新品種。 2.多倍體無子葡萄生產技術開發本研究計畫110年度主要工作目標包括: (1)開發興翠葡萄經濟生產模式。興翠葡萄之生長調節劑處理,目前尚未找到最合適的處理組合及處理時機,今年度將測試更多種的GA與CPPU處理組合,以找出較適合之處理模式。 (2)開發興峰葡萄經濟生產模式。興峰葡萄之生長調節劑處理,目前尚未找到最合適的處理組合及處理時機,今年度將測試更多種的GA與CPPU處理組合,以找出較適合之處理模式。 (3)開發龍寶葡萄人工無子化技術。將參考日本四倍體有子葡萄人工無子化之處理方法,測試龍寶葡萄無子化處理後之無子果比率及果實品質。 (4)三倍體無子葡萄新品系選育。將從前期計畫培育之三倍體葡萄中,從中選出較具發展潛力之品系及開發其田間管理技術。 3.番石榴抗立枯病基因型的篩選及近緣種根砧對接穗表現的影響評估番石榴在臺灣主要以嫁接技術進行營養繁殖,然而根砧的基因型尤其是野生種對番石榴接穗品種的影響仍有待更多的探討及有系統的評估。有鑑於番石榴立枯病的蔓延,具有抗性的品種或根砧可能是一個可行的解決途徑。本計畫除調查野生種根砧對番石榴主要栽培品種田間性狀表現的影響,包括植株生長勢及果實品質等外,也將評估不同番石榴基因型包括種內和種間雜交種對立枯病抗性的差異,期能從中篩選出抗病性較佳的植株,作為後續抗病育種的親本或根砧使用。Breeding for Climate Stress Tolerance Varieties to temperate fruit crops</strong>In the production facilities and the regulation of light and heat conditions, temperate fruit trees Pears and Loquat to meet the growth demand, enhance quality and shorten the growth period. Photo-physiological response of Pears and Loquats to the LEP (Light Emitting Plasma) Regulation to avoid dormancy. Different wavelength light source regulate phytochrome system to regulate fruit quality and plant morphogenesis. Expected to produce pears from the earliest one month ahead of the end of April to the end of March. Expected to produce loquat production period from late December~April to extend from November to next July, the storage period may be upgraded depending on varieties of 3 to 6 months.In order to overcome the disadvantages happened in grape industry, such as susceptible to downy mildew, single cultivar, concentrated production season, and low storage ability, artificial pollination has made using pollen from foreign cultivars with characteristics like disease resistant and pleasing aroma to breed new table grape cultivars with good quality and gain the diversity of grape cultivars. Tetraploid and diploid cultivars are used for crossing parents, also elite selections are used for backcrossing. Regional test of new grape cultivars and elite selections are evaluated for fruit characteristics. Objectives of table grape breeding are disease resistant, large berry, strong berry adherence, different berry shape, color, flavor, and ripening time.Objectives of Peach breeding in Taiwan are to develop low chilling requirement, low acidity, short fruit development period, large, attractive, good quality, white- fleshed, melting freestone peach and nectarine cultivars. Cultivar improvement of astringent persimmon in Taiwan are to development low chilling requirement, large fruit, red skin color, good quality, early-season cultivars. The peach and persimmon low chill cultivars and elite selections are used for crossing parents. The progenies will under evaluation. Regional test of elite selections are evaluated for fruit characteristics. <strong>2:Cultivar Improvement of subtropical fruit and potential fruit for export</strong>●Pineapple●Objectives:The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf, medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities.●Methods:●Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in net room and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation.●Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations.●Superior advanced clones are fur there valuated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station.●Storage ability assessment : Establishment of the pineapple grmplasm, Tainung varieties and hybrid line,assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding.Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters.assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding. Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters.●Citrus, citrus cultivar improvement by means of crossbreeding and irradiation were conducted . This project was to reduce breeding period with irradiation breeding. The objective of breeding includes fewer seeds, larger fruit size, different maturity season and better fruit quality.●Litchi and longan, in this project our objectives are selecting litchi and/or longan lines, which are high quality, aboudant and stable on yield, and have different harvest season from major commercial cultivars in Taiwan. Litchi and longan have been greatly affected by climate change in recent years, the varieties (lines) with low cooling temperature requirements are selected as breeding parents to face this condition, and we expect to select offsprings which are tolerant to climate change, so that the litchi and longan industry can have stable production when warm winter occurs. The growth and development of crops will be investigated as well to realize the basics for cultivation, cultivars extension, and breeding processes. Novel cultivars/lines are expected to be obtained, and will promote elavation of industrial values of these fruits. ●Avocado, the avocado lines adapted to local climate, having good flavor, higher crude fat content are also the targets in the project.