建置重要經濟果樹致災臨界條件及因應氣候變遷之作物栽培曆

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計畫名稱: 建置重要經濟果樹致災臨界條件及因應氣候變遷之作物栽培曆
計畫主持人: 林慧玲
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 108農科-7.8.1-科-a4
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 國立中興大學
全程計畫年: 2019
關鍵字: 災害防治;果樹;栽培曆;資料庫; Disaster prevention;Fruit tree;Cultivation calendar;Database
摘要: 氣候變遷已造成台灣重要經濟果樹連年之重大損害,台灣梨、芒果、柿、葡萄、木瓜、桶柑、釋迦、文旦柚、蓮霧、鳳梨、番石榴、荔枝、紅龍果、香蕉、印度棗等果樹因遭遇天然災害造成的損失,估計有15萬公噸,金額高達40億餘元,顯示出加強果樹作物防、減災工作與策略研擬的必要性。 本計畫擬以重要經濟果樹為對象,統整歷年造成重大農損之天然災害資料,建立各果樹災害別資料庫;分析氣象資料與災害程度資料之相關性;測試果園即時氣象監測系統;同時建立各果樹之防災栽培曆;並蒐集整理各果樹之逆境生理指標。 前期計畫已完成各果樹之災害別資料庫,包含豪雨、颱風、寒害、霪雨等及其他環境逆境。前期計畫亦完成各果樹之防災栽培曆初稿以及若干果樹之多項逆境生理指標。 今年度之研究將增補其他果樹之風速與災害相關性分析、並嘗試其他氣象因子與災損程度之分析,及收集果樹最適生長條件、災害受損紀錄,於主要栽培產區進行評估,期能適地適種;此外利用果園微氣候監測系統研究果園災害受害程度與微氣候之關係;防災栽培曆與逆境生理指標則持續進行修正與增補完備,並利用模擬溫度逆境,測試離體葉片Fv/Fm之受害臨界值,以提供臨界置災條件參考。今年度增加百香果、枇杷及楊桃栽培曆及防災栽培曆,使重要經濟果樹防災減災及預警系統資料更佳完備。期本計畫之研究能在防災、減災、復災上提供有效之參考依據,並可供研究人員、農政單位及農民參考利用。 提供精準預報及推播資訊。 Climate change has caused severe damages on the major economical fruit trees in Taiwan. The loss in crop production and value of the fruit trees (included: pears, mangos, persimmons, grapes, papayas, Tankans, sugar apples, Wentan pomelos, wax apples, pineapples, guavas, litchis, banana, and Indian jujube) caused by natural disasters reached 100,000 m.t. and 3.7 billion NT$. This showed the importance of the work on disaster prevention and mitigation, as well as relating strategy evaluation. This project focused on the major economical fruit trees, and planned to collect and organize the disasters information, to establish a database of natural disasters of the fruit trees. The project also aimed to analyze the relation between weather and damage severity, test the system of real-time weather monitoring system, establish the disaster preventing culture calendar, and collect the stress physiological indices. Last year we had established the disaster database, including heavy rain, typhoon, chilling, continuous rain, and other environmental stresses of the fruit trees. We also completed the relation analysis between wind speed of typhoon and damage severity of several fruit trees. However, the relation was poor which might because of that typhoon make damage on fruit trees by several factors combining with the wind speed. The real-time orchard weather monitoring system had set up this year, as well as the online connection and program settings, and is going to start its duty in the following year. Through the project last year, we also complete the draft edition of the disaster preventing culture calendars of the major economical fruit trees, and also the stress physiological indices of several fruit trees. In the project this year, our researches will focus on the completion of the correlation analysis between wind speed and damage severity of the remaining fruit trees, and test the correlation by using other weather factors and the damage severity or establish the optimal condition for the growth of fruit crops. The real-time orchard weather monitoring system will be utilized to do research on the relation of crop damage and orchard micro climate. The disaster preventing culture calendars and the stress physiological indices will continue editing and correcting. We hope that this project may provide effective information and abundant references for disaster prevention, mitigation, and recovery for the growers, researchers, and agricultural extension personnel.
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