建立雜糧與特作機械化或集團式栽培模式

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計畫名稱: 建立雜糧與特作機械化或集團式栽培模式
計畫主持人: 周國隆
共同計畫主持人: 林禎祥;林義恭;黃文祿;陳韋誠;陳世銘;王豐政;張振厚;張光華;黃國祥;謝廣文
計畫編號: 108農科-7.2.3-子-K1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場旗南分場
全程計畫年: 2019
關鍵字: 甘藷;大蒜;機械化與自動化;除草機;小麥;移植機;選別機械;影像檢測;蕈菇;智慧型LED光源;物聯網;插植;無人機;收穫機;大豆;sweet potato;garlic;mechanized and automated;Weeder;Wheat;Transplanting machine;Sorting Machine;Image Detect;Mushroom;Intelligent LED light source;Internet of Thing;implantation;Unmanned Aerial Vehicle;harvester;Soybean
摘要: 一、引擎動力自走式電動割葉作業機之研發(農業試驗所) 本計畫應用機電整合技術於田間農機開發以發展引擎動力自走式電動割葉作業機。相關試驗為直立式鳳梨田雙面行列整葉。及進行能源成本比較與作業續航力測試。107年度進行電動型式關鍵組件試驗並進行雛型機設計及試製,雛型機結構為使用中耕機為行走底盤,保留行走齒輪箱,行走速度依照中耕機檔位變換。電瓶與充電調整設計於車身後端。本機使用引擎動力分別驅動發電機及驅動輪,刀具則安裝於車身前由直流馬達帶動。108年度將於進行電動自走式割葉機田間應用之操控與效能試驗並進行設計修正。本計畫預期可累積機電整合應用於田間農機之能量發展嶄新的田間作業機具,兼顧操作之便利與安全性。 二、中草藥寧夏枸杞安全栽培與創新(農業試驗所) 枸杞的果實是中國與台灣常用的中藥補氣用藥材,可以增加免疫功能、增進表皮抵抗力和促進新生組織生長,是台灣中醫院使用量極大的藥材。農業試驗所農田自2010年起已引種進行寧夏枸杞正確基原植物的栽培,初步在栽培模式的建立、活性成分分析和保健產品研發上已具有結果,本計畫係在原有的基礎上,改進其栽培技術與進行品種選育,使得適合市場及商品化。三、北部地區大豆、小麥適栽品種選育及機械化栽培技術改進(桃園區農業改良場) 大豆及小麥為重要的雜糧作物,由於北部地區多雨及春、秋季低溫環境栽培不易,又缺乏適栽品種,造成產業發展受限,擬透過本計畫進行適栽品種篩選並建立機械化栽培技術,供農民利用。四、有機雜糧生產及選別機械之研發(花蓮區農業改良場) 本計畫針對轄內有機大豆及青蔥產業開發大豆分級設備、表面除水機械,及智慧跟隨農地搬運車,以填補農產業機械缺口,解農業缺工燃眉之急。開發大豆粒徑分級機可應用於圓潤度選別後之後的分級作業,汰除小粒大豆並分級出特級品,提高農產品品質,增加農民總收益。 連續式青蔥表面水份去除機械,降低清洗後青蔥表面含水量,排除因為外在水份造成青蔥冷藏後軟爛的可能性,並提高作業效率4倍以上,大幅提升青蔥採後作業效率,達到省時省工之效益。智慧跟隨農地搬運車先期研究將建立無線通訊技術與機電整合,確效定位及轉向功能。五、茶葉節能省工機具之開發與研究(茶業農業改良場) 臺灣茶苗培育仍依賴傳統人工作業,茶苗填土作業辛苦且繁瑣,需要大量勞力。但近年人口老化,育苗人力逐年短缺,亟需導入機械作業,以節省人力及提高作業效率。因此,有農民引進日本填土機械,但仍需要適地化修改,以適合臺灣育苗作業,未來可讓更多的苗農受惠。此外,紙袋苗可以種植在土裡分解,其方式適合機械種植,紙袋苗推廣成功,有助於解決種植缺工問題。針對機採茶菁品質改善,利用不同孔徑設備進行茶菁攪拌,可篩分出破碎葉。研製改良型八角形攪拌機,經茶菁攪拌比較試驗,可處理機採茶菁篩分出7%之破碎葉,還需進一步改良,以提昇實用之效益。另外,為改善採茶缺工問題,引進改良小型輕量化採茶機,可適宜女性操作,將有助於女性勞力投入,舒緩茶區採茶缺工問題。六、農業機械與自動化研究(農糧署)(一)物聯網與無人機應用於溫室自動化生產之研究 現行之溫室設施栽培,多以單一或少量感測器之量測值代表整體溫室之環境狀態,難以真實呈現溫室的狀況,在溫室內環境條件不均勻的情況下,此種量測方式無法針對溫室進行精準管理。本研究擬開發一套具有架設簡單且可遠端監視之無人機資料收集系統及物聯網系統,並將應用於溫室之生產,確保農產品之品質與安全,並能穩定生產。本年度將進行無人機、感測單元及物聯網之系統整合,並於溫室進行環境資訊收集之整合測試。(二)火鶴花分級包裝作業系統之研發 火鶴花是台灣第二大的出口花卉,行銷到世界上個國家,對台灣花卉產業創造極大產值,在火鶴出口前要先進行火鶴花的分級及包裝作業,且火鶴花不可有破損或是汙點,但是,仍然有些部分是無法完全由機械來代勞,火鶴花的採收就是如此,而火鶴花分級及篩選亦是依靠人力,為了避免人力不足所造成的衝擊,並增加花卉產業的競爭力,提升農民的收益,需開始著手發展花卉產業的生產自動化,來提升台灣花卉產業整體的競爭力。然而,目前火鶴花卉於田間收穫後尚無作業機械,加上農村勞力大量減少且老年化,無法即時大量以人力處理,因此,本計畫開發一套可用於田間收穫後之機械,其具有分級及包裝等作業功能,以機械進行判定目前分級的方式,準確率需達9成以上,分級後再利用機械方式進行包裝,以朝機械化、高效率、省工等目標發展,以解決目前皆以人力作業方式所造成時間過久之問題,並建立適合國產火鶴花卉以機械作業之最佳條件,降低火鶴生產成本,以促進國產火鶴花之產業發展。(三)荔枝脫粒機之研發 目前荔枝之銷售方式已漸由傳統的成串(簇)的枝梗果實,轉變為單粒盒裝方式銷 售(尤其外銷),但荔枝的脫粒仍以人工為主,費時費力且會損傷果實,影響荔農 收入,因此,亟需研發一省工省時之「荔枝脫粒機」,供荔農就地脫粒使用,以利 儲運及加工,且解決荔枝的枝梗葉廢棄物造成環境負荷問題。 本計畫完成後效益如下: 1.荔枝以機械脫粒,省工省時、減少人工脫粒損傷,增加荔農收益。(四)大蒜收穫機之研發 應用已完成三行自走式大蒜收穫機,進行商品機型改造,並達收穫各項功能之總體檢與試驗,舉辦示範觀摩會,推廣給大蒜農民應用。開發與完成三行自走式之本土化大蒜收穫專用機,此機必具有切根及切莖完整之功能,解決農村人力老化及不足現象,降低生產成本,增加農民收益及提高年輕人下鄉經營意願,永續發展大蒜產業與觀光。一、Development of engine power self-propelled electric blade cutting machine This project used electromechanical integration technology in the development of a farm machinery to develop an electrical self-propelled leaf cutter. The related tests were the two-sided trimming of the pineapple leaves, the energy cost comparison and the operational endurance test. In 2018, electrical key components test was conducted as well as the design and trial production of the prototype machine. The prototype machine used the cultivator chassis and transmission system. The travelling speed is proportional to the gear shift ratio of the cultivator. The battery and charging system is located at the rear side of the machine. This system divides the engine power along two paths: one goes to the generator to produce electricity and one goes through a mechanical gear system to drive the wheels. The cutter knife installed in front of the frame is driven by a DC motor. In 2019, the control and performance test of the field application of the electric self-propelled leaf cutter will be carried out and the design correction will be carried out. This project is expected to accumulate electromechanical integration applications in the field of agricultural machinery and to develop convenient and safe new type field working machines.  