●Coffee, this plan intends to breed weather-resistant coffee lines through breeding procedures. In response to climate change, it is expected to breed coffee varieties suitable for the terroir of Taiwan to enhance the development of the coffee industry. <strong>3:Breeding for Climate Stress Tolerence Stable Production Varieties to Tropical Fruit Crops.</strong>This research is to improve Taiwan characteristic tropical fruit varieties. According to the characteristics of the fruit species and market demand, we sets different breeding goals and is carried out by introduction, hybridization or seed breeding methods.Breeding and evaluating carambola variety with long-range transportation, low temperature quarantine endurance and excellent flavor that strengthens competitivity in the foreign markets, improving export amount. In 2020, selecting 9 lines for former selection.More than 1,000 pitaya hybrid seedlings were cultivated. And continue to investigate the fertility data of double-color (Yuli, Gaoshu), pink (Pink 98-3, Pink Beauty) and yellow lines for commercial cultivation evaluation and pest management.Collecting novel tropical fruit such as abiu, rambutan, cempedak, star apple, durian, and mangosteen, and these will be applied in mutant seedlings selection. We predict to find out varieties adapted to Taiwan climate, and take research of these fruit on fast reproduction method and and asexual supply model which can produce lots of seedlings for field evaluation or cultivation model experiment.Selecting seedless guava lines into evaluation of fruit quality and productivity, elevating stability of seedless trait and fruit setting rate.Continuing culturing seedlings of indian jujube and selecting early mature individuals for fruit quality investgation and analysis .Selecting lychee within early fruiting and stable-production type.Select 2 lines of sugar apple with good and large shape, well flavor, hight brix and good texure.Hybridizing wax apples with different carp colors. New variety with dark-red carp, large size, high sweetness, fine sugar-acid ratio and low fruit cracking will be bred.Breed mango "Tainung No. 3 ", this variety is half-opened, flat branches, first blooming is later than'Aiwen', but earlier than'Jinhuang'. The fruit is oblong, with a fruit weight of 670g. The peel of ripe fruit is yellow with orange. The pulp is orange, juicy, low fiber, pulp rate 79.%, and the soluble solid content is 17.4 degree Brix.The papaya line 1001013-02 was selected. Its growth habit is similar to Tainung No. 2, so it’s easier to management. The pulp is orange-yellow, market separation from the red pulp of Tainung No. 2, and the single fruit weight is about 800-900g,, smaller than Tainung No. 2, more suitable for small families, indicating that this variety has great potential for promotion in the future.The fruit preservation area maintains the economic fruit with 11 species, 246 variety and the non-economic fruit with 154 species.The guide servicing is 9 sessions, about 170 people. <strong>4:Breeding Low Chilling Requirement of Pear (<em>Pyrus pyrifolia</em> Nakai)</strong>The purpose of this study was to bred low chilling requirement, suitable for low-altitude cultivation, fruit quality and storability and transport of the species, in order to promote the cultivation of farmers. <strong>5:Breeding of Seedless Citrus</strong> Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Taiwan. Seedlessness is an important characteristic in citrus. The world citrus market has shifted significantly toward seedless types. The objective of this project is to develop new seedless mandarin cultivars suitable for Taiwan enviroment. The major approaches being used are hybridization selection, spontaneous mutation and mutation induction to obtain local seedless citrus. <strong>6:Breeding of Persimmon (<em>Diospyros kaki</em> L.) for Low Altitude and Molecular-Assistant Breeding</strong>The program aims to breed new varieties of sweet persimmon with high quality, high yield and wide adaptability to the weather in low-altitude areas in northern Taiwan. In this year, the seedlings of sweet persimmon progeny hybridized in 2020 will be cultivated, and another sweet persimmon hybridization will also proceeded. The evaluation of progeny obtained in 2019 and 2020 will also conducted this year.  <strong>7:Featured Fruit Trees in Miaoli – The Selection of Chinese Jujube and Plum Varieties</strong>A wide variety of cultivated crops can be found in Miaoli County, of which jujubes (<strong><em>Ziziphus jujuba</em></strong> Miller) and plums (<strong><em>Prunus</em></strong> <strong><em>salicina </em></strong>Lindl.) stand out in terms of their regional characteristics, each leading in planting acreage among all counties in Taiwan. Climate change in recent years, warm weather, and dry weather—conditions unfavorable for the flowering and budding of the trees—have led to lower production and hence farmers' income. Furthermore, the current crops are quite old, and new varieties are yet available to replace them, leading to product fatigue in the consumer and unmet consumer demand for novel products. This research will carry out the selection and breeding of jujube and plum varieties (lines), collection of varieties (lines), characteristics investigation and selection, etc., and take an inventory of breeding materials available in Taiwan; it will breed jujube and plum varieties that rely less heavily on cold temperature to grow and produce good-quality fruit; it will accelerate the introduction of new varieties of fruit so that farmers may improve the variety of their products. <strong>8:Important Fruit Breeding for Climate Stress Tolerance Dominant Varieties to Pears, Grapes and Guavas, in Central Taiwan.</strong>  In central Taiwan that grape, pear and guava were important fruits. The mainly production method of pears fruit in Taiwan was top-graft, but this method is with high cost and risk. The hybrid selection of heat-tolerate in growing season, differentiated flower buds is not easy to die or open off-season flower in autumn, replace part of the top-graft pear area, spread the risk and extend the production period for industry stable. The grape is crossed with special fruit shape and color by commercial varieties. The target is to select special fruit shape or color, expand domestic cultivars and provide consumption more choices. On guava pearl guava for the existing main cultivars, but the poor quality of summer fruit, flesh is easy soft on storage period. Breeding by hybrid progeny for summer fruit varieties, increase the variety of cultivars selectivity. <strong>9:Breeding of the Main Fruits in Kaohsiung and Pingtung Areas</strong>In response to the fruit industrial problems of simplification of cultivars, lack of disease resistant variety and sensitiveness to climate, we carry out tropical fruit breeding programs in this research. The aims of our breeding programs are (1) selection of jujube varieties with high weather resistance, transportable fruit, and which suitable for export fruit supply, (2) selection of mango varieties with stable flowering and fruit set characteristic, and good storage quality, (3) selection of wax apple with low fruit cracking rate and red skin color, (4) papaya virus tolerance inbred line selection for F1 hybrid breeding, (5) selection of guava variety with thick pulp and stably good tasting. By increasing the diversity of cultivars, we expect to decrease the risk of production and create new market demand; and use the disease resistant cultivars to decline fruit production cost, enhance the quality fruit rate, and therefore the development of fruit industry in Taiwan would be stable. <strong>10:Study on Breeding of Mainly Economic Fruit Trees in Taitung Region</strong>Annona fruit and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) are both important economic fruit trees in Taitung. In order to improve the weather resistance and increase industrial competitiveness, the aims of this study are to breed low splitting rate of Annona fruit as well as to breed the high heat-resistant and early-maturing loquat varieties. Annona fruit trees will cross the "Phet Pakchong" variety with Taitung No. 2 and No. 3 , and the selection of the crossed descendants in 103-105 years will be continued, and compare the plant traits among 5 excellent lines (96AI-037, 96AI-034, 97IIA- 100, 97GII-015, and 97GII-028). Loquat will use the "Nagasaki-Wase " variety to reciprocal cross with "Monster", "Chao-Chung No 6", "Dawuxing" and "Champagne". Each combination is expected to get at least 20 seeds. <strong>11:Establishing the Technology of New Papaya Viety Breeding for the International Market</strong>The purpose of this project is to breed new papaya varieties with international market potential. We proceed the effort on selecting new papaya varieties with high yield, large fruit, long shelf-life, papaya ringspot virus disease tolerance and dark flesh color. We continue to self-cross and select the S<SUB>3</SUB>, which are segregated from the hybrid lines, with the characteristic of large fruit and papaya ringspot virus disease tolerance. To establish the clone lines, selecting the superior individual plants from S<SUB>3</SUB> lines for vegetative propagation. Furthermore, cross the superior inbred lines that were selected in former breeding projects to develop new hybrids. <strong>12:Breeding stress-tolerant varieties for economically important fruit crops</strong>This study aims to explore the high quality fruits, off-season production, determine functional components, and long-term storage technique through improving cultivation techniques, breeding and extending shelf life. A total of 3 projects are granted and focus on fruit tree physiology, cultivation, breeding and post-harvest handling, as followering 1.Breeding a new Foc TR4 resistant Cavendish cultivar with global market potential   Objective of this project is to select the improved mutant from the two commercial Cavendish banana cultivar ('Tai Chiao No.2'、  ' Tai Chiao No.7') and two major foreign dessert cultivars ('Williams' and' Grand Naine ') and CV. Oolong and a somaclone of ‘Pei-Chiao’, GCTCV-44, with high resistance to Foc TR4,respectively.Developing of brand new cultivar with resistance to Foc TR4 through breeding schemes was well adapted for the global market in the future. 2.Development of techniques for production of polyploid seedless grapes  The major objectives of this project in the 110 fiscal year include: (1) Developing a management model for economical production of the triploid Xingcui seedless grapevine. The optimal application time and combination of plant growth regulators for increasing the berry size of Xingcui grapevine is still lacking. Different combinations of GA and CPPU treatment will be tested in order to find a more suitable treatment. (2) Developing a management model for economical production of the triploid Xingfeng seedless grapevine. The optimal application time and combination of plant growth regulators for increasing the berry size of Xingcui grapevine is still lacking. Different combinations of GA and CPPU treatment will be tested in order to find a more suitable treatment. (3) Developing a technique for economical production of the seedless 'Ryuho' grape. The treatment method used for artificial seedless grape production will be used as a reference. The percentage of seedlessness and berry quality will be examined. (4) Selection of new triploid seedless grapevines. New triploid seedless grapevines selected last year will be tested for their potential for commercial cultivation and field management techniques will be developed. 3.Screening of guava wilt-resistant genotypes and evaluation of scion performance affected by related-species rootstocks in guava   Grafting is the main technique for vegetative propagation of guava in Taiwan. However, the effect of the rootstock genotype used, especially wild species, on the performance of scion cultivar remains under exploration and requires more systematic evaluation. In view of the widespread occurrence of guava wilt, resistant cultivars or rootstocks might provide a feasible solution. This project will investigate the influence of wild species rootstocks on field performance of the main cultivar scion, including plant growth vigor and fruit quality. In addition, the difference of resistance against guava wilt among open-pollinated seedlings and intra- or inter-specific hybrids will be evaluated. We hope to select genotypes with better resistance to guava wilt. These genotypes can be used as parental lines for resistance breeding or rootstocks.
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