二、Safety and innovation of Chinese traditional medicine Ningxia wolfberry cultural practice improvement The fruits of Lyciumbarbarum, Known as “gouqi” in Chinaand Taiwan, is the most important tonic in the traditional Chinese medicine toreinforce “q I” (vital energy), to strengthen the superficial resistance, andto promote the discharge of pus and the growth of new tissue. It has long beenused as an anti- perspirant, anti-diuretic or atonic. It is the topmosttraditional Chinese medicine of Chinese herb doctor’s hospital in Taiwan.Theplants of L.barbarum will be planted at our farm of TARI inTaiwan. Study of seed collecting at flats farm and cultural practice especiallyat GAP will be investigated continually. We had the previous results accordingto the experiments of 2010 in our farm and laboratory. The previous resultssuch as breeding,activeingredient analysis and healthy-care products had been in progress. Now, wewant to modify these results in order to satisfy the commercial market. 三、The Research of Breeding Selections and Cultural Improvement of Mechanization for Soybean and Wheat in Northern Taiwan. Soybean and wheat are important dryland food crops, due to the rainy and cool weather of spring and autumn season conditions has been forced to meet difficulty of cultural in the northern Taiwan and there is a lack of suitable cultivars resulting limited of industrial development. The present project will study of breeding selection and cultural improvement of mechanization for farmer’s application. 四、Development of Organic Upland Food Crops Producing and Sorting Machine The project aims to develop soybean grading equipment, surface water removal machinery, and following wagon in the organic soybean and scallion industries to fill the agricultural machinery gap and solve the urgent need for agriculture. The development of soybean particle size classifier can be applied to the classification operation, the small soybeans are eliminated and the special grade products are graded. The quality of agricultural products would be improved, and the total income of farmers  would be increased. Surface water removal machinery can reduce the water content of the scallions surface after cleaning, eliminating the possibility of soft and rotten after the scallions are frozen due to external moisture. The machine also improve the working efficiency by more than 4 times, saving time and labor. Early study of smarter  following wagon will establish wireless communication technology and the work of electromechanical integration, make sure the functions of positioning and steering. 五、The Study on Reducing Energy and Manpower of Tea Machine In Taiwan, seedling industry needs a lot of labors, but the agricultural worker are shortage and aging year by year that is an important issue, so we have to use machine to solve the problem. In this study, we will modify a filling-soil machinery more suitable in Taiwan and use the paper bag to fill soil for seeding, it can be rot in the soil and benefit machine planting, so it can solve the problem of labor demand for planting.Another study, we have completed to improve a shaking machine with perforated plate structure and improved switch-plate to sieve tea leaves. The results of sieving experiment of tea leaves shows the machine could sieve 7% broken leaves of mechanical plucking leaves. It should be improved to increase effect of sieving broken leaves. Furthermore, in order to improve the problem of labors shortage, the introduction or development of small and lightweight tea harvester machines can be suitable for women's operation, which will help women's labor to engage in job of tea harvesting and to improve the issue of labor shortage. 六、Study on Agricultural Machinery and Automation(一)Applications of IoT and UAV Techniques to Automation of Greenhouse Production In general, only a few sensors are used to represent the environment conditions of the entire region in the greenhouse; it is insufficient to represent the real conditions of whole greenhouse. This research will develop an UAV (Unmanned Arial Vehicle)-based environment information collection system which is able to sense the environment conditions remotely. The IoT (Internet of Things) will also be developed. The system will apply to greenhouse production to ensure the stable yield, high quality and safety assurance of agricultural products. In this year, the integration of UAV, sensing system, IoT, and their testing to collect environment data in greenhouse will be conducted.(二)Development of flamingo flower grading and packaging operation system Anthurium is the second largest export flower in Taiwan and is marketed to other countries in the world. Flamingo creates great value for Taiwan's flower industry. Grading and packaging of flamingo flowers before export is be need. Some parts cannot be completely repaired by machinery such as the harvest of flamingo flowers is like this. The grading and screening of flamingo flowers is also dependent on manpower. In order to avoid the impact of lack of manpower and increase the competitiveness of the flower industry. it needs to start to develop the production automation of the flower industry to enhance the overall competitiveness of the Taiwan flower industry. At present, there is no machinery after the flamingo flowers are harvested in the field. Therefore, it can't handle a lot of manpower. The project develops and develops a set of machinery that can be used in the field after harvesting. It has operations such as grading and packaging. The method of judging the current classification by machine and the accuracy rate needs to reach 90% or more. In addition, after grading, mechanical packaging is used. In order to solve the problem that the current manpower is too long, to develop the goal of mechanization, high efficiency, and labor saving is be need. This can reduce production costs and promote the development of the domestic flamingo flower industry.(三)Research and Development of Litchi Thresher The sales mode of litchi has gradually shifted from the traditional cluster Fruit, into a single box of sales (especially for export), but the litchi thresholding is still labor-based, time-consuming and laborintensive and will affect the income of Lai farmers, therefore, the urgent need to develop a province to save time "litchi threshing Machine "for Lai farmers locally threshing use, in order to facilitate storage and processing. After the completion of the project, the benefits are as follows: 1. Litchi to threshing machine, saving time and labor to reduce artificial threshing injury, increase Lai farmers income. 2. Litchi threshing, the favorable storage and processing.(四)Research and development of garlic harvester Application has developed the beginning garlics harvester of three lines of self-propelled type, carry on garlic harvester homework test and modification, canvass influence factor and seek good garlic terms to harvester homework, and then carry on the test and improve, finish the three lines of self-propelled garlics harvester to solve situations of the rural fewer manpower and reduce the production cost. Besides, it will also increase peasant's income and encouragement young people back to the countryside as to develop the industry of the garlic visiting forever.
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